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(5crman Qmertcan Clnnals 




Historical, Literary, Linguistic, Educational and Commercial Relations 


Germany and America 


The German American Historical Society 
The National German American Alliance 
The Union of Old German Students in America 


University of Pennsylvania. 
H. C. G. Brandt, Julius Goebel, 

Hamilton College. Harvard University. 

W. H. Carpenter, J. T. Hatfield, 

Columbia University. Northwestern University. 

W. H. Carruth, W. T. Hewett, 

University of Kansas. Cornell University. 

Hermann Collitz, A. R. Hohlfeld, 

Johns Hopkins University. University of Wisconsin. 

Starr W. Cutting, Hugo K. Schilling, 

University of Chicago. University of California. 

Daniel K. Dodge, H. Schmidt-Wartenberg, 

University of Illinois. University of Chicago. 

A. B. Faust, Hermann Schoenfeld, 

Cornell University. Columbian University. 

KuNO Francke, Calvin Thomas, 

' Harvard University. Columbia University. 

Adolph Gerber, H. S. White, 

Late of Earlham College. Harvard University. 

Henry Wood, Johns Hopkins University. 

New Series, Vol. 6. Old Series, Vol. lo. 


published BY 

Chas. H. Breitbarth, Business Manager, 


JBcrUn : Slew forft : Xelpsig t 


XonDon: Iparis: 


Q 3 

'y^. s 




Continuation of the Quarterly 

Americana Germanica. 

New Series, Vol. 6. Old Series, Vol. lo. 



Colors Carried by German Mercenary Troops 102 

Early Music in Philadelphia 157 

Francis Daniel Pastorius, Life of 3, 65, 121, 187 

German American Collection in New York Public Library in 

German American Historical Society and the German American 

Annals 180 

German American Historical Society. Annual Meeting 53 

German American Researches 257 

Germans in Texas 315 

German Day of Founders' Week 341 

Himmelsbrief, the 286 

Lessing and Wieland in American Magazines Prior to 1846. . . . 238 
National German American Alliance, Report of Meeting of . . . . 115 

Palatines in New York and Pennsylvania 251 

Provincialism in Southeastern Pennsylvania 32 

Verein Alter Deutscher Studenten in Amerika, Philadelphia 

Zweig 61 



E. M. FoGEL, Business Manager, 

Box 39, College Hall, University of Pennsylvania, 


Berlin : New York : Leipzig : 


London : Paris : 



(Bcrman Qmcrican Clnnals 



New Series, January and February Old Series, 

Vol. VI. No. I. 1908. Vol. X. No. I. 

The Founder of Germantown. 

By Marion Dexter Learned. 


The part which Pastorius played as Agent of the German 
Company, the so-called Frankfurt Company, was by no means 
the most important service which he rendered to the newly- 
founded German Town. He was far more useful to the settle- 
ment as burgher, lawgiver, schoolmaster, scrivener, and writer of 
both prose and verse. It is in these varied activities of the man 
that we see his true importance as the great German pioneer in 

In the early annals of Germantown Pastorius has left last- 
ing testimonials to his indispensable services as a burgher. The 
first five years of its existence the German settlement had no cor- 
porate form, but grew on as a more or less close community. In 
these years Pastorius was the virtual official factotum, as he man- 
aged the affairs both of the German Company and the Cref elders. 

The first year was one of great privation and not a little 
suffering. Provisions were scarce and had to be brought some- 
times all the way from the Swedish settlement in Upland. The 
colony met with an unexpected economic hindrance at the very 
outset. It was made up largely of weavers who knew but little 
of tilling the soil. Their products were in little demand, because 

4 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

the newcomers had brought with them a good supply of wear- 
ing apparel. This is seen from the slight sales at the fair held 
Nov. 1 6, 1684 in Philadelphia, where the Company netted a little 
over ten dollars.^ This lack of market for their wares brought 
on a serious money famine, which Penn began at once to relieve 
by uniting with the industry of weaving that of agriculture, with 
emphasis upon grape culture. Pastorius as early as November, 
1684, writes the German Company that they shall send over a 
quantity of grape cuttings and all sorts of field and garden seeds. - 
We have also from Pastorius the interesting information that 
Penn had already planted, before 1684, a vineyard of French 
grapes, and that Pastorius himself had brought over with him a 
number of grape cuttings, which were all spoiled by the salt water, 
except two which had luckily survived. In addition to the lack of 
money and market for the products of the loom, came the great 
need of skilled craftsmen and husbandmen, the first to fell the 
forest and build houses, the second to till the soil. Pastorius 
wrote home to the Company that workmen and peasants were 
most needed of all classes of colonists. As he looked out from 
the settlement, whichever way he went, it was "a way into the 
primeval forest." ('Ttur in antiquam silvam"). What wonder 
he wished for a dozen strong Tyrolese to lay low the thick oak 
trees !"* 

^ Pastorius gives this account in his Beschreibung, p. 17 : "Es seye den 
16. Nov. [1684] zu Philadelphia Jahrmackt gewesen / da aber in der Sosietat 
Kauffhause wenig viber 10. Thaler seye geloset worden / aus vorgedachtem 
Geld-Magel / und weilen die Neu-Ankommenden aus Teutsch- und Enge- 
land meistcntheils so viel Kleider mit sich bringen / dasz sie in einigen 
Jahren nichts bedorffen." Cf. also the earlier form of this statement in 
Sichere Nachricht aus:: America, p. 7. 

'"Und weilen fiir jetzo der Gouverneur William Penn hauptsachlich 
intendire die Weberey und den Weinwachs zu etabliren / so solle der Com- 
pagnie belieben / eine Quantitiit Weinfexer hineinzuschicken / wie auch aller- 
hand Feld- und Garten- Samen." (Beschreibung, p. 17.) 

* "Arbeitsleut und Bauern sind erstlich allhier am nothigsten und wiin- 
sche ich mir wol ein Dutzent starcke Tyroler / die dicken Eichenbaum 
nieder zu werffen ; dann wohin man such nur wendt / da heissts: Itur in 
antiquam silvam, es ist alles nur ein Wald." (Sichere Nachricht, p. 3.) 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 5 

Although Pastorius faltered during these first years, he was 
an unfailing factor in the life of Germantown. His close personal 
association with William Penn drew forth the constant concern 
of the Governor for the little German colony. It was doubtless 
the friendship and aid of Penn which held the Germans together 
in this trying period of the new settlement. 

The following verses of Pastorius show his- state of mind : 

"Twas he [Thomas Lloyd] and William Penn, that caused me 

to stay 
In this, then uncouth land and howling wilderness, 
Wherein I saw that I but little should possess. 
And if I could return home to my father's house. 
Perhaps great riches and preferments might espouse, etc." 

As early as 1686 the community of Germantown had become 
strong enough to build a church. Pastorius mentions this fact in 
his chapter "On the Religions of the Province," without telling 
us what the character of the worship was. 

"We built here in Germantown, anno 1686, a little church 
for the community, not aiming at an externally large stone struc- 
ture but rather that a temple of God (which we believers ourselves 
are) should be built, and we altogether may be pure and unspotted."* 

Notwithstanding this reference to the simplicity of the struc- 
ture of their houses, we find them planning very early to erect 
permanent buildings. As early as March 7, 1684, Pastorius, after 
having asked the Company in Germany to send over a supply of 
field and garden seeds, pots, kettles, an iron stove, bed covers, 
mattresses, a piece of Barchet and Osnabriick linen cloth, the last 
named for sale at a profit, he remarks that a tanner might find 
profitable employment, and speaks of two things as most neces- 
sary: I, building commodious houses on the Germantown lots, 

* Cf. Beschriebung, p. 34. The original passage is in German : 

"Wir haben allhier / zu Germanton Anno 1686. ein Kirchlein fur die Ge- 

meinde gebauet / darbey aber nicht auf ausserliches grosses Stein-Gebaude 

gesehen / sondern dasz der Tempel GOttes (welcher wir Glaubige selbst 

sind) gebauet werde / und wir allesant heilig und unbefleckt seyn mogen." 

6 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

and, 2, erecting a brick kiln, for which Pcnn had promised the 
requisite ground ; for so long as they could not burn bricks they 
must build houses of wood.^ 

As we learn from the Charter, granted at a later date, the 
community was presided over by a Town President,** a form of 
government transplanted evidently from Germany. 

In the year 1689 William Penn granted Francis Daniel Pas- 
torius, civilian, Jacob Telner, merchant, Dirck op de Graef, linen- 
maker, Jacob Isaacs, Johannes Cassel, Heivert Papen, Tunes Cun- 
ders, Herman Bon anl Dirck van Kolk, all of Germantown, yeo- 
men, a Charter for the "German Tow^ne." The Charter'^ was 
signed and sealed with the Lesser Seal by Penn in London the 
"i2th, 6mo, Agt. 1689," and sent to Thomas Lloyd, Keeper of 
the Great Seal in Pennsylvania, and was recorded the 13th of the 
3d month, 1 69 1 in Patent Book A. Fol. 277. This Charter pre- 
scribed the general form of government adopted for the towns of 
the Province and named the following as the first officers : Francis 
Daniel Pastorius, Bailif ; Jacob Telner, Dirck Isaacs op de Graef 
and Tiines Kunders — Burgesses; Abraham Isaacs op de Graef, 
Jacob Isaacs, Johannes Cassel, Heyvert Papen, Herman Bon and 
Dirck van Kolk — Committeeman.^ 

The Charter of Germantowai provided ( i ) for a General 
Court, to be made up of the Bailif, Burgesses and Committee- 
men,^ which "shall have power to make and they may make, or- 
dain, constitute and establish such and so many good and reason- 
able Laws, Ordinances and Constitucons as to the greatest part of 
them * * shall seem necessary and convenient for the Gov- 
ernment of the said Corporacon;" (2) for a "Court of Record 

^ Cf. Sichere Nachricht, p. 7. 

' Cf. Pennsylvania Archives, Vol. I, p. iii. The president at the time 
the charter was granted was "Herman Isaacs Optegraaf" (op de Graeff). 

' Cf. "Charter Granted to the Inhabitants of Germantown, in 1691" 
{Pennsylvania Archives, I, iiiff.). 

* "Francis Daniel Pastorius of German Towne, Civilian, to be the first 
and present Bailiffe; and the aforesaid Jacob Telner, Dirck Isaacs Opte 
Graaf and Tennis Cocnder to be the first and present Burgesses; And the 
aforesaid Abraham Isaacs Opte Graaf, Jacob Isaacs, Johannes Casselle, Hey- 
wart Hapen [Papen], Herman Ron and Dirck Vankolk the first and present 
Committee men of the said Corporacon." 

'"Which said Bailiffe, Burgesses and Committee men shall be called the 
Generall Court of the Corporacon of Germantown" {Pennsylvania Archives, 
I, 111-112). 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 7 

to be held every Six Weeks in the yeare" by the "Bailiffe, Bur- 
gesses and Comonalty of German Towne" * * * "before the 
BaiHffe and the three oldest Burgesses of the said Corporacon, 
and the Recorder for the time being." 

The Record^*' of the General Court is still in existence in a 
fair state of preservation. It is now the property of the Histor- 
ical Society of Pennsylvania. The minutes are kept partly in 
German and partly in Dutch and cover the period from 1691 to 
1706-7. In the record we can trace the several activities in which 
Pastorius served his countrymen in Germantown. As has al- 
ready been seen, Pastorius was named by the Charter as the first 
Bailif of Germantown. The following references to him are 
found in the minutes of the Court Book : 

On the first day of the tenth month, 1691, a so-called "new 
election" was held at which Pastorius was chosen Bailif. In 
order to show the full machinery of the Corporation, we print the 
results of this election from the Court Book:^^ 

Neuwe waal 1691, i der -^ genant x br. 

Rurgemeisters, Scheffen & Deputirte. / Committee Men 

Belief Frans Daniel Pastorius I Dirck Jacobs op d. Graeff. 

/i. Reiner Tissen jDirck Sell [en] 

^2. Abraham op d. Graef \ ^^^""^ Schumacher de Junger 
^"^^^^^^^ 3. Jacob Isacks Jjan Duden 

(4. Lenert Arets ^^^t Klmcken 

\ Isack Dilbeck 
Rekorder : Arnold Kassel 

Stadt V. Gericht Schreiber Paul Wulff I der 9 der — 1st zum Wege- 
Bott V. Schreier Wolter Sijmens 
Konstapel Peter Keerlis [Keurlis] 

Rentmeister F. Daniel Pastorius / Hansz Peter Umstet 

Schrief , Vijt Sgerkis \ Isack Schefer 

Johannes Bleicker[s] \ Hans Millarn [?] 
, ■ William Streper[s] f Hiiffert Papen 

^ ) Hendrick Bookwolt ( Conard Kunders 
Dirck Keyser / Abraham .... 


meisters gekossen : 

"The title is: The Generall Court Book \ of the Corporation of \ Ger- 
mantown. I odcr I Raths-Buch \ der Germantownischen Gemeinde, \ ange- 
fangen den 2tcn tag des 4ten Monats, Anno 1691. Original in the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania. 

"Cf. Raths-Buch, page inserted out of order. 

8 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

Sept. 15, 6 mo., Pastorius made an accounting for the Cor- 
poration showing that it had 2 £ 18 sh. 1J/2 p. outstanding debts 
and owed i £ i sh. 6 p.^- This same season he was chosen Col- 
lector of Rents (Rentmeister).^^ 

Anno 1692 on the first of December Pastorius was elected 
Clerk ("Statt-und Gerichtschreiber oder Clark"), while Dirck 
Jsaacs op den Graeff was chosen Bailif. On the 23d of the 12th 
month, 1692, Pastorius made an accounting to the General 
Court and Paul Wulff and Jan Liicken were appointed to ex- 
amine and audit it. The 7th of the ist month 1692-3 it was 
ordered that the appraised estate of Gisbertje Williams be sold 
at public auction in the presence of Dirck op de Graeff [Bailif], 
F. Daniel Pastorius [Clerk], and Anthony Loof [Court Crier], 
at Reinert Tisen's House at one o'clock in the afternoon. 

On the 24th of the 2nd month, same year, it is recorded that 
the General Court bought for Pastorius a copy of the Charter and 
of the Statutes of the Corporation and Laws of Pennsylvania for 
20 shillings ;^^ and that Jacob Telner and F. Daniel Pastorius 
should request the Governor for the confirmation of the Charter 
of Germantown, as friends in Philadelphia deem that advisable. ^^ 

In the year 1693, Pastorius was made Justice of the Peace. 

^ "Sep. 16 6-m verrechnete Daniel Pastorius dasz die gemeinte an alten 
. . . . ausstehenden schulden zu fordern haben 2 lb 18 sz. V/z pentz 
. . . . ngegen schuldig sey an andere i lb I sz 6 d." 

" "• • • [w]urde darauff gedachter Pastorius von der General Kuert 
zum Rentmeister . . . disz Jaar gekosen u. zu gleich decretirt dasz denen 
welche an die . . . etwas schuldig sint, ein bezahlung zeit soil angesetzt 
werden . . . von denen Justizes oder 6 wochen Kuert denen freistell . . 
n straffen . . dasz Rentmeister ampt erlegen sollen." 

""Ferner dasz den I7ten dieses Monats dieselbe [Outer der gesbertje Wil- 
liams] in prsesentie Dirck op de Graeff, F. Daniel Pastorii und Anthonij 
Loofs umb I uhr vcrkaufft und ausgehoht werden.' 

" "D. 24ten 2ten Monats 1692-3 . . . 

Dito kauffte die General Court vor Fr. Daniel Pastorius eine Copey des 
Charters, der Statuten dicser Gemeind und Pensilvan. Gesetz & 20 Schilling." 

""Jtem dasz Jacob Tellner und Fr. Daniel Pastorius bey dem Gour 
umb Confirmation unseres Charters soil anhalten. als Freunde zu Philada. 
solches rathsam zu seyn erachten." 

Melchior Adam Pastorius' Signature and Seal. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius g 

The occasion of this appointment is given by him in a letter to 
his father, dated June i, 1693. This was the first time a tax of 
any kind was levied for military or other purposes. A tax was 
now levied to defray the travelling expenses of Benjamin Fletcher, 
the newly appointed Governor, who was sent over to direct the 
affairs of the Province, w^hile Penn was on trial in England. Gov- 
ernor Fletcher confirmed the Germantown Charter anew and con- 
stituted Pastorius a Justice of the Peace or Irenarcha, in the 
County of Philadelphia, as the newly appointed Justice pedanti- 
cally termed himself. Fletcher then continued his journey to 
New York, where he took charge as Governor and Military Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the English Islands and Colonies in Amer- 

On the 19th of September Dirck op de Graeff, Jan Liicken 
and F. Daniel Pastorius were ordered to make an inventory of the 
estate left by Herman Trapmann. 

Dec. I, 1693 Pastorius was again elected Clerk and made 
Collector of Rents. It is interesting to note the fees allowed for 
making the inventory of Trapmann's estate : Dirck op de Graeff 
received ^ crown, Jan Liicken, 3^ crown, Anthony Loof, 6 shil- 
lings, Fr. Daniel Pastorius, 4 shillings and for extra clerical ser- 
vice, 18 d.^^ At the same session Pastorius and Peter Schu- 
macher, Jun., were ordered to have a stock built for the punish- 
ment of criminals. ^^ 

On the 5th of the nth month (January), the General Court 

" This most interesting passage is found in the Beschreibung, pp. 54-55- 
and runs as follows in the original : 

"Ja wir haben so lange Jahr iiber keinen Heller weder Kriegs- noch 
andere Contributionen zu entrichten gehabt / bisz ctwa vor 5. Wochcn im 
Namen des Konigs Wilhelmi III der neue Gouverneur / Benjamin Fletcher / 
zu Philadelphia ankam / mit Koniglicher Ordre und VoUmacht diese Land- 
schafft zu verwalten / bisz William Penns Rechfcrtigung in Alt-Ensreland 
via Juris, ausgefochten seyn wird. Deme wir zu Ersetzung der Reise-Kosten 
den 240sten Pfenning, scmcl pro semper consentiret. Dieser hat unsere Ger- 
mantonische Privilegia, Krafft deren wir unser eigen Gerichte und Raths- 
Versammlung halten diirffcn / uft's neue bcstiilligct / und mich zum Irenarcha 
oder Friedens-Richter in der Philadelphischen Grafschaflft constituiret / 
worauf er mit seinem Volck wiederum von hier ab / nacher Neu-Yorck 
verreiset / woselbst er ebenmassig Gouverneur / wie auch Knegs-Generalis- 
simus iiber alle Englische Insuln und Colonien in America ist." 

lO Francis Daniel Pastorius 

appoint Dirck op de Graeff and Pastorius to inquire as soon as 
possible of Thomas and David Lloyd in Philadelphia, whether the 
Charter of Germantown did not exempt the Germantowners 
from county taxes; and on the 6th of the 5th month (July 6. 
1694), Dirck op de Graefif and Pastorius were ordered again to 
inquire into the same matter.-" In the minutes of this same ses- 
sion we have an interesting and important item relating to the 
opening of the Lagcrbuch.-^ On the first of December, 1694, 
Paul Wulfif was elected Clerk, but declined without good cause 
to act and was fined 3 lb. by the General Court, an instance of 
how seriously these Germans regarded the z'ox popiili at this 
early period of our Pennsylvania history. Paul Castner (Kast- 
ner) was chosen in WulfT's place and Pastorius was directed by 
the General Court to keep a record of all marriages, births and 
deaths in the German Township in a special book, for which 
service he was to receive the usual fees, so long as the Court find 
110 reason for appointing another in his place. ^^ 

When Paul Castner found it impossible to accept the clerk- 

" I. Dec. 1693 . . . 

"Dito wurde von d. General Court an diejene die mit des vertrunkenen 
Herman Trapmans Hinterlassenschafft bemiiht gewest zugestanden, wie 
folgt, nembi an Dirck op de GraefF ^2- Cron, an Jan Liicken ^. Cron, an 
Anthonij Loof 6. Schilling, an Fr. Daniel Pastorius 4 schill. u. noch wegen 
fernern schreibens 18 d." 

""Noch wurden Fr. Daniel Pastorius und Peter Schuemacher Junr 
verordnet einen Stock umb die iibelthaters darin zu setzen, zu bestellen." 

""Den 6ten des 5ten Monats [1694] wurden Dirck op den Graeff u. 
Frantz Daniel Pastorius nochmals abgefertigt, zu Philada. genau zu erfor- 
schen, ob uns dr Charter von denen County taxen befreye oder nicht?" 

*^ "Dito wurde resolvirt, dasz Frantz Daniel Pastorius ds register vor 
die Contracten etc. als ein lagerbuch einrichten, u. anfangen solle, u. dar- 
vor gebiihrl bezahlt werden." 

" Anno 1694 den loten December .... 

"Dito wurde von der Genn Court verordnet, dasz Frantz Daniel Pasto- 
rius alle Heurathen, Kindergeburten, u. Todesfall, die in der Germantown- 
ship vorfallen in ein absonderl. buch einschreiben, u. darfiir die lands ub- 
liche Fees haben solle, so lang als die Gene Court keine wichtige ursach 
finden wird einen andern an seine Stell zu erwehlen." 

Francis Daniel Pastorius ii 

sliip for reasons of conscience, Pastorius was chosen in his stead. 
In the same minutes we find that Pastorius was to receive 4 £ 
for his clerical services during the year 1694-1695.^^ 

At the next election, Dec. 2, 1695, Pastorius was again elected 
Bailif and Tiines Kunders was chosen Recorder and Antony 
Loof to Pastorius' place as Clerk. It is interesting to note here 
that Loof's minutes are kept in Dutch and illiterate German, 
wdiich is in striking contrast with Pastorius' smoothe German 

In the minutes of Jan. 25, 1694-5 we learn that the record 
of births, marriages and deaths was to be kept in the English 
language.'^^ Two other items of general interest appear in the 
minutes of this session — one the granting of a license to Johannes 
Pettinger to keep an inn ;-'^ the other a resolution to hold a fair 
annually the 13th and 14th of the 3d month and the 9th month of 
the year. At the following session of the Court of Record Pastor- 
ius was appointed to represent Heifert Papen, who could not at- 
tend because of the confinement of his wife.^^ 

In the next election, Dec. ist, 1696, also, Pastorius was 
elected Bailif. In the minutes of Loof we have the important 
item that the General Court directed Pastorius to copy all the 

""Den 17. December entschuldigte sich Paul Castner in der damahligen 
gen. Court, dasz Er gewissens halben das Raths- und Gerichtschreibers Amt 
nicht bedienen konne. Wurde darauff von der genn Court einmiitigl. mit 
Frantz Daniel Pastorius verglichen, dasz dieser der Gemeinde Lagerbuch 
einrichten, u. bisz den iten December aiio 95. als Raths- u. Gerichtsschreiber 
dienen solle vor 4 lb. laut dariiber gemachten accords. . . . Unterzeich- 
nete Arnold Cassel u. Aret Klincken auflF der Courts ordre 2 Vergleich ge- 
macht mit Fr. Daniel Pastorius." 

^*Den 25ten des Xlten Monats 1694-5. 

". . . . Die Geburten, Verheurathungen und Todesfall sollen nach 
Verordnung der ersten in diesem Jahr gehaltenen Session in Englischer 
Sprach eingeschrieben werden." 

" "Den 3ten des 6ten Monats wurde auff Johaiies Pettingers Versuch 
zugestanden, dasz Er Herberg halten moge, u. soil Jhme der Beiliff desz- 
halben eine Licence ertheilen. 

Dito wurde beschlossen, dasz jahrl den I3ten u. r4ten Tag des 3ten und 
9ten Monats eine Faire oder offentlr Jahrmarck solle gehalten werden, u. 
solches an den Drucker nach Neu Yorck zu scheiben, umb hinfiiro in die 
almanach zu setzen." 

"'Den 8ten Octob. 

". . . Auch soil Frantz Daniel Pastorius in heutiger Court of Record 
an Heifert Papens platz ( : als welches Frau im Kindbett u. kranck darnieder 
lag:) ds Recorder Amt bedienen." 

12 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

previous Record neatly in English. This was probably due to the 
fact that the minutes kept by Wulff and Loof presented a very 
motley, not to say almost illegible, appearance in the Raths-Buch, 
as some specimens of Loof's minutes given here in the footnotes 
will show.^^ 

In 1697 at the December election Pastorius was elected both 
Recorder and Clerk, and Reinert Tisen took his place as Bailif. 
The minutes now appear in Pastorius' handwriting. On the 8th 
of December Pastorius was again made Collector of Rents, and 
directed by the Court to examine the accounts of Lenert Arets, 
the previous Collector. The next and last item of 1697 relating 
to Pastorius states that Jacob Delaplaine was elected Recorder 
and Clerk in Pastorius' place, as the latter intended to move to 
Philadelphia in the next few days.-^ 

The name of Pastorius does not reappear in the Raths-Buch 
until 1700. During the years 1698- 1700 he was teaching in the 
Friends' School in Philadelphia. On the 2nd of December, 1700, 
he was again elected Clerk of the General Court of Germantown. 
At the same session Daniel Falkner was elected Bailif. Almost 
immediately upon his return to Germantown, Pastorius seems to 
have been enlisted again to take steps to obtain the confirmation 
of the Germantown Charter,^ ^ and also to obtain release from 
paying county taxes for the Germantown Corporation.^" 

" 1696. 26. lom .... 

"weiter is geordert von die Generale Court, dasz Fransz D. Pastorus 
geordert sey alle biszhero Record sauber vndt rein in English abzuschrei- 
ben. Dito geordert Mannen. om order te stellen under bet volk in tijt van 
brandt. Jan Lintzen, Peter Schuemacher, Frans daniel Pastorius." 

^ i6g7 den 8ten des iten Monats .... 

"Jtem wurde Jacob dela Plaine an Daniel Pastorius stell zum Recorder 
und Clerk crwehlet, weilen dieser nechster Tage nach Philada. verhausen 

^"Den 30ten Septemb. 1701. wurde geordert, dasz die Confirmation 
unsers Charters [in einem] Request bey der nun sitzenden Assembly soil 
gesucht werden ; wie auch durch [einen Request] bey dem Gouvr unsere 
Naturalization in Engelland zu erwerben &c. Daniel [Pastorius] soil gede 
rcqucsten an behorige Ort einliefern, u. ds nothige Geld darzu von [dem 
Rent]meister empfangen." 

"At the session of the Colonial Council, 5th of ist mo. 1 700-1, Pasto- 
rius presented a petition to this end. The petition was recognized as one 
of great importance for tlie future policy of the colony and, after being dis- 
cussed at length, was deferred till another Council day for full consideration 
(of. Colonial Records, II, 13-14). 

Clock. Tower and Gate, Sommerhausen. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 13 

At the session of the General Court, Dec. i, 1701, Pastor- 
ius was re-elected Clerk, ^^ and Dec. 17th, 1701, James Delaplaine 
and Daniel Pastorius were directed to go to Philadelphia to con- 
fer with the Secretary about granting Jan Lens a license to keep 
an ordinary; and Pastorius is commissioned to demand of 
Thomas Fairman, when occassion offers, the Draft of the Ger- 
man Township. 

At the session of Dec. 30, 1701, a minute was adopted, en- 
dorsing the opening of a school in Germantown, and naming 
Aret Klincken, Paul Wulff and Peter Schumacher, Jr., as over- 
seers of the school, with authority to take up a subscription for 
the period of two years, and, if the subscription warrant, to en- 
gage a schoolmaster. The minutes of the session of May 9, 1702, 
show that Justus Falkner and Pastorius were delegated to confer 
with Edward Farmer concerning the cost of the Road to Phila- 
delphia.^^ At the election of Dec. i, 1702, Pastorius was re-elected 
Clerk of Germantown, and on the 5th of the nth month was 
chosen Collector of Rents. At the session of the 5th of the nth 
month it was ordered that the clerk bring in all the books and 
documents relating to the Corporation of Germantown at the next 
General Court. When the question of a change in the method of 
keeping the records of the Court of Record came up Oct. 25, 1703, 
Pastorius and Daniel Falkner were appointed to inquire of the 
Governor and Council at their next sitting, whether the German- 
town record should be kept in accordance with the new instruc- 

" Clerk : Franz Daniel Pastorius. 

" "Den 30. Decemb. 1701 wurde vor gut befunden, hier in Germantown 
eine Schul anzurichten, und sollen Aret Klincken, Paul Wulff u. Peter Schu- 
macher Junr Auffseher darvon seyn, u. die in einem Brieff vorgeschlagene 
Subscription befordern; und nach dem diese ausfallen wird, mit einem 
Schulmeister accordiren ; Diese Subscription u. Schul soil zwey Jahr wah- 

"Den gten des 3ten Monats (:May:) 1702 .... 

"Das Request wegen des Philadelphischen wegs soil noch so lang nach- 
bleiben bisz Justus Falckner oder Frantz Daniel Pastorius der darzu en- 
forderten Kosten halber mit Edward Farmer gesprochen." 

14 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

tions.^^ This same year, Dec. i, 1703, Pastorius was again 
elected Clerk. The minutes of Dec. 31, 1703 show that some at- 
tempt was made to bring order into the rent records, as Hans 
Heinrich Mehls, Tiinis Kunders and Frantz Daniel Pastorius 
were instructed to transfer the rent accounts from the two exist- 
ing books into one, so that the accounts could be consistently con- 
tinued from year to year. At the session of the 22nd of the 2nd 
month, 1704, these three men handed over the revised rent 
accounts in one book in folio to the Court showing the receipts 
and disbursements to Dec. 31, 1703 and containing an index or 
list of taxables of the Germantovvn Corporation, At the session 
of the 20th of the 12th month, 1704-5, Pastorius was elected 
Recorder, and Paul Wulff chosen Clerk in Pastorius' stead, with 
the provision that Pastorius receive the ordinary fees and Wulff a 
half crown or 2 sh. and 6 p. for each Court. On the 12th of Sep- 
tember it was ordered that Pastorius should copy the records in 
Paul Wulff's hand neatly in English. 

November 23d Paul Wulff, Lenert Arets and Daniel Pastor- 
ius were appointed to audit Aret Klincken's accounts of the Cor- 

On the 2nd of December, 1706, Pastorius was again elected 
Clerk, and on the 7th of the nth month, 1706-7, chosen Com- 
mittee man in Peter Schumacher's stead and also Collector of 
Rents in the place of Aret Klincken. At this same session 
Pastorius was appointed one of five assessors to levy an extra tax 
of 30 £ on the Corporation, as it would seem, partly because of 

" "Den 25ten October 1703. wurde ordinirt, dasz Frantz Daniel Pastorius 
und Daniel Falckner sich beym Gouverneur und Counsel, so bald sie sitzen, 
erkundigen sollen, ob wir unsere Courts of Record allhier zu Germantown 
auff die alte weis niogen forthalten oder ob wir nach der neuen Jnstruction 
miissen habilitirt werden." 

" "Den I2ten September .... 

Wurde verordnet, dasz Frantz Daniel Pastorius, die iibrige Records unter 
Paul Wulffen Hand, nicht minder dan hiebevor den 26 December 1696. Er dazu 
versucht und gestellt worden, sauber und rein in Englisch einschreiben solle." 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 15 

the method in which Klincken had kept accounts,^® Pastorius is 
particular to note in the minutes that he had received from Klin- 
cken neither rent nor accounts, but that the Corporation still 
owed him, Pastorius, 2 £ and 14 shillings.^'^ As the Germantown 
Corporation lost its Charter, which indeed seems never to have 
been satisfactorily confirmed, in 1707, the Raths-Buch was not 
discontinued after this year, leaving no record that Pastorius was 
ever repaid the 2 £ 14 sh. due him from the Corporation. 

Although the Raths-Buch breaks off here, this record of the 
brief span of fifteen years is sufficient to show the significant 
part which Pastorius took in the affairs of Germantown and to 
make evident the fact that he was not only the agent of the 
German Company, but even after he was succeeded by Daniel 
Falkner, Johannes Kelpius and Johann Jawert he was regarded 
as the leading man, who could bring things to pass. 

In like manner the Records of the Court of Record^® of 
Germantown show that Pastorius was an important factor as at- 
torney in the conveyancing of property for the Cref elders as well 
as engaged in various other capacities. There are numerous 
entries in the minutes showing that he acted as attorney for many 
of the citizens as well as for the German Company before the 
Court of Record. 


It was but natural that Pastorius, who had studied at the 
best German universities of his time and acquired the best the 
age had to offer, should be found at the head of the educational 
enterprises of the Province of Penn. The concern for educating 

^"'Dieweilen hiesige Corporation ziemlich schuldig, und verschiedene 
nothige Kosten erfordert werden zu fortsetzung des Gemeinen Wesens, als 
soil ein Tax von 30 £ oder mehr angelegt werden, und verordnet nunmah- 
lige generale Court vor Assessors William Strepers, Cornells Sioert, Jan 
Doeden, Aret Klincken und Frantz Daniel Pastorius, dass sie alle u. Jede 
Einwohner u. Besitzer oder Eigener einiges lands in der Gremantownship 
sollen taxiren nach dem Werth ihres real und personal Vermogens, und 
sothanig ihr Assessment r,el)cnst denen Nahmen derjenenj Mans pt-rsoncn, 
so ihre Nahrung in gedr Township gewinnen, an nechste Court of Record 

i6 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

the youth of the Province had been manifest in the economy of 
Penn and early found the approval of Pastorius, who in 1684 
under date of March 7th, wrote to his constituents in Germany 
the following words: "This city I laid out on the 24th of October 
[1683] and called it Germantown; it is situated 2 hours on foot 
from here [Philadelphia] on fruitful soil and on pleasant 
streams, of which I spoke before. This I had to do because 
W. Penn will not grant any one his portion apart, but all must 
dwell together in townships or towns, and this not without good 
reasons, among v/hich the most important is, that in this way 
children can be kept in schools and far more readily instructed 
to good purpose, neighbors also can offer one another the friendly, 
helping hand, and in unison praise and exalt the goodness of God 
in the public meetings." 

The Provincial Council at its session on 26th of the loth 
month, 1683, took steps to engage Enoch Flower to teach the 
youth of Philadelphia. This was of the nature of a Pay School. 
In 1689 a form of Public School w^as established under the direc- 
tion of George Keith. At the meeting of the Provincial Council, 
Feb. 12, 1697-8, Samuel Carpenter, Edward Shippen, Anthony 
Morris, James Fox and David Lloyd petitioned the Council "That 
a School be set up & upheld in this town of Philadelphia, where 

""P. S. Wiewohl ich Frantz Daniel Pastorius an statt Aret Klinckens 
zum Rentmeister erwehlt worden, habe ich doch von ihm weder der Ge- 
meinde Rent- od Rechnungs Buch, noch einig pfenning gedr Gemeind an- 
gehend, empfangen, so dasz dessfalls gantz klar bin, u. die Germantownische 
Gemeinde noch an mich schuldig 2 £ 14 Schill. 

'^ So far all efforts to find the original minutes of the Court of Record 
have been fruitless. The only form of it, which seems to be extant, is a 
very inaccurate manuscript copy found in the Historical Society of Penn- 
sylvania. It has the follow^ing title: 

"The Records of the Court of Record held in the Corporation of Ger- 
mantown from the first day of the eighth month Anno 1691 and thence for- 
ward from time to time to 11. 12 mo 1706-7." 

The Record opens thus : 

"Anno 1691 The sixth day of the eighth month the first Court of Record 
was held at Germantown in the public meeting house before Francis Daniel 
Pastorius Bailiff, lacob Felner [mistake for Telner] Dirk Isaacs op de 
Graef and Herman Isaacs op de Graef. three eldest burgesses, Isaac Jacobs 
van Bebbor, Recorder, Paul Wulf, Clerk, Andrew Soupli, Sheriff, Van 
[mistake for Jan] Luken, Constable." 


Francis Daniel Pastorins ly 

poor children may be freely maintained, taught & educated in 
good Literature, untill they are fit to be pict out apprentices, or 
capable to be masters or ushers in the said School."^^ 

This petition was duly considered by the Council and granted 
at the same session. The overseers of the school were constituted 
a corporate body, which was "To have continuance for ever, by 
the name of the Overseers of the publick schoole founded in Phil- 
adelphia, at ye request, costs & charges of the people of God called 
Quakers." It was evidently in response to this demand for 
public instruction for all classes that the services of Pastorius 
were solicited and secured as the following facts set forth. 

Pastorius first appears in the school records of the Friends' 
Monthly Meeting of Philadelphia in 1697, by the 31st of the lOth 
month, 1697, we find the following minute: 

"A paper for the encouragement of a free school was this day 
read, whereupon Samuel Carpenter & James Fox are desired to 
treat with Daniel Pastorius and Thomas Makins concerning the 
same, and that they desire the friends of the town to meet together 
this day week about the first hour at this meeting house to con- 
sider further of it, & that Daniel Pastorius & Thomas Makins be 

Again at the monthly meeting held the 28th of the ilth 
month, 1697, we have the following minute: 

"Samuel Carpenter makes report to this meeting that several 
friends met together according to the desire of the last monthly 
meeting to treat with Daniel Pastorius & Thomas Makin for keep- 
ing a public school, and the friends then met, agreed with them, 
provided this meeting approves of the same, that the monthly meet- 
ing engages to pay them forty pounds each yearly, during the 
time they continue in the said School, friends providing a School 
house, which being approved of, The Money is to be raised by way 
of Subscription and Samuel Carpenter & James Fox are desired to 
get the subscriptions & bring them in the next monthly meeting. It 
is agreed also, that they shall begin the School the first of the first 
month next, and that Samuel Carpenter & James Fox do acquaint 
them of it, And that preparations be made for the School in the Inner 
Chamber, over the Meeting-house, and they are to be paid out of 

Cf. Colonial Records, I, 531-532. 

l8 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

the Stock before money be raised for the keeping of the School, 
and when raised to be repaid again. And a Subscription paper to 
be drawn up by Samuel Carpenter & David Lloyd according to the 
proposals which were ready at the last meeting." 

At the Monthly Meeting of 1698 we find a minute of the pay- 
ment of the first ( ?) half year's salary: 

"Anthony Morris being desired to receive the subscriptions for 
the School from Pentecost Teague & John Busby who were desired 
to Collect the same. He makes report to this meeting that he hath 
paid Daniel Pastorius & Thomas Makins the ballance of their half 
Years salary due the 5th of the 7th mo. last." 

A similar minute is found of the Monthly Meeting of the 
28th of the 2nd month, 1699: 

"John Busby makes report that He & Hugh Durbrough hath 
Collected of several of the Subscribers about £48. ..and that they 
have paid it to Anthony Morris who hath paid off Daniel Pastor- 
ius and the two Schoolmistresses salaries." 

Finally, the following minute of the Monthly Meeting of the 
29th of the 1st month, 1700, marks the end of Pastorius' services 
as teacher in the Friends' School of Philadelphia: 

"Griffith Owen having recommended John Cadwallader as a 
person very fit for an assistant in the School, (Francis Daniel Pas- 
torius being gone)."'*'^ 

The inference may be drawn here that Cadwallader was to 
take Pastorius' place although Pastorius' name was always men- 
tioned before that of Makin in the previous minutes. 

Some records remain to tell us of the kind of school Pastorius 
taught in Philadelphia and of the manner and method of his 
teaching. The subjects taught were doubtless those prescribed 
by the Resolution of the Provincial Council in December, 1683, 
for the school taught by Enoch Flower, the first schoolmaster of 

•Reference is made in this minute to "former neglects." Just who was 
responsible for the neglects does not appear in the records. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 19 

"At a Council held at Philadelphia, ye 26th of ye loth month, 
1683. Present : 

Wm. Penn, Propor. & Govr. 

Tho. Holmes, Wm. Ilaigue, Lasse Cock, Wm. Clayton. 

The Govr and Provll Councill having- taken into Serious Con- 
sideration the great Necessity there is of a Scool Master for ye In- 
struction & Sober Education of Youth in the towne of Philadelphia, 
Sent for Knock Flower, an Inhabitant of the said Towne, who for 
jtwenty Year past hath been exercised in that care and Imploymt 
in England, to whom haveing comunicated their Minds, he Em- 
braced it upon these following Termes : to Learne to read English 
4s by the Quarter, to Learne to read and write 6s by ye Quarter, 
to Learne to read, Write and Cast accot 8s by ye Quarter ; for 
Boarding a Scholler, that is to say, dyet. Washing, Lodging, & 
Scooling, Tenn pounds for one whole year."*^ 

The spirit of the school and the jurist-schoolmaster is well 
reflected in a letter of one of the patrons, Phineas Pemberton and 
in Pastorius' reply to the letter written on the back of the same 
sheet. Both letters are dated April 12th, 1698, and here printed 
in the quaint style and orthography of the time. 

Letter of Phineas Pemberton to Francis Daniel Pastorius. 

"My friend 

Ff. D. Pastorious these are to apologize for my little girles have- 
ing as they tell me broke the rules of the Schole divers times even 
to the meriting of Correction in coming too late in the morning 
J wold not willingly that any of mine shold be exemplary in faling 
short of theire duty in pformance of those decent a necess&ry orders 
that are appointed for the scholers to observe and keep but my 
weakness has been such that theire brother & sister were so Jm- 
ployed about me for some time they cold not come at all and after 
they began to come not to be spared to forward them in a morn- 
ing as they ought to have been but as J recover J hope they will 
be better served & so better fitted to observe theire time in coming 
& in the meane time J hope these may find that favor as to Jimput 
it rathers to our neglect of them then they of theire duty wch we 
will endeavor to amend as fast as we can is all at prsent from thy 
real friend. 

Phineas Pemberton. 

The I2th mo., '98. 

*^Ci. "Minutes of the Provincial Council" (Colonial Records, I, 91). 

20 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

Pastorius' Reply to Phincas Pemherton's Letter. 

Dear Friend Phineas! 

Though thy two little ones never were spoken to for coming 
too late, yet they seeing others corrected for that fault, are (as it 
seems) afraid; which argueth their good disposition, and that the 
very shadow of the rod will do more with them, than the spur wth. 
others. J am glad to hear by the sd. thy children, thou dost re- 
cover so well, & get a little more strength day by day, which J 
heartily wish the Lord may augment to the full. No more at pres- 
ent but ye cordial salutation from thy sincere friend F. D. Pastor- 

The I2th of 2d. 1698. 

Another glimpse into the schoolroom of Pastorius is to be 
gained from an experience of Israel Pemberton, one of the 
pupils, dating from the same year and showing that what Pastor- 
ius had written in the letter given in full about the use of the rod, 
took another turn three months later : 

Introdiictory remarks of Israel Pemberton to his copy of the 

original letter. 

"About the loth day of the 4 month 1698, ffrancis Daniel 
Pastorius a German one of the school masters of Philadelphia took 
occation (upon a small difference that did arise between me and 
another scholar) to beate me very much with a thick stick upon my 
head untill the blood came out & also on my armes untill the Blood 
started through the skin & both were so swelled that the swelling 
was to be seen so that it caused my cloths to stand out & the flesh 
was bruised that it turned black and yellow & green my father com- 
ing to town on the 13th day of the 5th mo : & my sister acquainting 
him how I had been vsed took me away from ye school the 14th 
day of the 5th mo: & the 15th day sent me into the Country from 
whence J writ these following epistles. "^^ 

The letter which follows is addressed to Mackin, who seems 
to have been on more agreeable terms with this particular pupil, 
at least. There is no doubt that "another" in the letter refers to 
Pastorius. It is likewise to be supposed that the stripes inflicted 

"The original MS. containing these letters is in the possession of 
the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

** Cf. Pennsylvania Magazine, xxviii, 109. 


(Outer Wall with Square Tower.) 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 21 

by the German schoolmaster were sHghtly magnified by his 
pupil Israel Pemberton. Nevertheless the punishment must have 
been severe, or the otherwise rule-loving father would not have 
taken his son out of school. Judging from the contents of the let- 
ter and the severity of the punishment we may suppose the "dif- 
ference" between Israel and his schoolmate took the form of an 
outright fisticuff. It is also interesting to see the character of the 
more vigorous discipline based on the old doctrine, "Spare the 
rod and spoil the child," of the German school and schoolmaster 
reflected in Israel's description: "Rough answers," "without hav- 
ing the liberty to speak one word in my own defence." The 
subscript of the letter exhibits a good spirit in Israel after all and 
gives us a fine trace of the German schoolmaster's personal ap- 
pearance. We learn also incidentally that Pastorius taught 
Latin in this school and that too in this case to a boy of thirteen 

Ye 22th day of ye 5th mo. 1698 
Deare master 

Thomas meakin Lest through mistake the abuse J Receiued at 
the schoole being noised abroad should be taken to be thee J made 
bold to write these few lines for the clearing of thee thy Jnstruc- 
tions were so mild and gentle as that J never Received one blow 
or stripe from thy hand during my stay there tho my dullness at 
times might have given thee occation for if J wanted Jnformation 
with boldness J cold come to thee being always friendly Received 
but from another J always found Rough answers where J Quickly 
left to trouble him not finding the kindnes as from thee & Jndeed 
what he did for me from first to last is to be seen in that little Lattin 
book J write at his first coming which J have forgot at schoole behind 
me if thou would be pleased to send it by some of the boatmen to 
be left at Samll Jenings when thou meets with it J shall take it as 
a kindnes J do say it was not my Jntent to have let it be known but 
the anguish of the blows & being Jnwardly opprest with greife to 
think how J was used with out having the liberty to spake one word 
in my own defence did so chainge my Countenance that my sister 
presently perceived it who was restles untill J had discovered the 
occation who rested not there but would see & when she saw was 
also so greived that she would shew me to some others tho J en- 
deavored much to diswade her but shee would not but did cause 
me to [be] seen by H: Carpenter & Tho: whartons wife, but con- 
terary to my mind tho he never shewed any respect to me as a 

22 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

scholar but still frowned upon me the Reason J know not for J 
never Jntended to vex him & therefore never made use of him & 
thou being out of schoole he took that oppertunity so to Thrash 
me & J observed that he generaly showed his disposition more when 
thou was out of schoole for whileit thou was in he seldome went 
into those extrames as at other times this is only priuate to thy self 
J desire not to Jnjure him J would willingly have stayd Longer at 
the schoole but my sister having told my father how things were & 
the tokens of his correction still remaineing upon me tho about five 
weeks since & are still to be seen & so sore as that J cannot endure 
any thing to press against it he wold not leave me tho J desired it 
but J will forbeare to say any more about it Lest J shold too farr 
sten up v/hat J v/old have at an end but J Love thee & desire to be 
with thee & to spend the rest of my schooling under thee, but 
whether it may be so or no J know not yet J desire it with my love 
end these Lines who am thy scholar 


Israel Pcmhcrton's Letter to Richard Johns. 

"13th day of the 6 mo 1698" 
"I perceive by thyne that D. P. Sowerness still remaines the 
first time J saw him J told my father that J thought he would prove 
an angry master he asked me Vv^hy so J told him J thought so by 
his nose for wh he called me a prating boy but J find J had some 
skill for J have not onely the witness he gave me of it but J vnder- 
stand others see it. Tho they have not felt so much of it as my self." 

In letter of Thomas Makin to Phineas Pemberton pro- 
testing against his sending Israel Pemberton, his son, to another 
school, dated Philada. 28:2mo, 1699, we learn that Pastorius 
did not teach arithmetic, at least not to Israel Pemberton. 

"Augnest ye 5th 6 mo [1698] 
My Deare Companion 

And plesent school fellow J P Thy letter J received dated ye 22d 
of ye last o|m and was hartily glad to hear of thy welfare and also 
to renew our former friendship which shall never be violated one 
my part and altho our former sociaty suffers an ecclipse by parting 
with the yett J comfert my self that my stay will not bare any long 
date after the, truly my master Pastorus unkindness makes me whish 
for ye yeare up and Then J hope J shall be at liberty to Jnjoy the 
pleasure J have formerly had in thy company, fully Jntending Jf J 
Live till September to set ye falls and so to take my sollemn farewell 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 23 

of thee my friend and all ye rest of your family who are the only 
persons J am acquainted with Jn Those parts till which shall take 
leave and remain Thy assured friend 

Richard Johns. 

Mother Js in health Margret and Hannah were much pleased wth 
thy notice of them wiching they were Big annuf to write to prissilla. 

A copy of a letter which J received from Richard Johns the 12th 
day of the 6th month 1698." 

Postscript of Israel Pemherton to his Copy of Richard Johns' 


"J cannot but sorrow at times to think of my removal and the 
occation of it for J long to be with thee again tho some times J 
smile to myself to think how J told my father when first J saw him. 
J doubted he would prove an angry master he asked me why so 
J told him J thought so by his nose he called me a prating boy 
but J find J had some skill for he has since confirmed it to me with 
a witness as if he Loved me its more than J know because he never 
shewed me any of it however J love him & desire thee Remember 
my love to him if thou please: J am afraid J am over bold therefore 
crave thy excuse & so farewell dear master."** 

Pastorius lived in Philadelphia a part of the time at least dur- 
ing his period of teaching at the Friends' School and left his house 
in Germantown vacant. His children went to school in Philadel- 
phia, presumably to the school in which their father taught. This 
we learn quite incidentally from a letter written by them to their 
grandfather Melchior Adam Pastorius in Windsheim and dated 
Philadelphia, Mar. 4, 1699. In this letter we learn that the school 
was kept eight hours every day except Saturday afternoon (and 
Sunday), and between the lines we read a sign of relief at the 
thought of this "last day of the week," when there was no school 
in the afternoon. The very interesting passage of the letter be- 
ing as follows in English translation :^^ 

**Cf. Pennsylvania Magazine, xxviii, 109- no. 

** Cf. Beschreibung, p. 102. The original passage is in German : 
"Wir wiinschen gar ofift bey dir zu seyn /ach class du hier warest und in 
unserm Hause zu Germanton wohnetest / welches einen schoncn Obsgarten 
hat / und der Zeit leer stehet / indeme wir zu Philadelphia wohnen / und 
taglich 8. Stunden lang in die Schul gehen miissen / ausgenommcn den 
ietzten Tag in der Wochen / da wir Nachmittag daheim bleibcn dorffen," 

24 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

"We often wish we were with you, if only you were here in 
our house in Germantown, which has a beautiful orchard, and is 
now standing empty, as we are living in Philadelphia, and have to 
go to school & long hours every day, except the last day of the 
week, when we may stay at home in the afternoon." 

The next record of Pastorius is found in the Raths-Buch of 
Germantown, where, as we have seen, he is mentioned again in 
1700. It seems more than likely that Pastorius was the originator 
of the proposal to open a school in Germantown, which was ap- 
proved by the General Court Dec. 30, 1701. This school was 
opened on the nth of Jan., 1702 and taught by Pastorius. The 
first Overseers for the year, 1702, were Aret Klincken, Peter 
Schumacher and Paul Wulfif. These were the original sub- 
scribers to the School : 

Anton Loof, Dirck Jansen, 

Peter Schumacher, Dirck Jansen, der Knecht, 

Paul Wulff, Johannes Umstett, 

Jacob Simons, Heifert Papen, 

Jacob Delaplaine, Jan Leusen, 

Jonas Potts, Peter Bon, 

Isaac Schumacher, Hermann Bon, 

Levin Herberdink, Dirck Keyser, 

Johann Bleikers, Glaus Tamson, 

Gerhard Ruttinghusen, 

and two others whose names have not been deciphered.*^ 

This school was open to boys and girls. Tlie voluntary con- 
tributors gave from 2 to 10 shillings a year. Those who paid 
tuition gave from 4 to 6 shillings a week. The names of the 
patrons who sent children to the school the first year were : 

'" An important source for Pastorius' activity as teacher of the School 
in Germantown was his Cash-Book, which was consulted some years ago by 
both O. Seidensticker and S. W. Pennypacker, but seems to have disap- 
peared since that time. The above account is based on Seidensticker's 
original notes from the Cash-Book printed in the Der Deutsche Pionicr, 
III, 56 ff. The present writer will be very grateful for any information as 
to the Cash-Book. 


(Old Fountain and Woman with a Watertank. 
Schoolmaster Gutmann and his son on the right.) 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 


Christian Warmer, 
Arnold van Vossen, 
Johann Cunrad Codweis, 
Cornelis Sivert, 
Aret Kuster, 
Jan Doeden, 
Lenert Arets. 

Aret Klincken, 
Reinert Tysen, 
Tiines Kunders, 
Wilhelm Strepers, 
Paul Kastner, 
Renier Hermans, 
Abraham op de Graeff, 

It will be seen from this list that very few of the original 
voluntary subscribers sent children to the school the first year, the 
most of them contributing evidently to encourage the undertak- 
ing. In connection with this day school there was also an even- 
ing school for those who could not attend during the day. In 
the year 1702 the following attended this evening school: 

Paul Engel, Agnes Kunders, 

Peter SchoU, Peter Keyser, 

Matthis Kunders, Peter Keurlis, 

Matthis Keurlis, Wilhelm Gerits, 

Samuel Kastner, Johannes Gerckes, 

Jacob Engel, Jan Kunders, 

Hanna Siverts, Andreas Hartzfelder. 

The growth of the Germantown school is clearly indicated 
by the increased list of patrons for the year 1706-1708: 

Tunes Kunders, 
Jan Liicken, 
Lenert Arets, 
Jacob Gottschalk, 
Heinrich Sellen, 
Paul Engel, 
Aret Klincken, 
Jacob Schumacher, 
Thomas Potts, Sen., 
Jan Neus, 
Paul Kastner, 
Arnold van Vossen, 
Richard Townsend, 
Wilhelm Strepers, 
Abraham Tunes, 
Cornelis Tisen, 
Peter Schumacher, 

W. Baumann, 
Benjamin Armitage, 
Wilhelm de Wees, 
Cornelis de Wees, 
Samuel Richardson, 
Conrad Rutter, 
Jonas Potts, 
Jan Doeden, 
Jan de Wilderness, 
Paul Kiister, 
Paul Ruttinghusen, 
Benjamin Morgan, 
Christian Warmer, 
Christopher Witt, 
Georg Schumacher, 
Joseph Coulson, 
Isaak van Sintern, 

26 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

Cornells Siverts, Peter Keyser, 

Griffith Miles, Aret Kiister, 

Isaak Schumacher, Cunrad Jansen, 

Paul Wulff, Hans Heinrich Mehls, 

Herman Tunes, Cunrad Rijtters (Rutter?) 

Jan Lensen, Jiirgen Jacobs, 

Dirck Jansen, Wilh. Hosters, 

Matthis Milan, Hans Graef, 

Anton Loof, Hans Neus (Jan Neus?) 

Walter Simons, Heinrich Kassel, 

Howel James, Peter Keurlis, 

James Delaplaine, Richard Huggin, 
Anthony Klincken, 

It would seem strange that a community like that of Ger- 
mantown, with a highly educated man like Pastorius at the head, 
should not have had a school before 1702, nineteen years after the 
settlement of the town. Seidensticker'*''' thought it likely that an 
evening school existed before 1702. It seems more likely that 
the instruction of children was given in the meeting even from the 
earliest assembling in private houses till the building of the 
church in 1686.*^ The minute in the Raths-Buch of Dec. 3, 1701, 
seems to preclude the actual existence of a separate community 
school before that time. It is quite likely that the opening of 
the Germantown school was directly stimulated by the renewed 
effort to improve the Friends' School in Philadelphia, where 
Pastorius had just finished an engagement as teacher in the 
Friends' School. For there is no longer any question that Pas- 
torius taught for the Friends and not in a private school of his 
own in Philadelphia as was considered possible by Professor Sei- 

The question was raised by Professor Seidensticker whether 
Pastorius taught in German or English in the Germantown school. 

*' Cf . Der Deutsche Pionier, III, 56. 

** Cf. Beschreibung, p. 34. 

**Cf. MS. copy of Seidensticker's Biographical Sketch of Francis Daniel 
Pastorius among the D. P. Bruner papers loaned me by Mr. Abram Bruner 
of Roanoke, Va., after Mr. D. P. Bruner's death. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 27 

There seems little reason for supposing that the language of in- 
struction was German, although teacher and pupil alike no doubt 
often spoke German, as most of the pupils were from German 
families. But the fact that the General Court as early as 1696 
had ordered the minutes of the Raths-Buch to be copied in English 
by Pastorius is evidence that they already recognized the neces- 
sity of using the official language of the Province in business in- 
tercourse and it is hardly likely that they would have taken an 
opposite policy by establishing a strictly German school, especially 
as the pupils, who spoke German at home, needed a knowledge 
of English above all else. Then too the fact mentioned by Seiden- 
sticker, that the titles of Pastorius' school books,^** which were 
evidently intended as aids in his teaching, are in English, would 
seem to show that the instruction was given in English. The 
other works of Pastorius of a pedagogical character but with 
German sub-titles are of a more advanced character and scarcely 
designed for use in the school. It is not unlikely that Pastorius 
taught some of the subjects of his other English books in the 
school, as for example The Young Country Clerk, The Good 
Order and Discipline of the Church of Christ, particularly to the 
more advanced boys of the school. 

It is not stated how long Pastorius taught the Germantown 
school, but it seems likely that he continued the school as long as 
he was able to teach, at least till 1718. 

Although Pastorius was educated in the humanities and 
deeply read in the scholastic literature, his contact with the reali- 

"Cf. the following books by Pastorius: 

1. Pruner c. 1698. 

2. Lingua Anglicana or Some Miscellaneous Remarks Concerning the 
English Tongue. 

3. Lingua Latina or Grammatical Rudiments. 

4. Collection of English Rhymes, Alphabetically Arranged. 

5. A Breviary of Arithmetick and Arithmetical Hotch-Potch. 

6. Formulae Solennes or Several Forms of such Writings as ore vul- 
garly in Use, whercunto an Epistolography is annexed. 

7. Vademecum or the Christian Scholar's Pocket Book. 

28 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

ties of the new world convinced him of the need of a new edu- 
cation, which should have more regard for the realia. He even 
goes so far as to regret the great outlay, which his father had 
made for his now somewhat useless preparation for life. As 
early as 1699 in a letter to his father, he set forth this changed 
attitude in significant detail — a point of view far ahead of his 
time and anticipating the educational revolution of the nineteenth 
century. The German part of the letter in question is given here 
in English translation with the Latin passages unchanged as they 
appear in the original : 

"As for other matters this colony still increases daily in popu- 
lation and human wickedness, nevertheless I hope the condition 
of things will never become so inhuman as in those European uni- 
versities, at which one must learn for the most part nothing but 
dediscenda. Multi enim Professores inutilibus quacstionihus & 
acutis tricis nngalibus tempiis terunt, & duni discentium mcntes in 
supervacaneis quaestionibus detinent, hnpediunt eas ne ad solidiora 
aspirent. Nitiiatur explorare giiid sit Jupiter & Vulcanus, sed non 
guid fit Christus? Conantur qiioque sanetissemum Verbum Dei 
Aristotelicis Syllogismis iUuminare & defendcre, quasi vero Spiri- 
tus ille Sanctus {qui solus verus Author & Dictator scripturae est) 
per damnatum Ethnicum & in Inferno ejulans Ingenium Aristotelis 
posset reformari ant illustrari. 

Others passed the precious time with nothing but useless ques- 
tions and indagationibus, an vera sit ilia Jnscriptio scpulchralis in 
Monte Fiascone: Propter Verbum est est Dominus meus mortuus 
est. Others look for the ablative case in the Greek declensions, but 
for what purpose they need it, they themselves do not know. 

Indeed nowadays the students are beginning to drink one in 
every ten of their number to death, and to send him into the Hell- 
ish realm of Satan, which is in very truth greatly to be lamented, 
and it were to be sought of God, that the eyes of professors as 
well as students might be opened, so that they might know how 
vain it is to boast of the light of the Gospel and yet remain in such 
abominable works of darkness. 

Accordingly I pity my dear brother Johannes Samuel, if he, 
having learned piety and the fear of God from his dear parents 
and tutor, should afterwards lose them again at the universities 
and experience so much dediscinda with the extreme peril of his 
soul, and I would much rather advise him, as a true brother, that 
he learn some respectable practical trade, in which he could serve 
God and his fellow Christian, the which, although it is regarded 

(2f^ ^jU/^ aC. ^My $if<^. -^^^i 

P^'2(r^-/Gf1 <;?/^^ vW ^.^ ^i^ 

Calendar of Pastorius' Life, 
(From "Res Propria^"). 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 29 

little and despised among you, is notwithstanding more in accord 
with the divine order and apostolic teaching than all scholastic 
speculation; for in the main the highly versed are highly perverse 
& scientia mundana infiat. Such lofty haughty spirits wish after- 
ward to live in great state; for this they need large sums of money, 
which they try to obtain to the harm of their neighbor, in order 
that their wives and children may be able to strut around a la mode. 
In opposition to this the humble people taught of God say with 
Antonius : Non data non ciipio, and think it right with Palingenius, 
contentum vivere parvo, cum quihus concordat S. Paulus Hebr. 
13. V. 5."" 

Pastorius himself regretted that he had devoted the precious 
time of youth to obstruse scholastic learning rather than to the 
more practical realia. He expressed this in strong language, in 
reflecting upon his early education : 

"I myself would give several hundred rix dollars, if I had de- 
voted the precious time, spent in learning Sperling's Physic, Meta- 
physic and other unnecessary sophistical argumentations and dispu- 
tations, to engineering and printing, which would now be more 
serviceable to me, and more useful and interesting to me and my 
fellow Christian than all such physic and metaphysic and all Aris- 
totelean Elencki and Syllogismi, by means of which no savage or 
unchristian man can be brought to God, much less a piece of bread 
be earned."^- 

Pastorius and his fellow townsmen were not only zealous 
for the growth of the settlement but scrupulous about their legal 
status as citizens of the Province and subjects of the Crown. As 
early as the 7th of the 3d month, 1691, some sixty High and Low 
Germans of Germantown declared their allegiance to King Wil- 
liam and Queen Mary, and fidelity to the Proprietor of the Prov- 
ince. All seems to have gone on smoothly in the German Town- 
ship until 1705-6, when the conduct of the affairs of the German 
(or Frankfurt) Company assumed a more serious aspect and the 
civil rights of the Germans were felt to be insecure. Accord- 
ingly a petition was laid before the Colonial Council asking for 

Cf. Beschrcibimg, pp. 99-100. 
■ Cf. Opening of the Bechstein Library, Addresses, p. 34. 

30 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

the naturalization of those surviving Germans and others, who 
had promised fealty in 1691, and about a hundred others by spe- 
cial act of Assembly and the sanction of the English Crown.^* 
This petition was laid before the Council on the 15th of 3d month, 
1706, and favorably considered, as the following minute will 
show : 

"A Petition of Joannes Koster, and about 150 other high and 
low Germans to the Govr. and Council was read, setting forth, that 
the Petrs., with many other aliens to the kingdom of England, by 
the Encouragement of the Propr. had Transported themselves into 
this Province, & by their Industry had changed the uncultivated 
Lands they had purchased into good settlemnts., & for Twenty-two 
years past had behaved themselves as Liege & Loyal subjects of 
England, that above 60 of the said Ptrs. at one time, viz: the 7th 
of ye 3 mo., 1691, had in open Court, promised allegiance to K. 
William & Q. Mary, & fidelity to the Propr., besides many others 
who had done the Like, &c. that such as have not already obliged 
themselves are ready to do it when they shall be admitted. They 
therefore request, that (seeing they are not at present believed to 
be secure in their Estates) for remedying the unhappiness they may 
be engaged in, if they be still considered as foreigners, the assem- 
bly may be convened with all Convenient speed, & a Bill recom- 
mended from this board for naturalizing all & every of the said 
Ptrs., that they may have an undoubted right to hold, enjoy, alien- 
ate, sell & dispose of any of their Lands, as the natural born sub- 
jects of England may or can do in this Province, & also that they 
may be capable of Electing or being elected, to serve in Assembly 
& other Offices ; also, that some of the Petrs. being Mennists, who 
(with their Predecessory for above 150 Years past,) could not for 
Conscience sake take an Oath, the same provision may be made for 
them by a law, as is made for those called Quakers in this Prov- 
ince, and that the said Law may be sent home with the rest, past 
by the late Assembly, in Order to obtain the Queens Royal Appro- 

Which Petition being argued and Considered, It is Resolved, 
that it is highly reasonable the Petrs., and all others in their Cir- 
cumstances, should be rendered Secure in their Estates and Titles 
to their lands in this Province, the value of which is generally, but 
the efifect of their own labours, and in pursuance of some parts of 

•'Cf. Patent Index Book, A & AA (Department of Internal Affairs, 
Harrisburg, Pa.). 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 31 

the prayer of the said Petition leave is given to the sd. Petrs., to 
procure the attorney Genl. to draw up a bill for that purpose, to 
be laid before this Board where it shall meet with all due Encourage- 

Nearly four years later the Bill was presented to the Coun- 
cil, which had the following minute entered, September 29, 1709, 
stating that: 

"The Govr. acquainted the board, that the night before the 
Speaker attended with several members of the House, brought him 
the Bill for naturalizing the Germans, which he now desired to pass, 
and accordingly he was pleased to give his assent to the said bill, be- 
ing Intituled an Act for the better Enabling of Divers Inhabitants of 
the Province of Pennsylvia., To Hold and Enjoy Lands, Tenemts. 
and Plantation in the same Province. "^^ 

This joint action of the Governor, the Assembly and Colon- 
ial Council naturalized about 150 Germans of the colony, among 
whom were many of the original settlers with Pastorius' name 
at the head of the list. ^® Thus the founder of Germantown was 
also the first of his countrymen to become a naturalized citizen — 
the crowning test of loyal citizenship. 

" Cf. Colonial Records, II, 241 ff. 

" Cf. Colonial Records, II, 493-494. 

"^This list is so inaccurately printed in the Colonial Records that many- 
names are unintelligible to any but the expert, who is not only able to read 
the original but also knows the correct forms of the names themselves in 

(To be Continued.) 


By Professor B. A. Heydrick, 
State Normal School, Millersville, Pa. 


Make a snout (snoot). Grimace. 

"Teacher, he's making snouts at me." 

Lan., Ad., Leh., Leb., Y., Sch. 

fr. Pa. Ger. schnoot mocha; Ger. schnauze machen. Colloq. 


Make done. Finish. 

"I want to make done by sundown." 

Lan., Ad., Mif., Lack., Dan., Leb. 

fr. Pa. Ger. fardichmocha; Ger. fertig machen. 


Make good. Apologize for. 

"You'll have to make that good or fight." 

Lan., Y., Cen., Bucks, Leh., Leb. 

fr. Pa. Ger. gut mocha; Ger. gut machen. 

Hoover, p. 98 : " . . .do make good my insolence to the said 

Blanche Chetwynd." 

Make one's self home. Go home (usually at once). 

"I must make myself home now." 

Lan., Dau., Sch., Berks, Ad. 
fr. Pa. Ger. sich ham mocha. 

Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsyhiania 33 

Make out. Extinguish. 

"Make the light out. I do not need it." 

Lan., Y., Dau., Leb., Ad. Montg. 

fr. Pa. Ger. ousmochd; Ger. ausmachen. 


Make ready. Prepare one's self by changing clothes or 


"It's dinner time ; I must go and make ready." 

Lan., Y., Dau., Ad. 

fr. Pa. Ger. ready mocha, or of things, fardich mocha; Ger. 

sich fertig machen. 
C— Obsolete. 

Make shut. Shut. 

"Make the door shut" — i. e., close the door, not implying any 

Lan., Leb., Y., Dau., Mif., Ad. 
Pa. Ger. zumocha; Ger. zumachen. 

Make to. (Rare.) Close. 

"Make the door to." 
Lan., Cent., Leb. 

fr. Pa. Ger. zu mocha; Ger. zumachen. 

Make ugly. Result badly. 

"It might make ugly yet before the war is over." 

Lan., Berks, Cum., Dau., Leb., Ad. 

Pa. Ger. weesht mocha; Ger. iviist machen, wiist being used 
provincially for ugly, had. 


34 Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 

Me. Ethical dative, with put. 

"Put me some gravy on my bread." 

Lan., Leb., Berks, Del., Bucks, Ad. 

So used in Scotland. 


[Cf. such expressions as "It broke for me." — Editor.] 

Melt. Spleen. 

"You can tell the weather by the hog's melt." 

Y., Ad., Cen., Mer., and Salem Co., N. J. 
C. gives milt. Obs. 

Mitten. Glove; hand covering with fingers. 

"His mittens have the fingers worn." 

Lan., Dau., Bucks, Ad., Leb., Y., Leh. 

Cf. glove. The meanings are interchanged; so in Ger. Hand- 
schuh is used colloquially in both senses. Here the confu- 
sion perhaps arises from the Pa. Ger. word for glove, — mits. 
Also henshing is used for both gloves and mittens. 

C— Obs. 

Mondays, etc. Monday. The days of the week used in plural 

when but one day is referred to. 

"I'll start to-morrow and get back Mondays." 
Lan., Leb., Montg., Ad., Dau., Sch. 
fr. Pa. Ger. Mondogs, etc., so used. Possibly a loose use of 

Ger. genitive. 

MozEY. A marble, any kind except a commy. 

"I'll trade you a mosey for three commys." 

Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 35 

MozHY (mozhey). Molasses candy. 

"We made mozhy at the party." 

Lan., Ad., Y., Lack., Luz., Leb., Sch. 
fr Pa. Ger. moshy; molosich, molasses. 

MuLLiGRUR. I. Tadpole. 2. Grub in decayed wood. 

"We caught some mulligrubs in the pond." 

Leb., Y., Lan., Ad. 

The word is used indifferently in meanings i and 2, but I have 

not found it in meaning given in Century. 
C. — Hellgramite. Local, U. S. 

New land. A clearing. 

"I'm going to plow up that new land" 

Lan., Y., Leb., Ches., Bucks, Ad. 

fr. Pa. Ger. nei lond. 


Nix. No ; nothing. 

"That board is nix good," or "good for nix." 

Lan., Y,, Mer., Bucks, Ad. 

fr. Pa. Ger. niks; Ger. nichts. 

The expression nix nUts = good for nothing, is also found. 

C— Coll., U. S. 

Nixcumerous. (Slang.) An emphatic negative. 

"Will you do it?" "Nixcumerous!" 

Lan., Sch., Leb., Y., Men, Ad. 

fr. Pa. Ger. nix kum drous; Ger. nichts kam daraus. 


36 Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 

Not, or not so. Used at end of interrogative sentence. 

"Have you seen it, not?" 

Lan., Leb., Dau., Mif., Sch., Berks, Ad. 

fr. Ger. nicht wahr; Pa. Ger. net wor, or net so. 

The words ain't, ain't not, ain't so, are used in the same way. 


Not much worth. Worth little. 

"That man is not much worth." 

Lan., Leb., Dau., Bucks, Ad. 

fr. Pa, Ger. net fel wart; Ger. nicht viel werth. 


Off. (Slang.) Cross ; provoked. 

"He gets off at me every day." 

Lan., Y,, Ches., Sch., Bucks, Ad. 

Cf . offish. 


Once. Expletive. 

"Rosina, will you marry me oncef" 

"Where were you?" "I was at the store once." 
Lan., Y., Per., Ches., Mif., Bucks, Ad. 
fr. Pa. Ger amol; Ger. ein mat. 
Grumbine says, used after a request or invitation ; but it is often 

used in other ways, as in second example above. 
Hoover : "Say, cnc^, you?" P. 57. 
C— Local Pa. 

Orless. Unless. 

"I'll speak to him, orkss you will." 

Lan., Leb., Camb., Berks. 

The form ornelse is also found. 


Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 37 

OuTEN (out'n). Extinguish. 

"It's time to outen your light." 

Lan., Leb., Y., Dau., Ches., Cum., Bucks, Bed., Blair, Ad. 

C. — Prov. Eng. 


S. — Prov. Eng. 

Paddy. 1 Molasses candy. 

"Fine paddy, 20 cents a pound." 

Lan., Sch., Leb. 



Paddy.2 One's equal ; a match for. 

"Come on if you dare ; I'm your paddy." 
Lan., Leb., Y., Ad. 

Query : fr. Paddy, an Irishman, hence one ready with his fists. 

Paddy.8 Small cushion for a chair. 

"Take this chair; it has a paddy on it." 
Lan., Leb., Bucks, Y., Ad. 
fr. Pa. Ger. pad. Not in Home. 

"^PY. "^oung chicken. 

"There's the hen with her pcepies." 

Lan., Y., Dau., Berks, Mif., Leb., Ad., Bucks. 

Probably onamatopoetic. 

fr. Pa. Ger huvi. Not in Home. 


38 Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 

Peg, v. t. To throw. 

"Peg a stone at that bird." 

Y., Lan., Sch., Dau., Mif., A. 


Perfect tense used for preterite. 

"Last night after I have done my work." 

Bucks, Ad., Lan., Leb. 

Pa. Ger. uses the compound with hoivd in this way. The pret- 
erite tense occurs only in a very few verbs. See Learned, 
p. 63. 

Piecing. Eating between meals. 

"That child's always piecing." 

Lan., Y., Dau., Berks, Ches., Sch., Mif., Lack. 
So used in Scotland. 
C— Coll. U. S. 

Piece-way. Part of the way. 

"Won't you go with me a piece-way?" 

Lan., Leb., Dau., Mif., Y., Sch., Ches., Berks, Phila., Blair, 

fr. Pa. Ger. shdik wag; Ger. stilck tveg. (Coll.) 

Poke, n. Blow. 

"Hit him a poke." 

Dau., Men, Leb., Sch., Ches., Lan. 
C. defines as a "gentle thrust." 

Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 39 

PoNHAWS (pon'haws). A dish like fried mush, made by boiHng 

buckwheat flour and corn meal with 
the juice of fried meat, and some- 
times scraps of pork. When cold 
this is cut into slices and fried. 

"We had ponhaws for breakfast." 

Lan., Y., Bucks, Cen., Leb., Leh., Ad., Sch., Men 
fr. Pa. Ger. ponhaws. Query: Ger. pfann-hase. 
The word scrapple is often used for this dish. 


Powwow. To heal by conjuration. 

"She ought to get some one to pozvwow over her hand." 

Lan., Bucks, Cent., Ad., Leb., Y., Sch. 

Also used as noun and adj. in the phrase "powwow-doctor." 
The word and the practice are very common in these locali- 
ties. Hoover gives a description of the method of powwow- 
ing. Ch. XXXIV. 

C. limits application to aborigines. [But cp. Pa. Ger. brauche. 

Preposition transposed, taken to end of 

This is frequent. Examples: 

"Cross the street over" = cross over the street. 
"Get the road out" = get out of the way. 
"Hitch the horse out" = unhitch the horse. 
"Look the window out" = look out of the window. 
"Walk the road up" = Walk up the road. 
"Dress out" = undress. 

Lan., Leb., Dau., Ad., Berks, Mif., Sch., Bucks. 

The construction is, of course, German, the preposition being 

treated as part of a separable verb and placed last. The order 

in Pa. Ger. is the same. 

40 Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 

Present progressive tense. Future tense. 

"I am having a new coat next week." 
"She is getting buried to-morrow." 

Lan., Y., Mif., Dau., Cum., Bucks. 

In Pa. Ger. there is no regular form for the future tense, the 
present being used. Learned gives a future form (p. 64), 
but it is very rare in spoken or written Pa. Ger. 

Puff, n. (Slang.) Breath. 

"Fm all out of puff." 

Lan., Y., Bucks, Sch., Ches., Mif., Ches., Montg., Dau., Ad., Y. 

"Fm puffed" for "Fm out of breath" also used. 


Push-buggy. (Rare.) Baby carriage. 

"Put the baby in the push-buggy." 

Lan., Y., Berks, Per. 
fr. Ger. schieb-wagen. 

Put, n. (Slang.) Invitation. 

"I did not go to the party because I didn't get a put." 

L., Ad., Y., Bucks, Ch., Cum., also in Maryland. 

Rats. Corn-cockle. 

"There's too much rats growing in my wheat." 

Y., Ad., Leb. 

fr. Pa. Ger. rawdd; Ger. rade. 


Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 41 

Rig. Horse and carriage. 

"Bring the rig along and I'll ride." 

Lan., Leb., Ad., Y., Dau., Mif., Bucks. 

C— Coll. U. S. 


Right smart. Many. 

"Were many there?" "Yes, right smart." 

Lan., Sch., Y., Lack., Bucks, Ad. 
C— U. S. 

Saddy. Thank you. (Used only by and to children.) 

"When he gives you anything, you must say saddy." 
Lan., Leb., Sch., Bucks, Ad. 


Scrapple. Same as ponhaws, q. v. 

C. — Of Pa. German origin. 

Scratch. To itch. 

"My ear scratches." 

Lan., Leb., Tioga, Cum., Bucks, Ad. 

fr. Pa. Ger. krodsa, which means scratch or itch; Ger. kratsen 

has sometimes both meanings. 

Second Christmas. Day after Christmas. 

"Come and see us on second Christmas." 

Lan., Leb., Y., Sch., Cent., Ad. 

fr. Pa. Ger. swedd Krishdog. 

The day after Christmas is also kept as a holiday, and is a great 
day for visiting. The expression "Second Day New Year" 
is also found. 

Hoover, p. 201 : "If I Hve I'll be seventy-six on Second Christ- 


42 Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsyhania 

Second last. Next to the last. 

"He lives in the second last house on the street." 

Ad., Lan., Leb., Dau., Sch., Berks. 

fr. Pa. Ger. zwedd ledshd; Ger. zweit letzt. 

C-O. , 

Selfial. Possessing proper self-esteem, consideration. 

"He's not selfish, but se'lfial." 


S. — Characterized by regard, especially proper regard, for one's 
self or one's interests. 

Set a plate. Put it out on Christmas eve for gifts ; corre- 

sponding exactly to hang up a stocking. 

"Did you set your plate last Christmas?" 

Lan., Leb., Dau., Per., Sch., Blair, Berks ; also in Cecil Co., 

Md., and Mineral Co., Va. 

S HIPPY. Lamb. 

"You can see the ewe and her shippy." 

Lan., Y., Dau., Mif., Leb., Sch., Ad. 

fr. Pa. Ger. shipli; Ger. schdflein; -li or -1 is invariably used in 

Pa. Ger. to form diminutives (cf. Haldeman, Pennsylvania 

Dutch, p. 17). 

Short in one's mind. Forgetful. 

"He'll never remember, he's so short in his mind." 

Lan., Leb., Blair, Bucks, Y., Ad., Cent. 

fr. Pa. Ger. korts in sin. 

The form short-minded also occurs. 


Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 43 

Sight unseen^ or Used in trading, meaning that neither 

Sight and seen. object of barter is to be seen. 

"I'll trade knives with you sight unseen." 

Lan., Ches., Y., Sch., Ad. 

Snip, n. Young person ; used contemptuously. 

"I don't care what the snip says." 

Lan., Lack., Ad., Leb., Camb., Ches., Y., Sch, 
fr. Pa. Ger. shnip. Not in Home. 

S. — A small and insignificant thing or person; quotes Mas- 
singer, New Way, II, 2. 

Snits (snits). Dried fruit, usually apples. When used of 

other fruit, the name is given, as "peach 

Lan., Leb., Y., Dau., Berks, Ad., Bucks. 

fr. Ger. Schnits, dried fruit, usually pears; Pa. Ger. shnits, 
dried fruit, usually apples. 


So. As. 

"It was so long as your arm." 

Dau., Bucks, Y., Lan., Cent, Leb. 
fr. Ger. so, also Pa. Ger. 
C— Obs. 

Sots (sots). Yeast. 

"I must borrow some sots for my baking." 

Lan., Leb., Y., Cum., Sch., Leh., Dau., Bucks, Ad. 

fr. Pa. Ger. sods; Ger. sat^. 


44 Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 

Sour, m. (Rare.) Piccalilli or chow-chow. 

"Pass me the sour." 

Lan., Montg., Cent., Leb. 
Noun from adjective. 

Spellings. Words to be spelled. 

"Make out a list of spellings for me." 

Y., Leb., Lan. 

Stand. Cost. (Usually in past tense.) 

"That wheel stood me ten dollars." 

Lan., Leb., Y., Dau., Sch., Mif., Bucks, Ad. 
fr. Pa. Ger. schtad; Ger. stehen, so used. 
C. — Obsolete. 

Standing full. Full of upright objects. 

1. "That farm used to be standing full of trees." 

2. "The hall was standing full of people." 

Lan., Leb., Ches., Bucks, Ad. 

fr., Pa. Ger. shtad fill; Ger. vollstehen. 

In example i the trees might still be there though cut down ; 
example 2 means that the hall was full of people who were 
standing; it would not be used of a crowded house when the 
people were seated. 


Stick the light on. (Rare.) Enkindle; light. 

"Get the lamp and stick the light on." 

Dau., Lan., Huntg., Bucks, 
f r. Pa. Ger. idiom ; also Ger. 

Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 45 

Stick-wagon or Carriage, no top, for two 

Road-wagon. persons; open box. 

"We drove over in a stick wagon." 

Lan., Dau., Mif., Ad. 

Still. Used at end of sentence to denote customary action. 

"I see him when I go down street still." 

Lan., Leb., Y., Ad., Dau., Cent. 

fr. Pa. Ger. ols. 

The word is used of the future with no reference to the past at 
times. Thus, in engaging a new milkman, one would say, 
"I want you to stop at my house still/' although he had never 
stopped previously. 


Stone-boat. Low sled, drawn by one or two horses. 

"Bring those barrels on the stone-boat." 

Lack., Per., Cent, Mercer. 
C— U. S. 

Stove-plate. Stove hearth. 

"Brush the ashes oflf the stove plate." 

Lan., Leb., Y., Dau., Sch., Ches., Blair, 
fr. Pa. Ger. Ufa blat; Ger. ofen platte. 
C— In Pa. 

Stroobly. Tangled, dishevelled; usually of hair. 

"You can't go in with your hair all stroobly." 

Lan., Leh., Leb., Per., Dau., Bucks, Cent, Ad., Y., Sch. 
f r. Pa. Ger. strublich, not in Home ; Ger. struppig. 

46 Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 

Such. The same, used without article. 

"We have a house such color." 

Lan., Dau., Y., Leb., Sch. 

Query ; fr. Ger. solche Farbe, colloq. 


Speck. Fat of pork. 

"I like sourkrout and speck." 

Y., Lan., Leb., Mif., Camb., Bucks, Ad. 
fr. Pa. Ger. schpeck; Ger. speck. 
C— Ger. Pa. 

Spritz. Splash; sprinkle. 

"Look out or I'll spritz you !" 

Lan., Leb., Dau., Y., Ad. 

fr. Pa. Ger. shpritsd; Ger. spritzen. 


W. gives sprit, obsolete. 

Taste after. Taste of. 

"These potatoes taste after coal-oil." 

Leb., Bucks, Ad., Y. 

fr. Pa. Ger. shmokd noch; Ger. smecken nach (coll.). 


Tearing-out. (School slang.) Scolding. 

"He got a tearing-out in history to-day." 

Lan., Bucks, Ches., Leb., Y., Sch. 

Used by telegraph operators on Pa. R. R. 


Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 47 

Tell good-by. Bid good-by. 

"I must wait and tell him good-by." 

Lan., Blair, Camb., Y., Berks. 

Pa. Ger. sawgd is used for both say and tell, hence in EngUsh 
these words are interchanged. 


Thank one's self to. Thanjc. 

"Jennie thanked herself to Miss Weiss;" i. e., thanked Miss 

Lan., Y., Leb., Sch., Dau., Camb. 
.^,^_ fr. Pa. Ger. sich bddonkd zu; Ger. sich bedanken. 

The cold. A cold. 

"I have the cold so bad I can hardly talk." 

Lan., Leb., Mif., Dau., Blair, Cum., Snyder, Camb., Y., Ad., 

So used colloquially in Cork, Ireland, 
fr. Pa. Ger. er hot's kalt, 's standing for article [or es kalt?] 


The DAY. (Rare.) To-day. 

"I haven't seen him the day." 

Mifflin, Huntg. 
C. — Scotch. 

Through other. Confused. 

"Oh, you're through other." 

Lan., Cent., Ad., Leb., Y. 

fr. Pa. Ger. dorch 'n onerd; Ger. durch einander. 

The form "through another" is also found. 

"They were a' speaking and gabbling through other." — Scott, 

Heart of Midlothian, Ch. XVL In glossary "through other" 

is defined "confusedly, all together." 

48 Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 

Tie away. (Rare.) Untie. 

"Did you tie the boat away?" 

Lan., Leh., Leb., Bucks. 

fr. Pa. Ger. losbina; Ger. los binden. 


TiLL.^ By (in expressions of time). 

"I do not know my lesson now, but I will know it till to-morrow." 

Lan., Leb., Ad., Dau., Y., Bucks. 

fr. Pa. Ger. his, which is used in senes of Ger. bis and also his 

dahin, as above. 

TiLL.2 To (limit of distance). 

"We walked out till the toll-gate." 

See TiLL.i 

Bucks, Lan., Y., Ad., Cent. 

In York Corp. Chr. play. The Judgment Day, 1. 174 : "The way 

till hevene he will you wisse." 
C. — Obs. or poor. 

Tin. Tin cup. 

"Bring me some water in a tin." 

Lan., Y., Bucks, Men, Cent., Ad., Leb., Sch. 

fr. Pa. Ger hlech (Ger. hlech), which means the metal or the 

cup made of it. 
The word would never be used of a pot and of a pan, only in 

combination, as pie-tin, cake-tin. 
C. — Pot, pan or other utensil made of tin. 

To. With. 

"I want some butter to my bread." 

Lan., Leb., Dau., Bucks, Ad. 
Said to be colloquial in Scotland, 
fr. Pa. Ger. su, also Ger. 
C. — Obs., prov. or colloq. 

Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 49 

To HOME. At home. 

"She is not to home to-day." 

Lan., Sch., Lack., Bucks, Ad. 

fr. Ger. 2u House; Pa. Ger. 2u ham. 

C. — Coll. or prov. 

ToLE. Drain, culvert. 

"I'll make a tole to carry the water off." 

Lan., Leb., Dau., Ad. 

f r. Pa. Ger. dol, not in Home ; Ger, dohle. [ ?] 

Towards noon. Southward. 

"My house looks towards noon." 

Lan., Bucks, Y., Cent. 

fr. Pa. Ger. gaga midog; Ger. gegen mittag. 

The phrases "Towards three o'clock" = S. W. ; "towards 

morning" = E. ; "towards sunset" = W., are also used. 

Under through. Underneath, with idea of motion. 

"We went under through the fence." 

Lan., Bucks, Ches., Leb., Sch., Berks. 
Pa. Ger. undr dorch; Ger. unter durch. 

Tut (tilt). Small paper bag. 

"Shall I put the candy in a tutf" 

Lan., Leb., Y., Sch., Cum., Berks, Ad. 

Pa. Ger. tud; Ger. DUte. 


50 Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 

Ugly, adv. Badly, severely. 

"He thrashed him ugly." 

Lan., Ad., Y., Cent., Phila., Bucks, Leb. 
Pa. Ger. weesht; Ger. wiist. 

See Make ugly. 

Hoover, p. 149: "... McClellan was getting thrashed ugly 
at Richmond." 


Under the weather. Slightly ill. 

"John's been under the weather lately." 

Lan., Y., Leb., Camb., Mif., Bucks. 

Pa. Ger. undr 'm wed'r. Query : Adopted from English. 

C.— Colloq. 

Updump. Upset. 

"Don't rock the boat or you'll updump it." 

Lan., Ches., Dau., Bucks, Montg., Ad. 

Used to could. Used to be able. 

"I used to could walk thirty miles a day." 

Dau., Lan., Ches., Y., Bucks, Mercer. 

Wait on. Wait for. 

"ril go along if you wait on me a few minutes." 

Lan., Y., Dau., Bucks, Per., Mer., Ad. 
f r. Pa. Ger, wawrtd uf; Ger. warten auf. 

Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 51 

Want out. Want to get out. 

"Open the door, I want out." 

Lan., Dau., Bucks, Per., Men, Ad. 

"Want in," "want up," "want down," all used. 

fr. Pa. Ger. ivill 'naus; Ger. will hinaus. 


Were. Was. 

"I were there too." 

Lan., Leb., Berks, Y., Cent. 
Pa. Ger. wor; Ger. war. 

What for. What kind of. 

"What for book is that?" 

Pa. Ger. wos fr'n; Ger. was filr ein. 

C. — Used by Pa. Germans and their neighbors. 

With, adv. Along. 

"I forget whether he was with or not." 
Lan., Leb., Dau., Berks, 
fr. In Pa. Ger. as in Ger., mit is sometimes used without an 


Wonder, v. Surprise, used reflexively. 

"It wonders me that he stays so long." 
Bucks, Ad., Y., Leb., Sch., Lan. 
fr. Pa. Ger. 's zuundrt mich; Ger. es zvundert mich. 
C. says that wonder was formerly used with a reflexive dative, 
but in its proper sense. 

52 Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 

WooTS, or WooTSY (woots). Pig; the second form used 

as diminutive. 

"Drive the wootsy into the pen." 

Lan., Leb., Mif., Y., Ad., Dau. 

fr. Pa. Ger. wuts. Possibly onomatopoetic. Cf. Peepy. 


Worst way. Very much. 

"He wants to see me the worst way." 

Lan., Leb., Dau., Lack., Sch., Blair, Per., Ches., Montg., Camb., 

Phila., Berks, Mer., Ad. 
St.— Slang. 

Young. Recently fallen, of snow. 

"The fields were covered with young snow." 

Lan., Ad., Y., Cum. 

C. gives "young ice," quoting Greely. 

YousE. You (plural). 

"Did youse see them yesterday?" 
Also used in Ontario, Canada. (Penetang.) 


The sixth annual meeting of the German American Society- 
was held in the hall of the German Society, corner of Marshall and 
Spring- Garden Streets, Monday, January 6th, 1908. The first 
part of the meeting was devoted to the business affairs of the 
Society, among which was the election of officers. The following 
officers were elected ; 

President, Dr. Albert Bernheim, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Vice Presidents, L. P. Hennighausen, Baltimore, Md. ; H. 
M. von Starkloff, St. Louis, Mo. ; C. F. Huch, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Editor, Marion Dexter Learned, Box 10, College Hall, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Treasurer, Hans Weniger, 437 Arch Street, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Secretary and Business Manager, Chas. H. Breitbarth, 5821 
Chester Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The activity of the Society during the year was centered 
very largely in the publication of matter relating to the history 
of the Germans in America, through its official publication, Ger- 
man American Annals. Among the more important contri- 
butions were "The Diary of Rev. Andrew Rudman, from July 
26th, 1696, to June 14th, 1697," translated and edited by Luther 
Anderson, A. M. ; "German Archives as Sources of German 
American History," by Joseph G. Rosengarten; and "Francis 
Daniel Pastorius, the Founder of Germantown," a series of arti- 
cles by the editor, M. D, Learned. 

Among a number of new articles accepted for publication 


54 The G erman- American Historical Society 

are "The History of the German in Texas," "The Germans in 
Missouri," "German Music in Philadelphia," as well as a num- 
ber of more occasional articles. 

On nomination of the first President of the Society, Dr. C. 
J. Hexamer, President Theodore Roosevelt was unanimously 
elected an honorary member of the Society, and a few days later 
accepted membership in the following communication : 

The White House, 

February lo, 1908. 

My dear Sir : 

The President has received your favor of the 24th ultimo, 
with enclosed certificate of honorary membership in the German- 
American Historical Society, and requests me to assure you that 
he accepts with much pleasure. 

Conveying to you, and thru you to the members of the So- 
ciety, the President's thanks for the compliment thus paid him, 
believe me. 

Very truly yours, 

Wm. Loeb, Jr., 
Secretary to the President. 
Dr. Albert Bernheim, 

141 1 Spruce Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

The business part of the meeting was followed by a banquet, 
at which some thirty-five ladies and gentlemen participated. The 
following toasts were responded to : 

"The Welcome Guests," Dr. Albert Bernheim. who also was 
toastmaster for the evening. 

The German- American Historical Society 55 

"The Germans in Pennsylvania," Hon. Samuel W. Penny- 
packer, former Governor of Pennsylvania. 

"Research in German American History as a Patriotic Mo- 
tive of American Citizenship," Dr. C. J. Hexamer, President 
German American Alliance. 

"The Germans in International Commerce/' Mr. Rudolph 
Blankenburg (in the absence of Mr. Blankenburg, this toast was 
responded to by Mr. Henry Lierz). 

"The German American Historical Society," Arno Leon- 
hardt, President of the Junger Mannerchor. 

"The German Language in America," M. D. Learned (in 
Professor Learned's absence on account of illness, the toast was 
answered by Professor K. D. Jessen). 

"The German Press in America," Henry Detreux, Presi- 
dent of the Harmonic Society. 

"The German Emperor," Dr. C. J. Hexamer. 

"President Roosevelt," Legationsrat Werner Hagen, the 
Imperial German Consul. 

This was generally recognized as the most successful an- 
nual meeting in the history of the Society, and a number of new 
members have already been added to the list. It is hoped that 
the list, both of annual and life members, may reach the full 
limit of two hundred during the present year. 

The publication plans of the Society are not intended to 
conflict with the purposes of either State or Local Societies 
throughout the country. Articles will be gladly received from 
historical societies or historical investigators throughout the coun- 
try. It is the policy of the German American Annals to pub- 
lish materials of permanent value, and the Society solicits such 
from all who are active in the field. Carefully written biogra- 
phies of notable German Americans are particularly welcome. 

Ex-Governor Pennypacker referred to one of the descend- 
ants of Germantown, now a resident of Philadelphia, who, in his 
article on the State Capitol, had cast aspersions upon his German 

56 The German- American Historical Society 

ancestry. The speaker then traced the significance of rehgious 
views of the Anabaptists for the history of Pennsylvania and the 
part played in it by the Quakers. He referred to the late Dr. 
William Pepper (German Pfeffer), Dr. Joseph Leidy (German 
Lfidig) and Emily von Schamberg as typical examples of Ger- 
mans in Pennsylvania life. 

Dr. C. J, Hexamer then pointed out the importance of Ger- 
man American historical research as an incentive to American 
citizenship, referring to the fact that too little account has been 
taken of the Germans by writers on American history. He also 
paid a glowing tribute to the influence of the German Emperor 
in the relations of Germany and America. 

Legationsrat Werner Hagen, the German Consul of Phila- 
delphia, replied with a fine appreciation of the efforts of Presi- 
dent Roosevelt, who, like the German Emperor, had contributed 
much to bring about a cordial understanding between Germany 
and America and thus laid a firmer basis for universal peace. 

The addresses of Mr. Arno Leonhardt and Mr. Henry 
Detreux we give below in full : 

Rede des Hcrrn Leonhardt. 

Es ist keine kleine Aufgabe vom Komitee mir gestellt wor- 
den, den Toast auf die Deutsch-Amerikanische Historische Ge- 
sellschaft zu beantworten. Obgleich hier in der Stadt der Bru- 
derliebe geboren, habe ich mich wenig um deutsch-amerikanische 
Geschichte bekiimmert und befinde ich mich darum auf einem mir 
fremden Felde. 

Ich habe viel gelesen, namentlich haben mich die Mittheilun- 
gen des Deutschen Pionier-Vereins mit seinen ausfiihrlichen Be- 
richten aus der Feder unseres Mitgliedes C. F. Huch sehr inte- 
ressirt. Unsere historische Gesellschaft ist noch jung, feiert sie 
doch heute erst ihren 6. Geburtstag. Dieselbe ist nicht zu friih 

The G erman- American Historical Society 57 

entstanden, um die unsere Deutschen interessirenden Schrift- 
stiicke, Dokumente und sonstigen Wahrzeichen aus der Ge- 
schichte vom Lande unserer Pioniere unter Pastorius bis zum 
heutigen Tage zu sammeln, niederzuschreiben und unserer Nach- 
kommenschaft zu erhalten. 1st doch in unserem Staate, und 
zwar in unserem Philadelphier Vorort Germantown, die erste 
Ansiedelung der Deutschen zu verzeichnen, und wiirde bald im 
hastenden Treiben unserer 1,500,000 Einwohner verwischt wer- 
den, wenn nicht seiche Gesellschaften wie die unserige es sich 
zur Aufgabe gemacht batten, Statistiken zu sammeln und in unser 
Archiv einzutragen. Ausser diesem Werke sollte unsere Gesell- 
schaft dahin wirken, dass die Wahrzeichen unserer Geschichte in 
der Form von Monumenten dem alltaglichen Publikum vorge- 
fiihrt werden, wie die beiden deutschen Monumente, fiir welche 
wir schon Propaganda gemacht haben — Pastorius, durch den 
Deutsch-Amerikanischen Central-Bund, und General Muhlenberg, 
durch unsere Deutsche Gesellschaft. Es ist beschamend fiir 
unser Deutschthum, dass erst jetzt, nach 50 Jahren, die ersten 
Schritte in dieser Richtung gethan werden, aber noch bescha- 
mender, dass die Mittel so langsam einkommen, dass wir voraus- 
sichtlich noch Jahre lang auf die Ausfiihrung zu warten haben 
werden. Keiner sollte zuriickstehen, dass diese beiden Werke so 
bald als moglich erstehen, dadurch fiir unser Deutschthum und 
seine Geschichte indirekt Propaganda machend. Um unserem 
deutsch-amerikanischen historischen Felde mehr Anerkennung zu 
verschaffen, miissen wir auch auf die Ausschmiickung der zwei 
Zimmer in Valley Forge hinarbeiten, welche als Beispiele deutsch- 
amerikanischer Geschichte unsern Nachkommen dienen sollen. 
Das eine im Namen des Generals von Steuben, das zweite fiir 
De Kalb, welche als deutsche Verbiindete unseres Generals Wash- 
ington so viel zur Griindung unserer grossen Republik beigetra- 
gen haben. Wenn diese Monumente errichtet sind, muss die 
Jugend aufmerksam werden und wird fragen : Warum steht Ihr 

58 The G crman- American Historical Society 

hier? Unci deutsch-amerikanische Gescliichte muss so antwor- 
ten, dass der verdiente Respekt nicht ausbleiben kann, was unsere 
deutschen Vorvater fiir Amerika gethan haben. Hat der wiss- 
begierige Theil der Jugend die Frage gestellt, wird dieselbe dann 
die Antwort in unseren Annalen suchen, in den Werken, die wir 
aus alter Zeit gerettet und unserem Archiv einverleibt haben. 
Dies ist unser heiliger Zweck, er bedeutet die Errettung unserer 
deutschen Muttersprache in diesem Lande, ihre Erhaltung fiir 
unsere deutschen Lieder, fiir unsere deutschen Kirchen, unser 
deutsches Theater, deutsche Literatur, Kunst und Wissenschaft. 
Wir sollen es zu unserer Aufgabe machen, dahin zu wirken, dass 
die historischen Unrichtigkeiten in den Schulbiichern, welche die 
Deutsch-Amerikaner behandeln, berichtigt werden, und unsern 
Vorkampfern Gerechtigkeit fiir ihre Thaten gezollt wird. Ausser 
den Kampfern in den Kolonien oder Befreiungskriegen, sollten 
die Deutschen, welche fiir unsere Union in den Krieg zogen, be- 
riicksichtigt werden ; dann was die Deutschen und ihre Nach- 
kommen fiir Antheil an Industrie und Handel, Kunst und Wis- 
senschaft, Technik, Landwirthschaft u. s. w. genommen haben. 
Unsere Gesellschaft sollte Leute, welche die Fahigkeiten, die Zeit 
und die Lust dazu haben, anregen, innerhaib der engeren Grenze 
unserer Stadt oder dem weiteren Umfang unseres Staates Penn- 
sylvanien die Spuren der deutschen Pioniere aufzusuchen und 
den Antheil, welchen die eingewanderten Deutschen und deren 
Nachkommen an der Entwickelung unseres Landes genommen 
haben, festzustellen und aufzudecken. Wir sehen ein, was fiir 
eine kolossale Arbeit wir uns auferlegt, aber — aller Anfang ist 

Nun zum Schluss. Wenn unser Junge das 21. Jahr er- 
reicht hat, wird er als Jiingling in dem Zwischenraum der 15 
Jahre wohl Gutes von sich horen lassen konnen, und damit er 
gedeihe und sein Streben von Erfolg gekront werde, fordere ich 
Sie auf , „unser Erstes" auf sein Wohl zu leeren ! 

The G erman-A mcrican Historical Society 59 

Die Rede des Herrn Detreus. 

Die Presse ist das grosse Medium, das die Reibungen und 
Kollisionen des tag-lichen Lebens und Strebens beseitigen und 
Wahrheit und Klarheit in das Wirrsal des rastlosen Schaffens der 
Neuzeit bringen soil — und wie manchen Strahl der Erleuchtung 
bringt unsere deutsch-amerikanische Presse in die Dunkelheit 
und Oede des engherzigen Lebens und Treibens gewisser Kreise, 
die ich jetzt nicht nennen will; die zu bekampfen jedoch gerade 
gegenwartig von unserem Bunde Vorbereitungen getroffen wer- 
den und worin wir fast ausschliesslich auf die Unterstiitzung 
der deutschen Presse angewiesen sind. 

Der Stand eines Zeitungsmannes ist, wie die meisten der 
hier Anwesenden wohl wissen, kein leichter. Es vergehen 
manchmal Jahre und Jahrzehnte, bis wieder einmal etwas Be- 
sonderes am Horizonte der Neuigkeitswelt auftaucht, und wah- 
rend dabei die ausserhalb der Sphare der Presse stehende ge- 
wohnliche Menschheit siisser Ruhe pflegen kann, muss gerade 
der arme Zeitungsmensch sein Gehirn anstrengen, um etwas 
Neues auf's Tapet zu bringen. 

Bismarck hat einmal gesagt, ein Zeitungsschreiber sei in der 
Regel ein Mann, der seinen Beruf verfehlt habe. Das mag ja 
von seinem Standpunkte aus ganz richtig gewesen sein. Mir 
scheint jedoch, dass es von dieser Regel bei unseren deutschen 
Zeitungen glanzende Ausnahmen gegeben hat, solche, die ihren 
Beruf mit warmem Herzen und hervorragenden Fahigkeiten ver- 
folgten und darin ihren Landsleuten mit leuchtendem Beispiele 
und grossem Erfolge vorangingen. Ich brauche nur einzelne 
Namen zu nennen — Karl Schurz, und ganz in unserer Nahe 
Dr. Kellner. 

Moge unsere deutsch-amerikanische Presse auch in Zukunft 
ein Bollwerk bilden gegen die Fluth von Unduldsamkeit und ge- 
gen unamerikanische, puritanische Engherzigkeit. Moge die- 
selbe dem Volke mit weiser Fiihrung vorangehen, wenn es gilt, 

6o The G erman- American Historical Society 

den echt amerikanischen Ausspruch „Fair play to all" in die 
Wirklichkeit zu iibertragen. 

Es wiirde, wie gesagt, zu weit fiihren und Ihre Geduld miss- 
brauchen, wollte ich mich iiber die Stellung der deutsch-amerika- 
nischen Presse der englischen gegeniiber verbreiten, jedoch so 
weit erlauben Sie mir, mich in kurzen Worten zu aussern : Dass 
die Stellung der deutsch-amerikanischen Presse der englischen 
gegeniiber stets eine ausserst schwierige sein wird, da dieselbe 
immer in zwei Sprachen arbeiten und gegen eingewurzelte Vorur- 
theile kampfen muss. 

Mogen die Vertreter der deutsch-amerikanischen Presse nie 
vergessen, dass dieselben nicht nur dazu da sein sollen, um der 
Sensationssucht des Publikums zu frohnen, sondern immer ein- 
gedenk der Mission bleiben, die sie in diesem Lande zu erfiillen 



Vereinigung alter deutscher Studenten in Amerika. 

Die Vereinigung alter deutscher Studenten in Amerika hat 
wiederum ein neues Reis an ihrem Stamme gezeitigt, namlich 
den Zweigverein Philadelphia. Schon seit Jahren, selbst vor Be- 
stehen des Central- Verbandes wurden in Philadelphia von ehe- 
maligen deutschen Akademikern Versuche gemacht, einen aka- 
demischen Verein zu griinden, aber ohne den ersehnten Erfolg. 
Es ist endlich den Bemiihungen des Herrn Professor Dr. Marion 
D. Learned und Dr. Albert Bernheim, Mitgliedern des New 
Yorker Central- Verbandes, gelungen, einen Zweigverein in Phil- 
adelphia in's Leben zu rufen. Derselbe wurde am 26. Oktober 
1907 offiziell durch die Herren Dr. Carl Beck und Dr. Carl 
Pfister aus New York in der Halle der Deutschen Gesellschaft 
eroffnet. Ein frohlicher Kommers hielt die Mitglieder noch 
lange zusammen, wobei auch in einem Telegramm des Geburts- 
tages des Prasidenten Theodore Roosevelt gedacht wurde. Das 
Prasidium lag in den Handen der auswartigen Gaste Herren 
Beck und Pfister, sowie der Herren Learned und Bernheim. Mit 
Ungeduld erwartete man die Einladung zur zweiten Zusammen- 
kunft. In Folge der Schwierigkeiten, ein geeignetes Lokal zu 
finden, dauerte es langer als man anfangs erwartet hatte. Der 
Zweigverein, der inzwischen auf iiber 40 Mitglieder angewachsen 
war, hielt seine zweite Zusammenkunft im alten Ratskeller am 
27. Januar ab. Die auf dem Programm vorgesehene Beamtenwahl 
ergab das folgende Resultat : Prasident, Albert Bernheim; Vize- 
Prasidenten, Marion Learned, Hobart A. Hare, William B. Van 
Lennep, Judson Daland und Hubert Meier; korrespondirender 
Sekretar, Max J. Walter; Schatzmeister, Max Kuttner. Das 


62 Philadelphia Ziveig 

Prasidium des Kommerses lag in den Handen der Herren Albert 
Bernheim, Marion D. Learned und Max J. Walter. Lustige und 
ernste Erinnerungen an die einstige Alma Mater jenseits des At- 
lantischen Ozeans hielt die Teilnehmer noch lange in hochst 
frohlicher Stimmung vereint. 

Max J. Walter, korr. Sekretar. 

(Scrman Qmcrican Qnnals 




Historical, Literary, Linguistic, Educational and Commercial Relations 


Germany and America 


The German American Historical Society 
The National German American Alliance 
The Union of Old German Students in America 



University of Pennsylvania. 


H. C. G. Brandt, 

Hamilton College. 
W. H. Carpenter, 

Columbia University. 
W. H. Carruth, 

University of Kansas. 
Hermann Collitz, 

Johns Hopkins University. 
Starr W. Cutting, 

University of Chicago. 
Daniel K. Dodge. 

University of Illinois. 
A. B. Faust, 

Cornell University. 
KuNO Francke, 

Harvard University. 
Adolph Gerber, 

Late of Earlham College. 

Julius Goebel, 

Late of Harvard University. 
J. T. Hatfield, 

Northwestern University. 
W. T. Hewett, 

Cornell University. 
A. R. Hohlfeld, 

University of Wisconsin. 
Hugo K. Schilling, 

University of California. 
H. Schmidt-Wartenberg, 

University of Chicago. 
Hermann Schoenfeld, 

Columbian University. 
Calvin Thomas, 

Columbia University. 
H. S. White, 

Harvard University. 

Henry Wood, Johns Hopkins University. 

New Series, Vol. 6. 


Old Series, Vol. 10. 

published by 


Chas. H. Breitbarth, Business Manager, 


ffierim : mew l!?otft : 


XonDon : 

Xe(p3ifl : 

parte : 

©erman Qmcrican Clnnats 



New Series, March and April Old Series, 

Vol. VI. No. 2. 1908. Vol. X. No. 2. 


The Founder of Germantown. 

By Marion Dexter Learned. ,.^ 




It is natural to inquire into the private life of a public man 
at any time, but it is particularly instructive to do so in the case 
of a man of the most liberal education, when he steps from the 
aula of the university into the wigwam of the wild man in the 
primeval forests of the New World. 

The motives leading to this apparently abrupt change of con- 
dition were not altogether single, nor without reflection and prep- 
aration in the case of Pastorius. The dominant motive was the 
desire to escape the turmoil of the Old World by finding a quiet 
refuge in the West. Closely linked with this selfish desire was 
the higher motive of bearing the message of Christian truth tr 
the Red Men of America. This was the attitude of Quietists oi 
that time, and common to Pietist, Mennonite and Quaker alike — 
the spirit that lives on in these sects, especially the German 

Quietists of Pennsylvania, to the present day. 


66 Francis Daniel Pastoriiis 

All efforts to find a picture of Pastorius or any member of 
his family have proved futile. It is possible to reconstruct an 
outline sketch of his appearance from scanty notes found here 
and there in his works and in the letters of Israel Pemberton, 
already given above, particularly the following: 

"J long to be with thee again tho some times J smile to myself 
to think how J told my father when first J saw him. J doubted he 
would prove an angry master he asked me why so J told him J 
thought so by his nose." 

While this does not tell how the nose of the schoolmaster 
turned, it is quite in keeping with Pastorius' description of him- 
self, which is as follows: 

"The Compiler of this little Manuscript is a Melancholy- 
Cholerick Complexion, and therefore (juxta Culpepper, p. 194) 
gentle, given to Sobriety, Solitary, Studious, doubtful, shame-faced, 
timerous, pensive, constant & true in action, of a slow wit with' 
obliviousness : &c. 


He can' 

any do him wrong, 
e can't remember't long." ^ 

This self-analysis would seem to warrant the schoolboy 
metaphor of Israel Pemberton, when he speaks of his teacher, 
D. P. Pastorius, as "D. P. Sowerness," in his letter to Richard 

The first five years of Pastorius' life in Germantown were 
busy with the work of settling the German colony, and, in spite 
of moments of despondency and discouragement, the jurist- 
pioneer seems to have been fairly contented with his lot in the 
little German Town. He saw, one after another, new houses 
rise in the clearing, and the smoke of comfort and contentment 
rise from freshly built chimneys, heralding the progress of the 
German settlement. 

* Cf. Talia Qualia Medicinalia, Artificialia & Naturalia, p. 2. 


• ; i R I r U A I, I I, SJ, 

hf 1 -- 1 1 o n 1 n u t S c K i.H r o K I a I « 
C O L 1, K C T U S 

i , A I. II 11 M 1 OMil Al t V H M 

: COM M t' N 1 C A 1' V S 

j'i A B V 

^1 I.TIIIORK' AD^MO !• \-. l-ORia f C 

^M r ■ \. * 

.CoMtl-k At SCOLAKLliA ^^ 1 ■. . . im> k K > L- 


-1. ^^'"••'■V.- i 

TvMi Apa- 


Title 1*age of Melchior Adam Pastorus' 
"Fasciculus Rvthmorum ". 

Francis Daniel Pastoriiis 67 

It was a lonely life for the agent of the German Company with 
his little personnel of servants in these far-off western wilds, but 
with no companion to share the fears and hopes of the passing 
years. What memories of his early years still lived in his fancy, 
we do not learn from his personal notes or reminiscences. 
Whether any fair figure out of his student days still passed like a 
guardian spirit athwart his dreams, he does not tell. But one 
fugitive song has come down to us in his writings, which seems 
to date from this earlier period of the days in Europe and which 
may be the one witness that his life was not utterly void, at least 
of memories of romance of the lighter vein. This song runs : 

Darf man dich Corinna kiissen 

So kom mein Liebe zu mir her, 
Ich werd es wohl am besten wissen, 

Das war die antwort ungefahr. 
Sie Hesse zwar u. sagte Nein, 
Und gab sich doch gedultig drein. 

Lass o mein Kind ! bleibe stehen, 

Lauff schone, schrie ich, nicht zu weit. 

Lass uns Liebe werck begehen, 
Wir sind in unsrer besten zeit. 

Sie seuffzte zwar ! u. sagte Nein, 

Und gab sich doch gedultig drein. 

So halte nun und lass dich kiissen, 
Kein mensche soil in dieser Stadt 

Nicht der geringste darvon wissen, 
Dass jemand dich gekiisset hat. 

Sie zuckte zwar u. sagte Nein, 

Und gab sich doch gedultig drein. 

Hiemit so zog ich meine strasse, 

Daher ich neulich konien war, 
Erfuhr in dessen bester massen, 

Von der Corina wunderbahr, 
Dass, Ja bey vielen pfliget Nein 
Und Nein so viel als Ja zu seyn. 

68 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

Come, Corinna, let me kiss thee ! 

Come, my dearest, to me here ! 
I would know why joy should miss thee, 

I would have thine answer clear ! 
Smiling sweetly said she, "No," 
Then demurely yielded so. 

"Stay here near me, oh, my treasure," 

Cried I ; "run not off so far ; 
Let us try love's luring measure, 

While our lives the richest are." 
Sighing deeply said she, "No," 
Then demurely yielded so. 

Raise thy head and let me kiss thee ! 

Not a man shall ever learn 
How with longing I caress thee. 

How my lips to thine do turn. 
Then she trembled and said, "No," 
But demurely yielded so. 

Often since whene'er I wander, 

Whether far or near the way. 
O'er the lesson do I ponder 

From Corinna learned that day. 
"No" is sometimes backwardness, 
"No" is sometimes meant for "Yes." ^ 

In the year 1688, November 6, Pastorius married Ennicke 
Klostermanns, the daughter of Jan Klostermanns,^ alias Johannes 
Zu Neuenhaus and Ennicke von Nensheim, who already had by 

' This translation was made by Ex-Governor S. W. Pennypacker and set 
to music by Arthur L. Church, who published both the English and German 
text with the music. Mr. Church kindly presented the present writer with 
a copy of this print. 

'In the Beschreibung, p. 60, Pastorius gives this account: "Nun, meinen 
particulier Zustand anbelangende / berichte kiirtzlichen : Dasz Anno 1688. 
den 26. Novemb. ich mich allhier zu Germanton an Jungfrau Annam Klos- 
termannin / Herrn Henrici Klostermanns / Medicinse Doctoris aus dem 
Hertzogthum Cleve gebiirtig verheurathet habe." This account does not agree 
with that of the Beehive, unless we are to supply "Schwester" instead of 
"Tochter" after "Henrici Klostermanns" in the passage. 

Francis Daniel Pastorins 69 

her first husand two children, Willm von Nensheim, ahas 
Spikermanns, living at Speltrop, and Gertrud von Nensheim, who 
had married and gone to live in Amsterdam. Ennicke von Nens- 
heim-KIostermanns had by her second husband, Jan Kloster- 
manns, three children: Jan Klostermanns, already deceased, 
Heinrich Klostermanns, then living in Heussen, and Ennicke 
Klostermanns, the wife of Pastorius. Ennicke Klostermanns- 
Pastorius was born December 15, 1658, in Miillheim-on-the- 

Account has already been given of the personal effects which 
Pastorius brought with him, in 1683, to America. It appears 
from his Res propriac,^ that Ennicke was also well equipped for 
setting up a new household when Pastorius married her, as the 
following list of her personal effects at the time of their marriage 
will show : 

An Silbergeld. 36. Reichsthaler oder io£ i6s. disslandisch 
An Kleidern: 

Ein Schwartz seiden Kaper, 12s. 

3. reichleiber, 

I. paar zeugerne Ermel, 

1. tiichern hembdrock. 

2. Schwartz gronrasch Leibergen. 

1. Schwartz gronraschen Schiirtz, 

2. blaue rock, 

I. blau leinen Schiirtz. 
6. Schiirtzeltiicher. 

3. paar gestrickte striimpf. 
3. paar gestrickte striimpf, 

2 paar schue, und i. paar panto feln. 

An leinen Zeug. 

ein yard Nesseltuch, 

II. Hollandsche Elen fein liiien, 
8. hembder. 

8. nastiicher. 

3. bettlacken. 

4. Servieten, 

* Cf. Res Propriae, p. 23- 

70 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

5. halstiicher. 

4. Untersten. 

6. Kroplappen, 

5. Sonentiicher. 
5. Kappen. 

18. Dreckmiitzen. 

An Hansgerath: 
eine neue kist, 
I. Spiiirad samt haspel. 

An Biichern: 

Jerem. Dyckens wiirdiger Tischgenoss. 12s. 
Saldeni Christliche Kinder-schuel. 12s. 
Christliches Gedenckbiichlein. 24s. 

It appears also in the records, that Ennicke had real estate 
in Germantown. She bought in all fifty acres of land in Ger- 
mantown, as follows: Thirty acres of the German (Frankfurt) 
Company next to Isaac Dilbeck, according to an agreement dated 
August 18, 1689; further twenty acres next to Jan Doeden from 
the same company by an agreement dated August 21, 1689. This 
land was purchased on terms of a perpetual rental of six shillings 
and five pence to be paid annually on the first day of the sixth 
month. ^ 

The issue of the union of Francis Daniel Pastorius and 
Ennicke Klostermanns was two sons: Johann Samuel Pas- 

" In the Res Propriae we find the following : 

Enneke Klostermanns, nun Pastorius hat in Germantown an land fiinffzig 
ackers, oder ein gagtzes Stattlos, gelegen zwischen Isaac Dilbeck und Jan 
Doeden. Nembl : 30 Ackers, neben Isaac Dilbeck aufF Ewigen Erbpacht 
von der Franckfurtn. Compagnie vor isd. alt Engln. gelds, laut Contracts de 
dato. d. 18. Augusti 1689. [ : Die Copey darvon folgt pag. 34.] Ferner 
20. ackers, neben Jan Doeden, auch auff Ewigen Erbpacht von gedr. Compe. 
vor 4. Schill ; lod. diszlandischer wehrung, laut Contracts de dato den 21. 
Aug. 1689 [ : Dessen Copey sihe pagina 36 : ] Jst also der vollige Erbpacht 
von diesem los oder 50. ackers Jahrlich 6. Schill, und sd. Pensylvanischen 
gelds, den iten. tag des 6. Mon. 

Jetztgemeldes los hat im Dorff 40=acker. 

Jetztgemeldes los hat im Seitland lo^acker. 

Die breite darvon im Dorff ist I4=ruth 4 Fusz. 

Die breite darvon im Seitland 7=ruthen 4 fusz. 

Die Liingte im Dorff ist 
im Seitland. 

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hirr «r;«mt)t« eif, unb Hn« (!ll»/?lmtB» 

Letter of Francis Daniel Pastorius to his Parents. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius Ji 

torius, born in Germantown, March 30, 1690, and Heinrich Pas- 
torius, born in Germantown, April i, 1692. Ennicke suffered 
from the effects of the birth of this second son all the rest of her 
life, as it appears, from the lack of proper surgical care. The 
name Pastorius has come down through direct descendants of 
these two sons to the present time, as will be seen in the genealog- 
ical chart at the end of this work. 

Although greatly concerned for the education of his two 
sons, Pastorius recognized the economic conditions in Pennsyl- 
vania and the importance of a practical breadwinning trade, and 
accordingly had each of his boys learn such a trade. The elder 
son, John Samuel, at the age of sixteen years (1706), learned 
the weaver's trade with Paul Kastner, and afterwards carried on 
this trade in the house of his father, who furnished him the out- 
fit. In 171 6, August 15, John Samuel married Hannah Lijckens, 
the youngest daughter of Jan Liickens, in open meeting in Ger- 
mantown. The younger son Henry, likewise learned the trade 
of weaving from his brother, but in 171 3 took up shoemaking 
by himself. At the approach of winter, 1714, he went to Bombay 
Hook, and remained there and in the Duck Creek region until 
1 71 6. By a curious coincidence both John Samuel and Henry 
narrowly escaped death by the fall of a horse.^ 

The names of both John Samuel and Henry Pastorius appear, 

'The original in the Res Propriae runs as follows: 

Mein altester Sohn Joh. Samuel gebohren ut supra, pag. 8, den 30. 
Mertz 1690. Icrnte ano 1706 das Weben von Paul Kastner, u. trieb es hernach 
in seines Vatters haus, der ihm die gerathschaff[t] verschaffte. 

Ano 1716. den 15. Aug. heurathete er Jan Liickens jiingste tochtcr 
Hanah in offentlichr Versamblung zu Germantown. Da Er eben zu vor mit 
einem fferd fallende den fusz sehr verrenckt hatte, u. den 20, dito bekam ers 

Mein jiingster Sohn Heinrich, gebohren, ut. supra, pag. 8, den i. April 
1692. lernte von seinem bruder das Weben; und ano 1713. von selbst das 
Schuemachen. Aiio 1714. geg winter gieng er nach Bumby Hook u. 
hielt sich deselbst und an der Duck Creek auff bisz ins Vorjahr. Ano 1716. 
hatte er in der May-fair zu Philadelphia einen elcnden fall, stiirtzte mit dem 
fferd. Da daii dieses sofort todt blieb und er auch selbst vortodt auffge- 
nonien wurde. Doch schenckte ihm Gott vor diszmahl das leben, welches 
er ja danchbarl erkeiien, und sich rechtschaffcn bessern mag. 

72 Francis Daniel Pas tonus 

together with those of their father and mother (the last two in 
Francis Daniel Pastorius' hand), on the marriage certificate of 
Henry Kunders and Catharine Strepers signed at the Abington 
Monthly Meeting, 7 da. 7 mo., 1710.'^ Henry Pastorius' name 
appears later on the petition for the renewal of the Charter of 
Germantown,® under Thomas Penn. 


The correspondence in the Beschreibung shows that Pastor- 
ius kept alive his friendship with a number of his old friends in 
Germany during the first years of his life in Pennsylvania. The 
letters written to his old preceptor, Schumberg, and to Mode- 
lius, rector of the school at Windsheim, contain much important 
information concerning the new country. 

In addition to the Latin verses concerning the vanity of the 
world, he dedicated his first work, printed after his arrival in 
America, Vicr Tract'dtlcin, to Schumbergius.'* 

' Cf. Photographic reproduction in the Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania, "Marriage Certificates," Vol. 2. The certificate is printed in Publica- 
tions of the Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania, Vol. II, pp. 66-67. 

'The original petition is in Historical Society of Pennsylvania. It begins 
thus : "To the Honorable Thomas Penn Esquire one of the Proprietors of the 
Province of Pensilvania, &c, the Humble Petition of the Inhabitants of Ger- 
mantownship," and is signed by forty-three petitioners, with "Henry Pas- 
torius" at the head of the third and last column of names. 

' The dedication is in Latin and runs as follows : 

Ad Praenobilem & Eruditissimum Virum ac Dominum TOBIAM 
SCHUMBERGUIM Senatorem Windsheimensem Amicum singulari animi 
cultu devenerandum : 

Amatissimc Schumbcrgi! 

Pnimitias Lucubrationum mearum & Fundamentum subsequnturas in eri- 
genda & cultivanda vera Religione, Tuse Prudenti Dominationi vel ideo 
dedicare in animum induxi, ut si forte me in errore aliquo deprehensum 
esse intellexeris, mutare me commone facias. Testem autem produce ipsum 
Salvatorem meum Dominum JESUM Christum, quod non sugillandi aut 
injuriandi animo, sed nudse simplicisque veriratis [sic!] indagandae gratia, 
calamum inmanus assumpserim, rum lugubrem nimis Ecclesiae Christianae 
statum mecum penitius perpendi advertique Gentes venisse in haereditatem 
Domini, ac omnis Generis Feras Vineam Christi depavisse. Id quod jam 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 73 

In the letter to Rector Georg Leonhard Model (Modelius), 
he exhibits a keen interest in the importance of the life of the 
Indians as an object lesson for civilized Europeans, and gives 
an interesting description of the Red Men as he saw them in 

Other letters from his correspondence with members of the 
German Company, and with his father, show that he kept in 
touch with affairs in the Fatherland. The letters of Pastorius' 
sons to their grandfather, and the latter's long and detailed 
account of his life, written in reply, form one of the most inter- 
esting parts of the Bcschrcibung, and exhibit the gentle affection 
still linking the Colonial offspring to the old home beyond the 

It is apparent, also, from the records and events of German- 
town, that Pastorius was on friendly terms with his fellow- 
countrymen in the little German Town. He speaks of these Ger- 
man friends as among those who were especially kind to him 
during his severe illness. In a passage in the Beehive, he men- 
tions Jacob Tellner as one of his friends : 

"J endeavoured at Spare times to make this present Hive on a 
Quire of fine Paper, which a friend of mine [Jacob Tellner:] depart- 
ing for Europe did give me." 

Pastorius dedicated at least two poems to Tellner upon the 

dudum multi pietate & vita Carissimi Viri doluerunt, & adhuc omnes Boni 
passim dolent. 

Ut vero, Vir Doctissime ! instituti mei fincm mentemq; tanto penitius 
percipias, admonitum te velim, ut Christi Domini, eiisq ; Apostolorum 
Praecepta diligenter omnium Hominum Statutariis commentis e diametro 
opponas persuasumq ; tibi habeas quod contrariis talifer sibi invicem oppositis 
Veritas ipsa ultro elucescet. Et tu jam num cam corde manuq ; prehcnsam 
tenebis. Et tunc abunde mihi credes quod omncs Innovatores & contradic- 
tores Mandatorum DEI, aliquando coram Tbrono extremi Judicis nullatcnus 
subsistent, sicut ii qui JESU jussa sunt secuti ; Hunc ergo solum tu ama 
cordicitus, ejus Dicta & jussa observa, Veritatem dilige, & in Ipso bene vive & 
vale ! non immemor ejus, qui in hisce, extremis finibus Terrae quotidie memor 
est tui, morieturq ; tibi ter lidus 

Germanopoli I Jan. 1690. 

Franciscus Daniel Pastorius. 

74 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

latter's departure for Europe. The first is inscribed: Hacc ad 
Jac. Tellnercm aeuropaeantcm; the second with the superscrip- 
tion: Ad eiindem ( :Jac. Telhierem) runs thus: 

Nach dem Krachen nach dem Knallen, 
Nach dem Doiiern, nach dem Schallen 
folgt der helle Sonen-schein. 

Man musz durch das Wetter dringen, 
Will es heute nicht gelingen 
Jacob! es wird morgen seyn. 

Darumb ! lass nicht ab von Hoffen, 

Konit Errettung, Du hasts droffen ; 

Was Gott will ist Gliick u. Heyl. 

Dei Voluntas mea felicitas. 

Haec ego propere, Tu prospere. 

Vale ac Salva; [ei] iterum iterumque."^ 


After rumbling, after roaring, 
After thunder and downpouring, 
Follows oft the clear sunshine. 

Men must forth whate'er the weather, 
And to-day must forth together, 
Jacob ! Up the morn is fine. 

Be not then so sad and moping, 
Dawns the freedom you are hoping, 
Comes another brighter mood 
What God wills is luck and good. 

The character and learning of Pastorius, as well as his offi- 
cial position as Agent of the German Company and founder of 
the German Colony, brought him into contact with the leading 

°a Printed by permission from the original manuscript in the possession 
of Ex-Governor S. W. Pennypacker, whose English translation is subjoined 
to the original. 



2. Dc omniDm San£ioruin Vitis 
^ IT. Dcornnin:n Pontificxini Starjtis 
\ III. De CorKlioium Decifionibus 
, IV. De Epilcoois 8c Patriarchis Confiaft*- 
i tinopolitcinis. 

^ :4>a^ it't : 

2. Ten 2iUcr p>^p|tc (BcfcQ 2:tnful>vuna 
S.Von ^cr £onciIicn Snitt/'Scpivung* 
4. \3v>ii Ocp.en Btfd^^ffcn ur»^ Patriafcfecft 

3iun 0)runbe 

i ©cr Funfftfsbui nod)fcrner ^(lrallf 

i prs:rr/itfiret, 


PAStORIUN. ]. 11. L. 

\ ®^:un^ an^ckgtcn / unD wm nut ^utvtn 

' Succcfs aufgeVnben ^^tabt: 

JnmChrifii M.DCXC. 

Title Page of Francis Daniel Pastorius' " Tracta 


Francis Daniel Pasforius 75 

men in the Province, with some of whom he formed a life-long 

Thomas Lloyd. 

On the journey across the ocean, Pastorius made the ac- 
quaintance of the Welsh physician, Thomas Lloyd, whose per- 
sonality and learning strongly attracted the German jurist. The 
first bond of sympathy seems to have been the knowledge of the 
Latin language which enabled both of them to carry on conver- 
sation. Lloyd had studied at Jesus College, Oxford,^*^ and 
learned the continental pronunciation of Latin, so that he and 
Pastorius, the German, could readily understand each other. 

"Alone with him, I could in Latin then commune : 

Which tongue he did pronounce right in our German way." 

The friendship thus begun in a foreign tongue on board the 
ship America, while crossing the Atlantic, continued till the death 
of Lloyd in 171 3, and the memory of his Welsh friend was 
kept alive by Pastorius in poetic tributes which he dedicated to 
Lloyd's daughters, Rachel (Preston), Hannah (Hill) and Mary 
(Norris), after their father's death. These poetic memories 
were still accessible to Watson in a separate manuscript, when 
he wrote his Annals of Philadelphia in the Olden Time, but seem 
to have disappeared into private hands or to have been lost since 
that time. Fortunately, the Beehive has preserved many of these 
verses, which contain important information concerning the rela- 
tions of Lloyd and Pastorius. 

In a long prose preamble Pastorius recounts the mercies of 
God, and exhorts the daughters of Thomas Lloyd to join him 
in thanksgivings to the Most High, on the anni\ersary of their 
arrival in Pennsylvania. As special mercies he makes mention of 

'"Cf. John Jay Smith, Letters of Dr. Richard Hill and His Children 
1854, and Charles Perring Smith, Mss. Mem. of the Carpenter Family (in 
the Historical Society of Pennsylvania). 

76 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

their escape ''from the Cruel, Enslaving Turks, once supposed 
to be at our heels/' the Providential care which has protected 
them these one and thirty years, the kindness of William Penn 
"as a Compassionate Father for his unskillful Children," "keep- 
ing us unarmed creatures all along in ease & Peace, making as 
it were the Indians our Charissimos or Brethren." 

A Token of Love and Gratitude. 

Just one and thirty years, or (says one, J know who,) 

Eleven thousand and Three hundred Twenty two 

Whole Days & Nights are past, since we arrived here 

At Phi-la-del-phi-a, where ye three Sisters dear, 

Jn Love together link'd, still arm in arm do hold 

Each other as they paint the Charities of old. 

Should mine Arithmetick proceed, & multiply, 

(Like God his Blessings does,) it would (Be pleas'd to try, 

And pardon when ye find an overly mistake,) 

Of Minuts, Seconds call'd, most thousand Millions make. 

Thus long ye have been here! and ev'ry Moment he 

(Or if this Web of Time in smaller Thrums can be 

Divided,) has bestow'd some Benefits on you. 

Brave husbands. Store of Goods, & hopeful Children too. &c. 

Oh ! that my slender Quill could further set in Ranks 

His Graces to our Souls before your eyes, that Thanks 

Might as of one heart rise to him the Holy One. 

And like pure Jncense yield sweet Savour at his Throne : 

Where, with the Cherubims, and Spirits of Just Men, 

Your Parents worship him, & that not now & then. 

As we poor Mortals do, Confin'd below the Sky 

To Faint & Weakness ; but always, Jncessantly. 

John De la Val with them his Strength about this bends. 

And all Eternity in Hallelu — Jahs spends. 

Your Brother Mordecai, (J speak what J believe,) 

And those your tender Babes, who left this Vale of Grief, 

Of Sorrows & of Tears, to Heaven's Majesty 

He his Te Deum sings, they their Hosanna cry. 

There they expect, that ye and your Relations may 

Depart in due Time, out of these Tents of Clay, 

Jnto the Mansions, which the Lord prepar'd above. 

For all his Followers, that live & die in Love. 

Like Thomas Lloyd has done ; whom God there does regard, 

And in his Offspring here his Faithfulness Reward. 

Now, notwithstanding he for you (his Daughters) longs 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 77 

To mix your Melodies with his Celestial Songs ; 

Yet I say, Tarry ye ! let me the first fall Sick, 

Ascend & meet him in my last Climacterick, 

Or LXIIIth year of age, J am in, and almost out. 

I'm far from Flattering! and hope ye read my mind, 

Who can't, nor dare forget a Ship-Mate true & kind. 

As he your Father was to me, (an Alien,) 

My Lot being newly cast among such English men, 

Whose Speech J thought were Welsh, their words a Canting Tune, 

Alone with him J could in Latin then Commune : 

Which Tongue he did pronounce right in our German way, 

Hence presently we knew, what he or J would say. 

Moreover, to the best of my Rememberance, 

We never disagreed, nor were at Variance ; 

Because God's sacred Truth, (whereat we both did aim,) 

To her indeared Friends is everywhere the same. 

Therefore 'twas he that made my Passage short on Sea, 

'Twas he & William Penn, that Caused me to stay 

In this then uncouth land, & howling Wilderness, 

Wherein J saw that J but little should possess. 

And if I would Return home to my Father's house. 

Perhaps great Riches & Preferments might espouse, &c. 

How be't nought in the World could mine Affection quench 

Towards Dear Penn, with whom J did converse in French. 

The Vertues of these Two (and Three or Four beside,) 

Have been the chiefest Charms, which forc'd me to abide. 

And though these Persons, whom J mention witli Respect, 

( Whom God as Jnstruments, did graciously elect. 

To be His Witnesses unto this faithless Age,) 

Are at a distance now from our American Stage, 

Jn which as Actors, or Spectators, we appear, 

Their Memory Survives : To me they're very near. 

J often wish J might their Patience so express 

As J the want thereof ingenuously Confess. 

Good Lord ! what Jnjuries have your said Genitor 

Of Villains, whilst he was Lieutenant-Governour ! 

Jt seem'd to me, he would his Master Equalize, 

And suffer wretched Fools his Station to despise, 

Especially George Keith, well nigh devour'd by Lice. 

But honest Thomas Lloyd has laid his Body down 

Jn Rest & Peace with God, & now does wear the Crown 

Of Immortality, of Glory & of Life, 

Laid up also for us, if lawfully we strive. 

F. D. P. 
Fortunate Deo, Fictas Fcrt Denique Palmant. 

78 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

Germantown, the 20th day of the vith mo: 1715. dedicated by 
the Papists to their S. Bernhard and being the Anniversary feast of 
our happy Arrival at the MetropoHs in this Province. 

Rachel Preston, Hannah Hill & Mary N orris. 

Your kindness wherewithal my last years Meeters met, 

Does this new monument of ship-mate-ship beget, 

Which, if it shall receive the selfsame Recompense, 

May rise as high again, & shew a twelvemonth hence 

Some Matters, as I hope, of greater Consequence, 

Unless my Jnk dry up, or my small Diligence. 

Dear Friends, another year besides the thirty-one, 

(Whereof my former Sheet,) is now elapsed and gone. 

Sith that we landed here on Philadelphia's Shore 

Our Duty then requires, to praise the Lord once more. 

For all his Goodnesses, in the Plurality, 

Which Ev'ry one of you enjoy'd as well as J : 

This Second Paper shall enumerate but some, 

Jn Grammars threefold Tense, Past, Present & to Come. 

God's Mercies over Us have been, before we were 

Produced on the Stage of this Terrestrial Sphere, 

He pour'd us out as Milk, within our Mother's Womb, 

And least that this should be yt First Stuff's walking Tomb, 

Did Crudle it like Chees, and when yet weak & fresh, 

Fill up the tender skin with Sinews, Bones & Flesh. 

Our Bodies thus prepared. He graciously would give 

A never-dying Soul, thereby to move and live. 

To move & live to Him, in Whom we live and move, 

Oh ! that we always might obedient Children prove, 

Dread, love and worship God, the only Father, which 

Beyond all Fathers is, most Bountiful and Rich. 

'Tis He and He alone, that made us what we are. 

And of His Handy-work did ever since take Care. 

By Angels, Parents, Friends ; Nay oft by wretched Foes, 

Who, aiming at the Head, could scarcely hit our Toes. 

So having been (poor things!) a Nine-month Closed in 

A dark and narrow Vault, (Concluded under Sin, 

Old Adam's Progeny,) were usher'd, that we should 

As well our Genitors, as other men behold ; 

But presently we wept, quite overwhelm'd with Fears, 

Forecasting, that we came into a Vale of Tears. 

How be't they kiss'd, they buss'd, & dandled us so long, 

Till with their Flatteries, & lulling Midwife's Song, 

They Dun'd our Juicy Ears, And in our Nurse's Lap, 

Outwearied by these Tunes, we took a Gentle Nap ; 

Title Page of Pastorius' "Alvearialia. " 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 79 

Soon wak'ned of our Trance, they laid us to the Breast, 

The which of all the Sports, (me thinks,) has been the best; 

For, when we grew some years, discerning sad from glad, 

They sent us to the School, where we learned good & bad. 

More of the last than first— Had not our Parents skill 

Surpass'd our Masters Wit, how Jll, alas ! how Jll 

Would things still be with us ? Had God withheld his Light, 

We were as blind as Moles ; But Thanks to Him ! our Sight 

Increased with our Age : Wherefore J humbly bless 

The Fountain of this Gift, the Sun of Righteousness ; 

Whose Rays, if well improv'd by us, so as they ought. 

Will warm our fainting Hearts, and grant us what we sought, 

When J from Franckenland, & you from Wales set forth, 

The one out of the East, the Other of the North,^°^ 

Jn order to Exile ourselves towards the West, 

And there to serve the Lord in Stillness, Peace & Rest. 

He gave us our desires ; For one, that rightly seeks, 

Does never miss to find. A matter of eight weeks 

Restrained in a ship, America by name, 

Jnto America [Amo(a)rica:] we came: 

A Countrey bitter-sweet, & pray how can 't be less, 

Consid'ring all the World does lie in wickedness ? 

And though perhaps some thought, that Penn-Silvania 

Should be excepted, and dream'd of Utopia, 

That Extramundane place (by Thomas Morus found. 

Now with old Groenland lost,) where all are safe & sound; 

Yet is it parcel of the hodd and cursed ground. Gen. 3:17. 

What happ'nd by the way, is needless for to tell ; 

But this J dare not slip, that when the Lion fell 

Upon my Back, and when next in a frightful Storm, 

Once J myself did fall, there Crawling as a worm, 

Brave honest Thomas Lloyd has been the only Man, 

That heal'd me by God's help, our great Physician, 

Our Maker, Saviour & our Prophet, Priest and King, 

Good Shepherd, Teacher, Guide : Our All and Everything. 

To Him the Holy One, we his Redeemed bow. 

And Glory, Majesty, Renown and Praises owe. 

For what He hitherto was pleased to bestow. 

(On us poor Creatures, whose Cup did overflow,) 

In two parts of this Globe, especially here, 

Where we at present breathe, which Tense, tho' ne're so near, H 

'"aFrancia Orientalis : Wallia Septentrionalis. [The notes tg the poem 
are by Pastorius himself.] 

8o Francis Daniel Pastorius 

I hardly comprehend : Jt suddenly posts by, 

E'en in an Jnstant, and the Twinkling of an Eye. 

'Tis nothing but a Now, a Now that can not last ; 

Pronounce it with all haste, & with all haste it's past. 

A Weaver's shuttle is not half so Swift or fleet, 

This momentary Jot has rather Wings than Feet : 

It vanishes like Smoke, like Dust before the W'ind, 

And leaves as sounding Brass, an Echoing Voice behind, 

Which minds us, that it should be Carefully imploy'd, 

So as the same has been by honest Thomas Lloyd, 

My quondam real Friend, whom with this Epithet 

J honour thankfully, and never shall forget 

His many Courtesies, to my Departing hour, 

Altho' my years should reach to other Sixty-four. 

If you, his Daughters, & your Families & J 

W^ith mine do follow him ; we may be sure to die 

Jn Favour with the Lord, and Unity with Friends : 

By three things he excell'd, Faith, Love & Patience. 

And this (to wit the last,) adorned thus his life, 

That J may truly say, she (it) was his second Wife. 

Concerning Charity (the Center of my Trine,) 

It did as clearly as his other Vertues shine : 

He kindly deal'd with all, to ev'ry one did good. 

Endearing chiefly God, and then the Brotherhood. 

His Christian Belief was grounded on the Rock, 

And so could easily endure the hardest Shock : 

Plain-hearted he has been, profound & Orthodox, 

Opposed by Geo. Keith's dull lowing of an Ox." 

A Bull of Bashan, who went willfully astray ; 

But honest Thomas Lloyd continued in the Way, 

Christ Jesus, with streight Steps : Jf we walk on in them, 

We shall undoubtedly get to Jerusalem, 

The City of the Saints Solemnity above, 

Built of the purest Gold, wall'd, pav'd & ciel'd with Love. 

J say, we shall arrive, (and that is yet to come,) III 

Ere long in Paradise our long & lasting Home ; 

For, when what we call Time, (a thing at best but short. 

And to be used as Paul the Brethren does exhort,) ^^ 

Will once be swallow'd up, with Death, in Victory, 

Those Tenses needs must cease to all Eternity. 

Eternity, a word whereof J fain would speak. 

" Vox Bovis, non Hominis. 
" I. Cor. 7 :29. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 8i 

Because J feel, it does a deep Jmpression make 

Upon my Spirit ; But as Augustin was out 

In such like Mysteries, and proved too too stout, 

Reproved by a Child, that tried to transfuse 

The Water of the Sea into his slittle Sluce. 

So, if by Millions, yea by thousand Millions more, 

Jnstead of Units, J shall Nine and Ninety Score 

Fine Bales of Genoa all over Multiply, 

'Twill but a Hair-breadth be as to Eternity. 

The Stars, and Jacob's Steed, are without Number, and 

He is a Shatter-pate, that Counts Grass, Drops & Sand : 

A perfect Bedlam, ay ! who with Simonides 

Presumes to Chalk out God & Everlastingness. 

Let us be therefore wise, and thus retract the Days, 

Which from our Cradle up in Jdleness and plays. 

Or infinitely worse, have frequently be [en] spent, 

That for transacted Sins we seriously repent : 

And take what heed we can, that in this ruhing Time, 

We nothing may mis-do, mis-think, mis-speak, mis-rime. 

As to Futurity, none of us all can say. 

That either you, or J, shall see an other Day ; 

For this good reason we Comit that unto Him, 

Who rides, above all Times, upon the Cherubim. ^^ 

He sees the Pristine, and what henceforth must ensue, 

Like present evermore : Gives unto Each his Due, 

And they, who faithfully their Talents do imploy, 

Shall be rewarded there with Crowns & boundless Joy. 

Thus J am finishing my homely Lines, and crave, 

Dear Shipmates your Excuse, that J so boldly have 

With Doggrels troubled you. Fare well, rememb'ring me, 

Who am your loving & affectionate F. D. P. 

The 4th day of the 6th mo: 1716. Rachel Preston died, and was 
buried the 15th ditto at Philada. when my Son John Samuel married 
with Hannah, the youngest daughter of John Lucken, at German- 

Genes. 35. v. 20. 
A Pillar upon Rachel's Grave 

Brave Jacob once would set, 
That he a Monument might have 

So as not to forget 
Her Vertues, Love and Faithfulness, 

'2 Sam. 22:11 & Psalm 18:10. 

j<2 Francis Daniel Pasforins 

Wherein She did Excell, 
And Hkewise thereby to express 

That he Esteem'd Her well. 
Thus thou, Friend Preston, since thy Wife, 

Our Dearest Rachel is 
Departed now this troublesom Life, 

To Ever-lasting Bliss, 
Rear up a Pillar on thy Heart, 

For always to Remind, 
How she stood in her sorest Smart 

Jn Patience not behind ; 
But was, when Weak, endu'd with Strength, 

Faith, Hope and Charity, 
Till taken to the Lord at length. 

Does Praise and Magnify 
His holy and most glorious Name 

With the Triumphant Church ; 
Pray ! let us Jmitate the same, 

Tho' left here in the Lurch, 
Where I myself look'd for that Fate, 

My Ship-Mate underwent, 
And wherefore thought to antidate 

The last J to Her sent. 
Thrice happy ! Not to see these lines, 

Beholding better Things, 
She like a Star at present shines 

Before the King of Kings. 

Blessed are the Dead which die in the Lord 
from henceforth: Yea, saith the Spirit, that 
they may Rest from their Labours; and 
their Works do follow them. Rev. 14. v. 13. 

This Obelisk, in haste made by a sorry hand. 

Serves only for a Draught, to show how thine should stand. 

God's Serjeant, Death, must do, what he has in Coniand. 

The foregoing I sent in form of a Letter to my loving Friend 
Samuel Preston, the late husband of the deceased Rachel Preston. 

The 4th day of the 3d Mo. 1717. Elizabeth Hill sent me the little 
Book, Jntitled A Legacy for Children, being some of the last Ex- 
pressions & Dying Sayings of Hannah Hill, junr &c. Into which I 
wrote what followeth, & so restored it 



^}ol tjttfj 


^^ /HiAC- 

Uc^fi^jl. 3ee litacjM 







^ <y //l^y/ not unhcr^^^^ 

Page of Pasjorius' " Alvearialia. ' 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 83 

To my zvcll-bcloved Friend Elisabeth Hill. 

Elizabeth ! this Book of mine 

Let henceforth (as a Gift,) be thine; 

vide pag. 4. 
I read it over thrice a day 
Since in my hands the same did stay, 
And now return it unto thee. 
But twice from first to last to see 
Each week, how Mother's Name Sake dear, 
Thy loving Sister, in God's Fear 
Has laid her tender Body down 

page 21. 
Hereafter wearing that bright Crown 
In Heaven for all faithful ones 
Laid up ; When as both Wasps & Drones 
Lake- ward are going when they die ; 
Fear therefore God, Truth magnify, 
Due Respect to thy Parents give, 
Plainness embrace, and thou shalt live. 

Live forevermore with those named page 10 & 32 as also with 
her that gave thee this wholsom Advice, page 19. in the glorious & 
over-Joyful presence of God, & our Lord Jesus Christ. So be it, 

This Book here, coming back, two other such demands. 

For else 't had never gone out of P 's hands, 

Who with the like brave Stuff his Library adorns, 

And in regard thereof both Gold and Silver scorns ; 

Because by that we reap great Profit to our Minds, 

But this, (lov'd too too much,) I^.Ien's Understanding blinds 

Dear Betty ! then succeed in Sister Hannah's stead, 

The holy Scriptures oft, with other good Books, read: 

Delight in Needle-work, Delight likewise to write. 

And Letters full of Sense (as She did) to Jndite. 

vide pag. 32. 
So thou wilt truly be, (as J may truly say,) 
The most Accomplished Maid in Philadelphia. 

F. D. I\ 
Germantown the 6th day of the 3d month 1717. 

84 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

Williani Pcnn. 

The most important friendsliip formed by Pastorius in 
PennsyKania was that with William Penn, the proprietor of the 
province. On the 21st of August, 1683, the day after his arrival 
in Philadelphia, Pastorius presented his credentials to Penn, and 
was well received, both by the proprietor and his German secre- 
tary, Johann Lehenmann. Pastorius has left two accounts of this 
first meeting, one in the Bcschrcibung,^^ and the other in the 
Sichcrc Nachricht.^'" The latter includes most of the former and 
gives besides an interesting estimate of his character and work, 
and hence is given in English translation here : 

The 20th [of August] we passed New Castle, Upland, and 
Dunicum [Tinicum Island] and arrived at evenfall, God be praised, 
at Philadelphia ; where on the following day I delivered to W. Penn 
the letters, which I brought with me, and was received by him with 
friendly affection; of this very worthy man and celebrated ruler I 
should, in justice, write much more; but my pen, (although it is 
from an eagle, which a so-called savage recently brought into my 
house) is much too weak to express the lofty virtues of this Chris- 
tian, for such he is in deed. He often sends me an invitation to dine 
with him, also to walk or ride in his always edifying company; and 
when I was lately away a week fetching provisions from New Castle, 
and he had not seen me during that time, he came himself to my 
cottage, and desired, that I should come and be his guest several 
times a week. He is sincerely devoted [to the Germans], and said 
once publickly in my presence to his Councilors and those about him : 
I am fond of the [Germans] and wish, that you shall love them too; 
although I never at any other time heard such words of command 
from him ; these pleased me however so much the more, because 
they are quite in unison with the command of God (vid. Job. 3, 23). 
I cannot say more now than that Will. Penn is a man who honors 
God, and is honored by Him in return : who loves that which is 
good and is justly loved by all good men, &c. I doubt not, some will 
yet come hither themselves and experience in fact that my pen has 
not written enough in this matter." 

■ Cf. Beschreibung, p. ^7. 
a. Sichere Nachricht, p. 2 (in photographic reproduction given above). 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 85 

This esteem for the proporietor Pastorius seems to have re- 
tained even in the midst of the difFiciilties which he found arising 
out of Penn's pohcy of assigning the Germans their land. As we 
have already seen, it was Penn and Thomas Lloyd chiefly who 
kept Pastorius from abandoning the German Colony and return- 
ing to his native land. Even in the midst of Penn's trial in Eng- 
land, Pastorius remained loyal to the great proprietor. 

Nor was the appreciation all on Pastorius' side. Penn has 
left us an interesting testimonial to the character of Pastorius 
in a later letter written in answer to an incjuiry of Pastorius' 
father, Melchior Adam Pastorius, as to the life of his son, Fran- 
cis Daniel, in America. These letters, with a German translation, 
were published in the Beschrcibung. They form such an interest- 
ing incident in the life of Pastorius and Penn that they may fit- 
tingly be given entire here : 

Salutem ab ipso fonte Salutis Jesu Christo quam plurimam. 
Vir Prselustris Humanissime & in Jesu Dilecte. 

AUdaciam meam in scribendo facile condonabis cum intellexeris 
ex paterna id fieri solicitudine & affectione erga filium meum Fran- 
ciscum Danielem Pastorium in Pensylvania tua commorantem abs 
quo jam longo tempore nil literarum accepi, ideo naturalis & Paternus 
affectus me impulit, ut de statu ac vitcC genere ipsius pauca 

Speraveram ego quidem me in scncctute mea in ipso baculum & 
solamen habiturum, sed spe mea frustratus sum, dum in Provinciam 
tam longe a me dissitam ipse se contulit. 

Vive in Jesv felicissime & per ministrum quendam de tuo 
famulitio respondere desiderio & petitioni meae dignare. Qui ipse 
toto corde exopto esse 

Windshemii 20. Jun. Tua; Humanissimas Dominationis scrvus ad 
1698. omnia Mandata paratissimus. 

M. A. P. 

In answer to this came by post to Neustatt-on-the-Aysch 
(where Melchior Adam Pastorius was temporarily living after 
his departure from Windsheim), April 25, 1699, the following 
answer in Latin : 

86 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

Observande mi in Jesu Christo Amice. 

Ex intimo amoris affectu te saluto prsesentemque tibi & futuram 
exopto felicitatem, quae constat in fida obedientia in Lucem & Cogni- 
tionem illam quam tibi per Christum Jesum impertiit Deus. 

Nuper adhuc in vivis fuit filius tuus, & jam nunc Philadelphiae 
agit. Irenarchia hoc anno est, aut nuperrime fuit, alias Vir sobrius, 
probus, prudens & pius audit, spectatse inter omnes, inculpatjeque 
famae, Famihas pater est, quot vero filiorum, ignoro, Amoris tui 
pignus, cum hteris valetudinis tuae nunciis pergratum ilh accideret. 

Brevi Provinciam istam juvante Deo visurus sum, interea tem- 
poris quid vehs & quid de eo expertas vel ad ipsum scribas vel in 
Literis ad me dandis exprimas. 

Cum Votis itaque ut Devs una cum salutis sua demonstratione 
dignetur seniles tuos annos sicuti dim Simeoni prolongare, valere te 

Bristolii die 20. Mensis 12. 
vulgo Februarii 1699. 

Sincerus tibi ex animo amicus. 
William Penn. 
A Monsieur Monsieur Melchior Adam Pastorius. 
President a Windsheim in Franconia. 

It may be noted here that Melchior Adam Pastorius dedi- 
cated the following anagram to William Penn : 

Guilelmus Penn Dei gratia Regisq Fauore Princeps Pennsyluaniae. 

Anagramma : 

Perpcndens falacia munia Regni quasiui greges populi tui sereni. 
Nusquam tuta fides. Nunc Terra recalcitrat [ ?] Astris 

Subditus in Regem surgit et arma gerit 
Filius obsistit Patri, mala filia matri. 

Justus ab iniusto plectitur exilio 
Sicce manu CromWel violentus Sceptra Stuardi 

Inuasit, sed mox reddidit ilia DEVS. 
Rex lacob Leges Regni dum tollit, et almum 

Frangere conatur Relligionis opus 
ludicio ecce Dei iusto secedere Regnis 

Cogitur et iusto plectitur Exilio. 
Hinc ego perpendens fallacia munia Regni 

Territus obstupui, cordeque contremui 
Inde Greges pie Christe tui super Orbe sereni. 


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Title Page of Pastorius' " Delici/k Hortenses. " 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 87 

Quaesiui Populi qui tua jussa colat. 
Hunc Philadelphiacis collegi nuper in oris 
Syluanisque locis pectora fida Deo/^ 

The tribute paid by Penn to the character of Francis Daniel 

"Vir sobrius, probus, prudens & pius, 
Spectatse inter omnes, inculpataeque famae," 

is a fitting memorial to the many-sided German pioneer, and justi- 
fies the noble sketch drawn by the Quaker poet, Whittier, in The 
Pennsylvania Pilgrim. 

It is possible that the following anagram, which Melchior 
Adam Pastorius dedicated to his son, Francis Daniel, belongs to 
this period : 

Franciscus Daniel Pastorius. 

Anagramma : 


Si peccatori mortemque necemque minari, 
Numinis est proprium ? lustitiaeque Dei ? 

Parcas quseso div iesv fons alme SALutis, 
Venturse, misero quae subeunda neci. 

Passus enim pro me, Peccatum Daemona, Mortem 
Strauisti, inque tuo sanguine tutus ouo.^'^ 

The devotion of Pastorius to the great proprietor is further 
expressed in a poem dedicated to Penn upon his third arrival in 
the Province of Pennsylvania: 

Epibateriuni, Or a hearty Congratulation to William Penn, Chief 
Proprietary of the Province of Pennsilvania &c. Upon his third 
Arrival into the same, 

For which good Patriots these sev'ral years did long, 
And which Occasions this his German's English Song, 
Who'f old could talk with him but in the Gallic Tongue. 

' Cf. Itinerarium, p. 232. 
Cf. Itinerarium, p. 115. 

88 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

Ter Fortunatus, Felix, et Faustaus ad Jndos Tertius Adventus sit, 

Guiliellme, tuus ! 
Let Heroic Poets Tote of War and warlike Men, 
My Reed (shrill Oaten-Straw!) does Welcome Wm. Penn, 
A man of Love & Peace, abominating Strife, 
To him its Welcome sound, and to his dearest Wife, 
And to his hopeful Son, his Daughter and all His, 
With Cordial Wishes of God's everlasting Bliss. 
The third time welcome Penn! Of good things (as we see 
Jn Sacred History,) there have been often three. ^* 
Thrice Balaam's Ass would turn & thrice the Prophet smites,*^ 
And three times blesses he the blessed Jsraelites.-" 
Thrice every year the Jews must keep their Solemn Feasts,^^ 
And Solomon the Wise thrice sacrifices Beasts.-- 
His Father David thrice (an exercised man,-^ 
According to God's heart,) bows down to Jonathan.-* 
Elijah stretches him upon the Widow's Boy 
No less than thrice, & thus death's Power does destroy.-^ 
Thrice to his windows goes my Name Sake op'ning them, 
And ev'ry day prays thrice toward Jerusalem.-^ 
Three times a Voice was heard, Rise Peter, kill & eat,-^ 

*" I wittingly omit to speak of the holy & transcendent Three, who bear 
Record in Heaven & in Earth i John 5, 7 as also of the three Angels, whom 
Abraham entertained in the plains of Mamre, Gen. iS:2, Hebr. 12:2. 

Neither do I quote, that three men of each Tribe were to describe the 
promised land, Josh. 18 '.4, nor that all the Males were three times in the 
year to appear before the Lord God, Exod. 23:17; nor that divers goodly 
persons, having many Sons, had but three Daughters, i Chron. 25 : S, Job i : 2. 
Jtem what J concerning this mystical Number might have allegorized 
out of Deut. 14: 28, 29; Ezek. 14:14; Dan. 3:24 and 10:2; Matt. 13:33; Mark 
9:5; Luke 10:36, &c., and from Natural Philosophy, how all elementary 
things consist of three, viz: Sal, Sulphur and Mcrcuris. But only add the 
ancient Latin Proverb, in no more than three words, Omne Trinum Per- 
fectum ; /. e., Of all good things there must be three. 

" Numb. 22 :28, 32, 33. 

^ Numb. 24 : 10. 

"'Deut. 16:16. 

'^ I Kings 9 -.25. 

"M Sam. 24:5, I Kings 11 -.4, Acts 13:22. 

^I Sam. 20:41. 

-'I Kings 17:21. 

=*Dan. 6: 10, 13. Add Psal. 55: 17. 

*' Acts 10:13, 16, and 11:7, 10. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 89 

Wild Beasts & creaping things make lawful Gospell-Meat.-^ 

Paul's suff'rings threefold were, on this & th' other wise,^^ 

For Satan's Buffeting he sighs to Heaven thrice.^" 

Thrice therefore Welcome Penn! (is my repeated cry,) 

The third time to the land of thy Propriety ! 

Thy Province, into which these thirty one years past 

My Lot, by Providence, most happily was cast. 

Here in its Infancy thy Face J first did see 

The one and twenti'th of the Sixth Month, Eighty-three. 1683. 

When the Metropolis (which Brother-Love they call,)^^ 

Three houses, and no more, could number up in all. 

No Fulness then of Bread, no Jdleness, no Pride, 

Where into Belial since did many-ones misguide.^^ 

There in thy company J with my iioul's delight 

At Intervals might sit till mid-time of the night. 

Then (as the Chearing Sun) thou visitedst poor Caves,^^ 

Pray! let us not forget those Emblems of our Graves, 

But ever mindful of the Mercies of the Lord, 

Thank Him for what He did so graciously afford, 

In our. first Meeting-Tent of Pine and Chest-nut boord.^* 

'''I Cor. 10:25. Tit. 1:15. Matt. 15:11. 

^2 Cor. 11:25. Acts ch. 14, & 16 & 27. 

'"2 Cor. 12:8. 

" In Greek Philadelphia, Rom. 12 : 10, by reason of the Brotherly Affec- 
tion & Kindness, which therein should abound, and not Philargyria, or Love 
of Money, as it is Englished, i Tim. 6: 10 and Juxta Ovidinm : crescit Amor 
Nummi, &c., Qu. Argenti Studium vestra dum regnat in Urbe, Cura Fraterno 
Nomcn Amore trahit. Resp. Romulus, Abimeleck, EsaCt, Cain atq: Jehoram 
Fratres Frater habet : Gratia rara tamen. 

^^ Ezech. 16 : 49. 

The Pit without a Bottom 
Brought forth these sins of Sodom; 
Ye who Comit the same, 
Are guilty of its Flame. 

^ The caves of that time were only holes digged in the ground, covered 
with Earth, a matter of 5. or 6. feet deep, 10. or 12. wide and about 20. long; 
whereof neither the Sides nor the Floors have been plank'd. Herein we 
lived more Contentedly than many nowadays in their painted & wainscotted 
Palaces, as J without the least hyperbole may call them in comparison of the 
aforesaid subterraneous Catatumbs or Dens. Vide Hel)r. 11:38. J myself 
purchased one of the old Tho. Miller for 5i. then Currt. Silver Money of 
Pennsylvania in the midst of the Front-street at Philada. whenas the 
Servants, J had along with me, could have made a far better in less than 
two days, had they but known how to handle the spade 

^ Our first Meeting-house in the sd City was nothing else than a Lodge 

90 Francis Daniel Pastoritis 

How be't thy Presence was withdrawing from us, ere 

We understood what things in Pensilvania were 

Of good or evil use, to follow, or t' avoid, 

The wisest of us all was honest Thomas Lloid.^^ 

Some lent their itching Ears to Kuster, Keith & Budd, 

And miserably fell into the ditch of Mud, 

Where they may stick and stink ; For as a sightless whelp, 

So stark blind Apostates do grin at profer'd help : 

They spend their Mouths, and fain with vain words would ensnare, 

Or if this will not do, scold, back-bite, bug-bear, scare; 

Hereof, brave William Penn, me thinks, thou hadst thy share. 

And yet the second time cam'st Safe to this thy Land, 

Dogs, who at distance bark, bite not when near at hand. 

Now J thought all was well, the Country full of Folks, 

The City stately built, some houses 's tall as Oaks, 

The Markets stall'd with Beef, whereof we nothing knew. 

When (as aforesaid.) Hutts & Wigg-wams were so few. 

However, feeble things we are below the Moon ! 

Change upon change, alas! befalls us very soon, 

Till she with other Stars & Planets (which now meet 

Above our heads,) will be the Pavement for our Feet. 

Mean while away again, home to Great Britain thou 

Downward th' Atlantic Sea must sail, ascend'st the Prow 

Of that unlucky Ship; unlucky, why? Because 

Jn her a harmless Lamb is carried to the Claws 

Of Tygers, Bears and Wolves, who since they can't devour, 

Shut him up in the Fleet, as form'rly in the Towr, 

Old Baily's Bale-dock, and such Dungeons, apt to scour, &c. 

Ay, sorry Turky quill ! stop, stop, & say no more, 

Make not afresh to bleed a newly healed Sore. 

This World thou knowst, has been most troublesom to the Best, 

And so will always be : Jn Christ they find their Rest,^^ 

or Cottage, nailed together of Pine-boards, Imported from New-York, and 
sold a hundred foot at lo Schill. And never the less the LORD appeared 
most powerfully in that Tabernacle of Shittim wood, ( :See mine Onomastical 
Observations, Num. 1606). Glory be to His Name for ever and ever. 

^^ This my well beloved Ship-mate has been no less conspicuous for 
his Integrity & irreprovable Life, than for his singular Learning, Prndence 
& great Knowledge in things Physical, Civil & divine, whereby (tho' Deputy 
Governr. of this Province,) he was not puffed up at all. Out of an affable, 
mild & Truly Christian Temper, yet zealous for the Truth, and undaunted in 
its defense, his Charity still being greater than his Intellect, and his Love 
towards GOD the greatest of all three. 

^John 16:33. Hebr. 11:36, &c. 

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Title Page of Pastor i us' Voluptates Apian^. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 91 

The wch suffices them. Job's Motto ( : Jf God would 

Ev'n slay, J'ld trust in Him,) remains their strongest Hold." 

They can Forget, Forgive & render good for Bad,^'^ 

Bless & Jntreat when wrong'd ; both sorrowful & glad.^" 

Rejoicing in the LORD, continually rejoice,"'* 

Laugh at their Enemies and at the cackling noise • 

Of their Persecutors, whom (scornful Brats!) God scorns,*^ 

And in His fiery Wrath at last cuts off their Horns. 

For after he has Try'd the Patience, Faith & Hope 

Of this Espoused-Ones, and they do not Elope, 

But firmly cleave to Him, He crowns & comforts them 

With Kisses of his Mouth : No Cross, No Diadem.''^ 

God proves first, then approves; first wounds, then heals; first kills 

Then quickens by his WORD : first empties, and then fills. 

With Pleasures, which none dare Compare to any thing: ' 

Prais'd & extolled be the Name of Zion's King! 

But why do J rehearse these Truths to thee dear Friend, 

Who hast experienc'd them beyond what J intend 

To mention in my Rime except that thread-bare Lie 

[ :Penn in America a Jesuite did Die?] 

No sure! the self-same Man, whom Gazetteers have slain 

So many Years agoe, lives still, or lives again : 

Loves JESUS, and abhors the Jnsects of the Sect 

Wherewith black Loyol did this latter Age infect' 

J say thou liv'st, dear Penn. Thanks be to GOD on high, 

That to the Prince of Life thou art yet very nigh • 

Yea nearer, J believe, than thou hast ever been, 

Before this Province was by thee the third time seen 

The third time and the last, J question not. He will 

Grant our Petition, and abundantly fulfill 

"Job 13:15. 

""i Pet. 1:9. F. D. P. acer Eremi Pcnniaci Cttltor, Te Colo Pcnne bend 

CjOcI Almighty pleas to bless 

Penn, and Penn's brave Wilderness. 
"' I Cor. 4:13. 2 Cor. 6 : 10. 
*"Phil. 4:4. 
" Psal. 2 : 4. 

" Psal. 75 : 8, TO. 2 Cant, i : 2, Hebr. 12 : 5, &c. 

W. P. Veritas Vincit, Prsevalet. D. L. Diabohis Latrat. 

,r . Tr ^^^ Devilish Lyars delight in Lurking-holes. 

Vult Vertus Patere : Dolus Latere. 

.,r , . Whenas Plaindealing Truth Will shine to both the Poles 

Wahreit : Dir der Palm-baum steht, 

Wann Dir Liigen undergeht. 

92 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

The Number of thy Days, that when thou art to lay 

Thy Body once aside, Jt undisturbed may 

Sleep fast at Pennsberry ; thy Soul Return & stay 

With Him, from whom she came, as those do who are gone 

Already, and their Task here faithfully have done, 

Tho' younger than we both. In French now Je conclus, 

Jcy, et au Ciel Penn est le Bien-Venu ! 

Pour en avoir de Tout il faut aussi un peu d'Allemand, 

Whereas, Loving and dearly Esteemed Friend, in thy Travails 
in Holland and Germany thou hast heard & learned somewhat of 
my Mother-tongue J hereby make bold to subjoin a few lines in the 
same as followeth : 

Penn heiszt auf Welsch ein Haubt, auf Nieder Teutsch ein Feder, 

Die man zum schreiben braucht ; das Haubt ersinn't entweder 

Gut Oder Bos, womit die Konigin paar Geldt, 

Durch Hiilf der Feder Zwingt, die Gross und Kleine Welt. 

Nein, wans hier Wiinschens gait, so wolt ich, dasz mein Feder 

Ein solches Nach-druck hatt, damit sich Ja Ein Jeder 

Als ein geborsam Glied ergabe Jesu Christ, 

Der da das Einzig Haubt der wahren Kirche ist ; 

So ware weder Heid, noch Jud ; audi kein Papist. 

Griffith Owen. 

Next to Thomas Lloyd and William Penn, Griffith Owen 
seems to have occupied the warmest place in Partorius' heart. It 
was to Owen that he turned for medical aid after the death of 
Thomas Lloyd. The following testimonial to the efficacy of 
Owen's medicine are quaintly phrased in the Beehive: 

Dearly Esteemed Friend Griffith Owen. Germantown, the i6th of 
the 3d mo. 1714. 

My last Climaterick (nine multiplied by Sev'n) 
May be, will bring me home, to'r long home even Heav'n. 
Where God our Father dwells in everlasting Bliss, 
Where we his Children then shall see Him as He is, 
And where the Holy Ghost our Spirits shall inflame 
Eternally to praise and Celebrate his Name. 
However, by Neglect we must not kill ourselves. 
Therefore pray Doctor look for me upon thy Shelves 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 93 

A gentle Purge which can (as I do think) expell 
My Fever's burning heat : So no more now, Farewell. 

F. D. P." 

Adde supra Num. 352. Anno 1714. the 19th of November J acci- 
dentally came at a little Book Intitled : Tractatus dc Sails Cathartici 
a)nari in aquis Ebcsshamensibus & hujus modi ali]s contcnti Naturd 
et Usu. Authore Nehemid Green M. D. iitriusq. Regiae Societatis 
Socio. Londini, 1695. in 12° and presented it to my good friend 
Griffith Owen, scribbling on the first page, as followeth : 

Franciscus Daniel Pastorius huncce Libellum — 
Qui Salis Eb'shamij Virtutes prodit et Usus, 
(Leniter hoc Alvus, quoties adstricta, movetur, 
Mota graves morbes ex Corpore projicit agro, &c) 
Dilecto Medico,** Griffitho donat Oweno, 
Cui debere nihil vult, gratus, praeter Amorem. 
What J had twice of Thee, this Author does exalt, 
And Satisfy my debt, my rend'ring Salt for Salt. 
In Case that clears thy Book, 'tis well, till I want more, 
Jf not, be pleas'd to put (or keep) it on my Score ; 
For J intend to Pay the Salt & all the Rest, 
Which J Dear Owen owe : These Lines are but a Jest. 
Talibus innocuis Salibus licet hactenus uti, 
Ut similis similem dilectet Amicus Amicum. 

When after the general or yearly Meeting at Philada. (17th of 
the ist mo :) was ended, my beloved Physician Gr. Ozven prepared for 
his journey towards New England, the Adversary of Men's Eternal 
happiness would Jmpudently Suggest some distrustful Thoughts, 
the which never the less by the immediate Jnspiration of our heavenly 
Comforter, J answered by way of Paradox, as well the better to 
Confound the Wicked One, as also the more firmly to fix and fasten 
the Anchor of my hope on Jehovah, the Rock of Ages, who alone is 
able to Save to the utmost, & to restore to a State of former health 
( : if it be his good Will & Pleasure,) even with a Word. Matt. 8 : 8. 

Advers. Thy Doctor goes his ways. To Check New England's Ills, 
Answ. No, no! he ever stays. My Soul with good things fills. 

"This footnote is added by Pastorius: 

"Thy Spaw water's Salt did me much good these two years agoe. Sal 
Cathariticum sive mirabile, Epson Salt." 

■** Vid. Coloss 4, 14. 

94 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

Advers. He surely thither goes, And there will teach and preach. 

Answ. No, no ! his hands & Toes Are always within Reach, 

Advers. Behold, Asides he Starts, And Just now takes his horse, 

Answ. What then ? tho' he departs. It is not for the worse. 
God sometimes hides his Face, And still is very near: 
His wholsom Saving Grace Soon does again appear. 

Advers. What strange thing now is this. At once to go and stay ? 

Answ, Did not the Son of Cis Among the Prophets play? 

Advers. J mean that Mortal Man, Who Medicine to thee gives. 

Answ. /\nd J th' Physician, By whom each Creature lives. 

Advers. Say ! Art thou not afraid. That One goes, whilst thou'rt ill ? 

Answ. No, No ! For as I said. My Soul has yet her Fill. 
By him who is all Love, And present ev'ry where : 
Whose Will does move above My low and trembling sphere. 

James Logan. 

These to my Esteemed Friend James Logan at Philada. Quae de 
Fraterno Nomen Amore trahit. 

Jf we did reason right & perfect Logick chop, 

Endeavoring day & night To get to Wisdom's Top 

We should instead of Glass, Meet with the precious Gem, 

To do to Others as We would be done by them. 

This was Christ's doctrine and, if fully understood, 

Js the eternal Band of Peace, the noblest Good. 

With this ruiis parallel what holy Prophets taught. 

To shun the Sin as hell ; Be Virtuous, & not nought. 

Old Pagan Epictet on two words (as J hear) 

Did all his Groundwork set, to wit. Bear and Forbear. 

But nowadays the chief and usual Business 

Js to be large not brief; An Hour's Task, seldom less. 

And after we compare The Writings, Surely 't looks. 

That new-ones (neotericks) Volumes are, the ancient Little Books, 

Jn these which have been first, we richly find, whereby 

To satisfy our Thirst; [the latter leave us dry] 

the last themselves are dry. paucis exceptis. 

Fides Doctrinaq. Prisca Forti (Fere) Deliciosa Palato. 

pastorius' religious beliefs. 

The question has been raised whether Pastorius was a 
Quaker, and, if so, at what time he became such. It has been 
stoutly maintained that he remained at heart a Lutheran. 

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Title Pack of Pastorius' Book of Forms, "The Young Country 
Clerk's Collection," 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 95 

As we have seen, Pastorius' family was originally Catholic, 
his father, Melchior Adam Pastorius, having gone over to the 
Evangelical faith (Augsburg Confession), after his arrival in 
Sommerhausen, making confession of faith and partaking of the 
sacrament with Count Georg of Limpurg on Christmas Day, 
1649. The marriage of Melchior Adam Pastorius with the 
widow Magdalena Johm, was the beginning of an Evangelical 
Lutheran household in this branch of the Pastorius family. Fran- 
cis Daniel was baptized and reared a Lutheran. Although he 
associated himself with the Pietists of the Spener circle in Frank- 
furt-on-the-Main and was on friendly terms with the Quakerized 
Mennonites in Crefeld, Kriegsheim and other places in Germany, 
there is no positive evidence that he had renounced his allegiance 
to the Lutheran faith upon his arrival in America. Pastorius 
refers to the confessions in Pennsylvania a number of times in 
the Bcschreibung,^^' but gives no clear statement as to his own 
sectarian attitude as between Lutheran and Quaker. 

In the chapter "Concerning the Religions of the Province," 
Pastorius mentions four forms of religion : 

1. That of the Indians, which is entirely heathen, although 
monotheistic and evidently sincere. 

2. That of the English and Hollanders, most of whom are 

3. The Quakers, who are with William Penn in Philadel- 

4. That of the Swedes and High Germans, who belong to 
the Evangelical (Lutheran) confession. 

Having enumerated these confessions he mentions the fact 
that a little church had been built in 1686 in Germantown for 
the community, thus implying that all worshipped together. That 
this church was considered as community property is further seen 
from the fact that the court was held in it.'*** 

" Cf. Beschreibtmg, p. 34-35- 

" O. Seidensticker, Bezichungcn der Deutschcn an den Schwcdcn in 
Pennsylvanien {Der Deutsche Pronier, VI, 427). 

g6 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

In this same chapter Pastorius takes the opportunity of com- 
menting upon the Lutherans in particular, showing that he was 
still enough interested in them to regret their shortcomings and 
indifference : 

"The Swedes and High Germans are Evangelical and have their 
own Chirch, whose minister is called Fabricus, of whom I must say 
with regret, that he is much given to drink and still almost blind in 
the inward man. * * * * Xhe Evangelical ministers would have 
had a good opportunity to follow the command of Christ: "Go ye 
into all the world and preach the Gospel." If they were willing to 
be the followers of Christ rather than the servants of their body and 
if they were more devoted to Theologia Interna, than to literal 
recitation." *'' 

In another letter to his father, dated March 30, 1694, Pas- 
torius gives an interesting account of his religious life in the new 
province : 

"Myself and family are still in good health, as reported in my 
preceding [letter] and [living] a quiet pieceful private life, and 
although I am still charged with Inspection of Justice [the ofifice of 
Justice of the Peace] both in Germantown and Philadelphia, yet 
such outside official affairs do not disturb the inner consciousness of 
the gentle humble private life of Jesus Christ. =1= * * * * * An 
intimate friend wrote me from Frankfurt recently, how the apathetic 
Lutheran Ministers had been attacked and disturbed by the Quietists 
and the Papal apostles of works by the Pietists, which I regard as 
unmistakable forerunners of the approaching appearance (God grant 
it may be soon) of his dear and only begotten Son. Happy, eternally 
happy they who have oil in their lamps and are ready to meet this 
blessed bridegroom and go with him to the wedding feast." *® 

" Num. 12, Lutherans. Solafidians are so taken up with Faith, they have 
no room for charity. They think to perform all their duty to God in hearing, 
and to shew the Fruits of it in talking. Justified by faith alone ; whereas 
that Faith wch is alone, doth not justifie. 2. Luther, Calvin, Champions in 
their day. They use their Mother's ( :the Church of Rome:) weapons, & 
yet cry (:whore:) against her. They are called by the name of M. L. as 
Christians, by J. C. Ubiquitarians. Cochley's lies against Luther, Barel 615. 
M. Luther being offended at his Master the Pope, set up for hiniself, as the 
only Apostle of that age, Mamiet [ ?] Vol. 8, p. 234, he staggered many 
wise & honest men & overthrew whole thousands of fools & knaves, Jbid. 
Sola fide, a short & compendious Cut to be saved, the Lutheran Reforma- 
tion. Those of the Augustan Confession, falling into the odium of the more 
rigid L. vid. Evangelium ( : Evangelicorum.) in And. Menip. tit. 82. brave 
Luther acted nobly & heroically in separating from Rome. 

^ Cf. Beschreibung. p. 64-65 and 86ff 88. 

Francis Daniel Pastoriiis 97 

In almost every letter Pastorins manifests his personal con- 
cern for the spiritual welfare of his kinsmen and friends beyond 
the sea, as, for example, in his exhortation to his godchild Meck- 
lein to make good the vow which his godfather had made, and in 
his admonition joined to congratulation upon his father's election 
as Superior Judge of Windsheim, calling his father's attention 
to the account he must give at the last judgment. All this "con- 
cern" is quite in keeping with the spiritual awakening of the 
time, found both among the Pietists and the Quakers, but there 
is not a word about his personal doctrinal attitude toward any 
specific sect in the first year in Germantown. 

It seems quite likely that matters of creed did not seriously 
disturb the little community of the German town during the first 
years of their communal life. They were practically one in 
spirit, whether Pietists from Frankfurt, or Mennonites or Ger- 
man or Dutch Quakers from Crefeld and the Lower Rhine. The 
spirit of the little Quaker meeting at the house of Tiines 
Kunders doubtless pervaded the whole community. 

The actual affiliation of Pastorius with the Quakers, appears 
clearly from the minutes of the Monthly and Quarterly Meet- 
ings of Philadelphia and Abington. The items in these minutes 
relating to Pastorius' connection with the Friends are here given 
in chronological order. Those referring to Pastorius' teaching 
in the Friends' School in Philadelphia have been given already, 
and need not be repeated here : 

The Records of the Abington Monthly Meeting of the 
Friends contain the following entries. 

Record of Marriages and Births of the Abington Monthly 
Meeting : 

"Witness of Marriage of Peter Shumaker Jun and Margaret 
Op de Graeff both of Germantownship Frances Daniell prestoreys" 
"The Children of Francis Daniel Pastorious. 

1. Jno Saml Pastorious Born ye 30th of ye i mo 1690. 

2. Henery Pastorious Born ye ist of ye 2 mo 1692." 

"At our Monthly Meeting ye 28. 12 mo. 1703 Daniel Walton 

98 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

Edmond Orphood Everard Balton & Daniel Pastorius are appointed 
to attend ye Quarterly Meeting." 

"At our Monthly Meeting ye 29 6 mo. 1715 : 
William Preston Daniel Pastorius Richard Lewis & Ryner 
Tyson are appointed to attend ye Quarterly Meeting." 

The Minutes of the Philadelphia Monthly Meeting contain 
the following entries : 

"Monthly Meeting of Philadelphia 29 d. 8m. 1697. 
Samuel Carpenter & James Fox are desired to speak with 
Francis Daniel Pastorius in order to write for Friends of this 


"Monthly Meeting of Philadelphia 29 d. iim 1697: 
It being proposed to this meeting that a printing press would be 
very serviceable to friends belonging to the Yearly Meeting, Daniel 
Pastorius of Germantown is willing and thinks he may be Capable of 
managing the same, therefore the meeting requests Samuel Carpen- 
ter or any other friends to send to England for a press and letters or 
such things thereunto belonging as cannot be gotten here and this 
meeting, if the Yearly meeting doth not approve thereof, doth prom- 
ise to see him or them paid for the same." 

"Monthly Meeting of Philadelphia 29. 2 mo 1698: 
A paper from the last Yearly Meeting of London was directed 
to the monthly & quarterly meetings in Pensylvania, East & West 
Jersey, for the Collecting of all George Fox's books & writings in 
these parts. In order thereto, It is agreed that Daniel Pastorius write 
Copies of the above said papers, and that one of them be sent to each 
monthly meeting in this County, and also one to Bucks, one to 
Chester and one to New Castle Counties to their particular Quarterly 
meetings, that so the service thereof, .may be answered, there being 
Copies already sent to East & West Jersey. And for this monthly 
meeting it is left to the care of James Fox to make diligent Enquiry 
therein & whosoever hath any of the said books and papers are 
desired to bring them unto our next monthly meeting." 

"Monthly Meeting Philadelphia 27th 3 mo 1698: 
Daniel Pastorius acquaints this meeting that he wrote Copies of 
the papers from the Yearly Meeting of London, about the Collection 
of Geo. Fox's writings & delivered them to Anthony Morris, in order 
to be sent to the several meetings as desired, and friends are still 
desired to bring into the next meeting or at any time to James Fox, 
an account of what of his books or writings they have. 







:; ^ 

tL-K4a4x/n^ , 



xotjff maMmt iA^Ae^ her 9i4 UMf f^ o^ - 

Title Page of Pastorius Book on Medicini 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 99 

"Monthly Meeting Philadelphia 30. 4m 1699: 

Whereas there is a Book wanting for recording marriages 
amongst friends, James Fox is to buy a Good Book for that purpose, 
and pay for it of tlie meeting Stock, and deliver it to Francis Daniel 
Pastorius who is appointed to Record all marriages in it. Reese 
Peters and Robert Burrough are desired to acquaint friends ; to 
bring in their Certificates that it may be done." 

"Monthly Meeting Philadelphia 25. 6. 1699: 

An Epistle from lames Dickinson on being read, Francis Daniel 
Pastorius was ordered to write 12 Copies thereof, and to deliver 
them to Sam. Carpenter & James Fox who are desired to dispose the 
same as desired by James Dickinson, which is accordingly done." 

"Monthly Meeting Philadelphia 29. i. 1700: 

Griffith Owen having recommended John Cadwallader as a 
person very fit for an assistant in the School. (Francis Daniel Pas- 
torius being gone) [ref. here to former neglects'] Anthony Morris, 
David Lloyd, lohn Jones & Samuel Carpenter are desired to see what 
Daniel Pastorius hath done upon the meetings accts. and to pay him 
for the same." 

"Monthly Meeting of Philadelphia 26. 2. 1700: 
The friends appointed to consider what Daniel Pastorius hath 
done for friends, Report that they think he should have Ten pounds, 
which this meeting approves of, and orders Samuel Carpenter to pay 
the same." 

"Monthly meeting of Philadelphia 30. i. 1705: 

Daniel Pastorius & Arnett Clinken from Germantown requests 
the assistance of this meeting towards their building a new meeting- 
house, which friends seems very ready and willing to do, and it is 
agreed that a subscription may be begun at the beginning of the 
next monthly meeting." 

"Monthly Meetimg of Philadelphia 26. 4. 1713 : 
The minute relating to David Lloyd ancl the letter sent this 
meeting by John lawert being under consideration, and David still 
continuing his request for a Certificate, the sence of this meeting is, 
that David Lloyd should appear at our monthly meeting to give them 
Satisfaction in relation to the Complaint of Daniel Pastorius and 
John Jawert, the meeting being informed that the Controversy be- 
tween Humphrey Murray & the said David is ended." 

"Monthly Meeting of Philadelphia 30. 8. 1713: 
The friends appointed to hear David Lloyd & Daniel Pastorius, 
five of them met & heard what they had to say." '•' * * * [All 

lOO Francis Daniel Pastorius 

were] "with the assistance of Samuel Preston, or any six of them 
are yet desired to labour further with David Lloyd, and endeavoi" to 
convince him that there is a fraud in the recovering of the said Ger- 
mans lands, whether he was then appraised of it or not." 

[There are other entries of the hearing of this case.] 

It seems quite likely that Pastorius, like all the seriously 
minded of the Germantown community, was spiritually affiliated 
with the Friends' meeting in Germantown, held first in the house 
of Tiines Kunders, and after 1686 in the little church built that 
year. The condition of affairs is well reflected by the fact that 
he was one of those who laid the protest against slavery before 
this meeting in 1688. This protest, which will be considered in 
a later chapter, shows signs of differences, which were already 
arising in Germantown, and were soon to assume more definite 
sectarian expression. 

In 1690 the Mennonites were reinforced by new arrivals 
and had a meeting of their own in the house of Issac Jacobs van 
Bebber, with William Rittenhouse as their preacher. 

A Dutch account of Hendrick Pannebecker by Jacob Gow- 
schalks, gives a good description of the attitude of the Men- 
nonites toward the Quaker meeting at this time : 

"The beginning or the origin of the Community of Jesus Christ 
here in Germantown, who are called Mennonites, took its rise in this 
way, that some friends out of Holland and other places in Germany, 
came here together, and although they did not agree, since at this 
time the most were still Quakers, nevertheless they found it good to 
have exercises together, but in doing it they were to be regarded as 
sheep without a shepherd, and since as yet they had no preachers, 
they endeavored to instruct one another. In the year 1690 more 
Friends from Crefeld and elsewhere came into the land, who were 
also of our brethren and added themselves and attended our exer- 
cises in the house of Isaac Jacobs."*" 

About the same time the Reformed appear in and about 
Germantown, among whom were William Dewees, who arrived 

Cf. S. W. Pennypacker, Germantown, p. 220. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius loi 

in New York in 1689, James Delaplaine who eame from New 
York to Germantown about 1692. 

At this juncture the religious strife of the German Colony 
breaks out in earnest, and gives opportunity for Pastorius to 
define more clearly his attitude to the Quakers. 

While the unrest may have begun with the cold reception 
which the Quakers gave the German protest against slavery in 
1688, the first great religious disturbances was the Keithian Con- 
troversy. In 1692, George Keith, a Quaker preacher and school- 
teacher in Philadelphia since 1685, went to New England, where 
he made a defense of Quaker doctrines in a controversy with 
Cotton Mather and his son Increase Mather. After his return to 
Philadelphia, Keith accused the Quakers of teaching deistic doc- 
trines. The attitude of Pastorius in this controversy was strongly 
anti-Keithian, as the following drastic rime with its coarse pun 
will show : 

"Jt seem'd to me, he would his Master Equalize, 
And suffer wretched Fools his Station to despise, 
Especially George Keith, well nigh devour'd by Lice." 

(To be Continued.) 


The following brief account of the colors of the German 
troops which served against us in the Revolution may be of inter- 
est to students of American history : 

Hessian Flags. 

The flags carried by the Hessian troops, as far as is known, 
were all of the same model, but the colors of the silk of which 
the flags were made varied very much indeed. The flags of no 
two regiments were exactly alike in color. 

The general design was a flag about four feet square, with 
a centrepiece of blue, on which was painted a red and white 
striped lion (the lion of Hesse) standing on a green base, but, 
curiously enough, looking backwards. The lion holds in one 
paw a short sword, and is crowned. The wreath around the 
centerpiece is of laurel, and is almost exactly on the same lines 
as the wreaths which surrounded the centrepieces of the flags of 
Frederick the Great. It is very similar in design to the wreaths 
which are still used on the Prussian colors. 

With few exceptions, the flags had a wavy triangular piece 
running from the corners to the centrepiece, thus producing the 
effect of a large cross on the flag. These cornerpieces (called 
in German, "Eck-Flammen"), are a very common style of design 
on flags of the eighteenth century, and are still to be found on 
some of the Prussian cavalry standards. A few Hessian flags 
had plain fields, without the cornerpieces. 

In each corner of the flags is a small wreath, over which is 
a crown, and in the wreath is the monogram, "F. L." (Frederick 
Landgraf). Over the blue centre is a large crown of similar 


Colors of German Mercenary Troops in the Revolution 103 

design, and under this crown a white ribbon with the inscription 
"Nescit Pericula." In the middle of the two sides and in the 
middle of the lower part of the flag, is a small flame, painted 
in gold, as are the wreaths, crowns and monograms. 

A very accurate description of one of the flags captured at 
Trenton, is given in a letter from William Ellery to the Governor 
of Rhode Island, written from Baltimore, just after the battle 
at Trenton, in which he describes a green flag captured at 
Trenton, which he says was then hanging before him. He calls 
the corner triangles, "blazes," and the ornamentations in the 
middle of the sides which I have called flames, he also designates 
as "blazes." 

Another equally curious, and even more interesting, con- 
temporary representation of the flags will be found on Peak's 
portraits of Washington, one of which (dated 1781) was, until 
recently, at Independence Hall, in Philadelphia; it is now in the 
hands of its owner, Mr. Thomas E. Kirby, of this city. There 
are many replicas of this picture. There is one in the Metropoli- 
tan Museum, and there is one in the Capitol at Washington, which 
is dated 1779. It is undoubtedly one of the first painted by 
Peale. In the right-hand, lower corner of these pictures 
are painted four flags, two of which are black with white corners, 
and two of which are green or greenish. In some of the copies 
of this picture, the lower of the two green flags is painted very 
much lighter than in the older pictures ; and the upper one seems 
to have one brownish-pink corner. But on the one in Washing- 
ton, which is dated 1779, and on the one in the Metropolitan 
Museum, the two flags are distinctly green, with a suggestion of 
a white corner. Peak's son is quoted as saying that his father 
painted these trophies from nature. Therefore, these pictures 
show two kinds of flags, whicli must have been captured at 
Trenton, for Peale, in 1779, could have had no other Hessian 
flags before him. It is evident that the green flag, described by 
Ellery, and the green flag shown on Peak's pictures, are one and 

I04 Colors of German Mercenary Troops in the Revolution 

the same. From Mr. Kirby's picture, which is in particularly fine 
condition, almost all of the details of the flags appear clearly — 
the crown, the motto, the blue centre, the lion, portions of the 
wreath, portions of the monogram, etc. Ellery, unfortunately, 
does not give the color of the corner blazes. 

There are preserved at the Historical Society at Philadel- 
phia, two green Hessian flags, and a small piece of a black flag, 
all of which the society says (and I believe correctly) came from 
Trenton. These flags correspond exactly with Ellery's descrip- 
tion, and Peak's picture, but they are unfortunately badly muti- 
lated, the lion being almost entirely torn out, and the painting of 
the motto and the gold of the large crown having worn off. The 
shape and position of the ribbon, on which the motto appeared, 
and the outline of the crown, however, can be distinctly traced. 
The green silk is much faded. The wavy corner triangles are 
there in part, and are of a dirty white. On one of the flags the 
upper half of one of the corner wreaths and crown and the mono- 
gram are visible. H the small piece of the black flag is placed 
on the green flag, on which, as I say, a portion of the monogram 
appears, the monogram will be seen in almost complete form. 
The small flames in the middle of three sides are also there on 
one flag ; on the other but two are left. 

There is in the Museum Friedericianum, in Cassel, a small 
book containing water-color drawings of the flags of the regi- 
ments which were not captured here. These drawings corre- 
spond in design exactly with the flags of the Historical Society 
at Philadelphia, with Peale's pictures, and with Ellery's descrip- 
tion, except in two particulars. The spearhead drawn in the book 
is an openwork lance head, with a small crown, and the mono- 
gram "F. L.," as appears on the flags, whereas Peale has painted 
(I think in this instance fancifully), a very peculiarly shaped 
spearhead, the like of which I have not seen anywhere, here or 
abroad. The only other difference between the flags and the 
pictures in the Cassel book, is that the monogram in the corners 

Colors of German Mercenary Troops in the Revolution 105 

of the pictures is not "F. L.," but the monogram of a later prince; 
but it clearly appears, from examination, that the later monogram 
has been painted over the "F. L.," which would indicate that 
when the drawings were made the flags bore the monogram 
"F. L.," but were altered to suit the whim or fancy of a subse- 
quent monarch. 

We captured at Trenton three regiments, Knyphausen, Rahl 
and Lossberg, and our returns show that we captured four flags. 
General Heister reports the loss of fifteen (five to each regiment 
would be correct), but our troops, apparently, only took four. 
What became of the other eleven at the time is unknown. It is 
stated in a Hessian soldier's diary that the flags of Rahl's regi- 
ment were found on a vessel which was captured by the Hessians 
at Stono Ferry several years afterwards. How they came to be 
on that vessel, nobody knows. It is further claimed that Rahl's 
flags were taken back to Cassel. All of the flags, however, which 
may have been returned to Cassel, were taken by Napoleon to 
Paris, with other loot, and were destroyed in 18 14, when so 
many other trophies were burned in the courtyard of the Inva- 
lides, the spearheads and other metal parts being thrown in the 
river. Subsequently, some of these metal parts were fished out, 
and there are, in the Invalides, some spearheads, more or less 
perfect, which evidently came from these flags, as they show the 
crowned monogram "F. L." 

Inasmuch as Knyphausen's regiment had black facings, and 
as it was quite customary to have the colors of the flags follow 
the facings of the regiment, it is probable that the black and 
white flags, captured at Trenton, belonged to that regiment. As 
Rahl's flags are said to have been recovered by the Hessians, the 
green flags must have belonged to the Lossberg regiment. 

We captured at Yorktown two regiments, Erbprinz and 
Bose. As far as I have been able to ascertain, the colors of the 
flags of these regiments are at present unknown. There are, 
however, in Germany, quite a number of old books of flags (one 

io6 Colors of German Mercenary Troops in the Revolution 

especially famous book is at Darmstadt), in which the flags of 
these regiments, as well as the three captured at Trenton, may 
have been drawn. I have not had access to the Darmstadt book. 
Inquiries made by me of a number of historical societies in Ger- 
many and of various museums, "Staats-Archive" and libraries, 
have not resulted in my obtaining any satisfactory information 
about the flags of the three regiments, the flags of which disap- 
peared entirely, Rahl, Erbprinz and Bose. 

In the book at Cassel there are two kinds of flags represented, 
one known as the "Leib-fahne," being the flag of the first com- 
pany, the others being "ordinary flags," belonging to the other 
four companies in each regiment. Each company had a flag. The 
following table gives the colors of these flags, as they are drawn 
in the book at Cassel, the first color being that of the field, the 
second that of the corners. The centres are always blue : 




Prinz Karl 




"Leih" Flag. Ordinary Flags. 

Field Corners Field Corners 

Dark Red Light Blue Light Blue Dark Red 
Yellow Wine Red Wine Red Yellow 

Green Wine Red All Green 

All Light Yellow Light Yellow Light Blue 

Dark Yellow Brick Red Dark Yellow Light Blue 

All Orange Orange Light Blue 

It will be seen that there was the greatest variety in the colors 
of the flags. 


Equally brilliant in coloring were the flags of the four Bruns- 
wick regiments which surrendered at Saratoga. None of these 
flags was delivered to us. They were saved by Madame Riedesel, 
and have since been destroyed. 

Colors of German Mercenary Troops in the Revolution 107 

The Ducal Museum in Brunswick has, however, supph'ed me 
with a drawing of one of these flags, and they were on the follow- 
ing design : 

The flags were about four feet square, and had a red centre 
on which was the white horse of Brunswick. This centre was 
surrounded by a gold wreath, not unlike that of the Hessian flags. 
Over the horse was a ribbon, with the inscription "Nunquam 
Retrorsum." Over this was a crown. In the corners were four 
wreaths with crowns over them, and the monogram "C. C." The 
same monogram appears on the spearheads. In the middle of 
the sides were flaming bombs. The ornamentation was all in gold. 

The design of these flags is a narrow, vertical cross, with 
wavy sides (called in German, "Flammen Kreuz," still appearing 
on a number of German xA.rmy flags) on a field of color. The 
fields of the flags and the crosses were of different colors ; that is 
to say : 



The Brunswick Dragoons had small guidons or standards 
of blue, but did not, according to the information I have received 
from Brunswick, take them from Canada into the field, as the 
regiment fought on foot. 


I have not been able to ascertain the design of the flags of 
this regiment. It appears from a copy of the return, which is in 
the Congressional Library in Washington, that with Burgoyne's 
main army there were four German regiments of five companies 



Prince Frederick 








io8 Colors of German Mercenary Troops in the Revolution 

each, with twenty flags. The other regiment was left at Ticon- 
deroga, according to the report. I have said that Mme. Riedesel 
saved the Brunswick flags; what became of the Hanau flags I 
have not been able to ascertain. It is not known at Marburg 
what became of them, nor what they were like. 

Waldeck Flags. 

The colors of the Waldeck regiment were taken by the 
Spaniards at Pensacola, the Waldeck records admitting the loss 
of two flags. Where they are in Spain I have not been able to 
find out, although the American Embassy there has made careful 
research for me. They very likely are in private hands. 


There are three Anhalt-Zerbst flags at Dessau, dating from 
the eighteenth century, but it is not known by the authorities 
which, if any, of these regiments was in America. The flags are 
quite elaborate in design. I have been endeavoring to find out 
which of the flags was here, as the authorities have promised me 
a photograph of any or all of them, if I wish them. The Anhalt- 
Zerbst Regiment did not serve actively against us. 

Ansbach-Bayreuth . 

There are three Ansbach-Bayreuth flags at West Point in 
fine condition. Two of them still have their spearheads. These 
flags are embroidered on white brocade, an unusual thing for a 
regimental flag of those days. They are totally different from 
any flags existing in Munich, or elsewhere, as far as I have been 
able to ascertain, and none of the flags in Munich (where a num- 
ber of Ansbach-Bayreuth colors are still preserved) or Berlin 
belonged to regiments which served here. 

Of these flags we captured ten at Yorktown. What became 
of the other seven, no one seems to know. Briefly described, they 

Colors of German Mercenary Troops in the Revolution 109 

are as follows: On one side there is a large flying eagle (origi- 
nally red, now quite dark and dull), of very grotesque design (a 
modified Brandenburg eagle), holding a short staff in one claw 
and a branch of laurel in the other. Over him is a ribbon in bul- 
lion, on which is embroidered the inscription "Pro Principe et 
Patria." On the other side is a large monogram, "S. E. T. C. A.," 
which is explained as being the motto of the order of the 
Red Eagle, "Sinceriter et Constanter," followed by the initial 
"A," of the reigning Prince Alexander. Over this is a crown 
and below are the letters "M. Z. B." (Markgraf zu Branden- 
burg). On two flags is the date 1775, and on the third the date 
1770. On one side of the monogram there is a palm branch, and 
on the other a laurel branch, embroidered in what is now pale 
green silk. The monogram and crown are partly in silk and partly 
in bullion. Attached to one of the flags is a narrow ribbon of 
black and silver, with a tassel. The spearheads are quite orna- 
mental, and contain an openwork monogram, "C. F. C. A.," with 
a crown over it. The "C. F. C. A." stands for "Christian Fred- 
erick Charles Alexander." 

There are, as appears from the above, five German flags 
still in existence here, and a piece of a sixth, and there can be 
no question about the identity of the flags, as Hessian and Ans- 
bach-Bayreuth. It is, however, puzzling to know what became 
of the other trophies captured from the Germans. I have made 
very extensive inquiries on the subject and have been unable to 
obtain any information at all. They seem simply to have dis- 
appeared, but no doubt some exist in private hands or possibly 
in some historical society, and have been forgotten. The United 
States Government does not know of any except those existing 
at West Point, and I have not found any historical society which 
has been able to trace any Ansbach-Bayreuth flags or any Hessian 
flags, other than those at Philadelphia. The existence of the latter 
had been pretty well forgotten, when Mr. Jordan showed them 
to me a year ago. 

I lo Colors of German Mercenary Troops in the Revolution 

In my book, Regimental Colors in the War of the Revolu- 
tion, I have had reproduced photographs of all the German flags 
still existing in this country. 

New York, February 27, 1908. 



By Richard E. Helbig. 


IN NEW YORK, OCTOBER 4-7, 1907. 

(Translated for "German American Annals" from the published proceedings of 
the convention by R, E. H.) 

The motion of Delegate Scholtz of Baltimore, to embody the 
article about the "New York Public Library" in the proceedings, is 


According to paragraph 11 of its constitution and principles the 
"National German American Alliance of the United States of Amer- 
ica" recommends a systematic investigation of the share Germans 
have had in the development of their adopted country, in war and in 
peace, in all kinds of German American activity, from the earliest 
days, as the basis for the founding and continuance of a German 
'American history. 

What has the "National German American Alliance" as such 
done so far in this direction? This question should by all means be 
discussed at the convention now in session. I take the liberty on this 
occasion to inform the delegates and all others interested in the 
subject about the following. In addition to my regular work in the 
library, I have exerted myself for many years to build up a large 
German American collection for the "New York Public Library." 
Already on March 17, 1902, prompted by the visit of Prince Henry 
of Prussia to this country, a comprehensive exhibition of books, man- 
uscripts, illustrations, etc., relating to the German element in the 


H2 The German American Collection 

United States, was opened in the spacious entrance hall of the Lenox 
Library Building, in order to draw public attention to this collection. 

As no special fund is at our disposal yet to buy everything in 
this field, many of my recommendations for purchase could not be 
considered. For this reason the growth of the collection appeared 
too slow to me. So I began in October, 1903, to solicit donations of 
books, pamphlets and other material for the collection, by way of 
correspondence. This attempt proved to be very auspicious, as I 
could report in an article published in the "New Yorker Staats- 
Zeitung" of April 10, 1904, the receipt of 293 volumes and pamphlets 
from 15 States, between November, 1903, and February, 1904. Now 
I pressed vigorously forward in this path. The steadily growing 
work and correspondence compelled me to give up all my own time, 
often at the sacrifice of hours of sleep, to this labor of love. 

October 3, 1905, I sent a latter to the third convention of the 
"National German American Alliance" in Indianapolis, explaining 
the scope of the collection, the progress made so far, also asking for 
the official support of our aims and efforts. The letter was read 
before the convention, then it was published in the "New Yorker 
Staats-Zeitung" October 9. By mistake it was omitted from the 
printed minutes of the convention, published in "German American 
Annals," November, 1905, but appeared in the December issue. 

March 11, 1906, the "New Yorker Staats-Zeitung" printed an 
abridgment of my report on the progress of the collection during the 
years 1904-1905. It was published in full in "German American 
Annals," May, 1906, pp. 147-157. As this report is of far-reaching 
interest to German American research, many German papers printed 
it verbatim or gave extracts with editorial comments. At that time 
the collection amounted to over 20CX) titles. During the two years 
about 225 works, including some rarities, had been purchased. By 
gift 1332 volumes and pamphlets from 301 donors in iii cities, dis- 
tributed over 31 States of the Union, had been received. The report 
contains also a list of about 125 names of German American authors 
of belles lettres, represented in the collection. Since then the works 
of more than 40 such authors have been acquired. 

After January i, 1908, a new report upon the growth of the col- 
lection and its use for the time 1906-1907 will be issued. For the 
present we can say only that the results surpass those of 1904- 
1905. The foremost benefactor has been the Rev. John Rothen- 

The German American Collection 113 

steiner, pastor of a large German parish in St. Louis, Mo. He has 
donated over 360 vohimes and pamphlets between May, 1905, and 
June, 1907. Of great importance is also the gift of 40 volumes of a 
New York weekly, entitled "Belletristisches Journal," established in 
1852, from the present publisher. Dr. H. E. Schneider. The series 
has almost been completed from other sources. Mr. Henry Feld- 
mann, of New York, presented the rare vols. 13-15, 1864/65-66/67. 

I repeat what I stated already in my letter to the convention in 
Indianapolis : "The advantages to German American research offered 
by a special collection in a large public library are so important 
and evident, that our efforts not only deserve, but that we may 
reasonably lay claim to the support of all German Americans." I 
have repeatedly called attention in the press to the fact, that the 
publications, reports and smaller printed matter of churches, societies 
and institutions have a positive value as source material for research. 
The "National German American Alliance" could facilitate and 
hasten our arduous work by the passing of resolutions, wherein the 
local federations of societies are requested to collect material in their 
respective districts and to send the same, if possible, collectively, to 
our address. Such action has already been taken by the German 
American State Alliance of New York at its convention in Troy, 
June 23, 1907. 

German American Newspapers and Periodicals. 

All publishers and editors are respectfully requested to send us 
their publications regularly. Complete volumes are bound and care- 
fully preserved for the purpose of research. Volumes of past years 
are especially desired. As it is practically impossible to obtain com- 
plete files of all German newspapers ever published in this country, 
I have determined to find out the existence of files in the libraries of 
other cities and in private possession. The result will be published 
later, whereby a great service will be done to historical research. 
How often it has happened, that old newspaper volumes have been 
sold for a few cents as waste paper, or been destroyed outright! 
Let us rescue therefore all we can. Due acknowledgement will be 
given to all who assist in this important piece of work. The new 
grand structure of our library at Fifth avenue, between Fortieth and 
Forty-second streets, will be the largest library building in the world. 

114 ^'^^ German American Collection 

It is planned to hold four and a half millions of volumes. There will 
be plenty of room for German American material. 

German American Bibliography. 

In an article in the "New Yorker Staats-Zeitung" of April lo, 
1904, I have already called attention to my German American bib- 
liography. At present it embraces over 10,000 titles, including contri- 
butions to periodicals and the publications of historical societies. 
For the sake of accuracy every conscientious bibliographer makes it 
a point to see all material himself. My plan is to include also the 
titles of books which are not yet in the possession of the "New York 
Public Library." This will require visits to the libraries of other 
cities. In 1904 I sacrificed three weeks of my vacation for the pur- 
pose of research at the "Library of Congress" in Washington, in 
1905 a shorter time at libraries in Philadelphia. Economy of time 
and expenditure out of my own pocket make it prudent to postpone 
the publication of my bibliography until after the books in the Astor 
and Lenox Libraries have been united in the new building, which 
present-day prophets say will take place in about two to three years. 
The great mass of our German Americans has little comprehension 
of the gigantic task of such a bibliographical undertaking. I am well 
aware of the difficulties of the work, but I must necessarily finish it 
alone to insure uniformity. As a member of the "American His- 
torical Association" and the "Bibliographical Society of America" I 
am in touch with competent persons and reach at the same time those 
circles, whose interest should be won for German American his- 
torical research. 

Our dear fellow-citizens of German origin may be assured, that 
much more is effected by our collection, than by the senseless asser- 
tions of certain "speakers," who vehemently try to impress their 
hearers on every occasion, that American historians willfully ignore 
the merits of the German element. The principal thing is to gather 
the source material and to make it available for systematic scientific 
research. The whole apparatus is already in our library. 

Richard E. Helbig, 
Lenox Library Building, 
5th Ave. and 70th St., New York. 


Emil Mannhardt, secretary of the committee, reads the follow- 
ing report, upon which verbal elucidations are made by Dr. Kern 
and Prof. Goebel : 

The committee on historical research was organized by electing 
Dr. Kern as chairman and E. Mannhardt as secretary. The follow- 
ing recommendations were agreed upon : 

Each delegate to the convention shall make it 1 is duty to aim at 
the formation of historical societies in each county, city and smaller 
locality, who shall take up research into the German element in 
their respective districts. The following facts should be ascertained : 
Names of the first German settlers and dates of their arrival ; the 
share Germans and their descendants have in the holding of real 
estate and the paying of taxes, also their percentage to the total pop- 
ulation ; the part Germans have born in the agricultural, industrial 
and commercial development of the various localities ; their services 
in the wars of the United States ; number and strength of German 
religious congregations ; number of pupils in German schools ; num- 
ber and membership of German societies, including dates of organi- 
zation and time of duration of their existence. 

Such data shall be published under the auspices of the State 
federations of German societies. "German American Annals," the 
organ of the German American Historical Society, edited by Prof. 
M. D. Learned in Philadelphia, and "Deutsch Amerikanische 
Geschichtsblatter," the organ of the German American Historical 
Society of Illinois, edited by Emil Mannhardt in Chicago, will publish 
contributions about the German element of any section of the 

It is the opinion of the committee, that it is absolutely necessary 
to have a history of the United States written, which will convinc- 
ingly show the part Germans have had in the development of the 


Ii6 Committee on Historical Research 

country, as compared with the other elements of the population, in 
order to give the American people a proper conception of the subject. 
The National German American Alliance should undertake to have 
such a work published and see to it, that it is used as a basis for the 
teaching of American history in the public schools. 

The committee recommends the preparation of a history of the 
immigration of the so-called Palatines, to be published by the 
National German American Alliance in commemoration of the bi- 
centenary in 1909 of the coming of the Palatines. 

A sub-committee, consisting of Messrs. Detreux, Prof. Learned, 
Mannhardt, Dr. Kern and Helbig, shall be authorized to carry out 
the foregoing recommendations. Delegate Trumpold, of the Law- 
rence, Mass., branch. New England Alliance, submitted the following 
recommendation : The National Alliance shall resolve to have written 
and published a German American history, in a style to make it 
suitable as a reader in the German American schools of this country. 

New York Public Library. 

The committee recommends that the German American collec- 
tion of the New York Public Library receive the official support of 
the National German American Alliance by the adoption of the fol- 
lowing resolutions : 

Resolved, That the public and the press be requested to support 
the German American collection in the New York Public Library to 
the best of their ability and to send material to the address below. 

Resolved, That the State, local and other organizations be re- 
quested to gather printed and other documents in their respective 
districts and to send the same, if possible collectivefy, to the "New 
York Public Library, care of Richard E. Helbig, 5th Ave. and 70th 
St., New York." 

Passed unanimously by the convention. 

The committee recommends that the National Alliance continue 
its support of "German American Annals." The committee recom- 
mends furthermore, that the National Alliance appoint a committee 

Committee on Historical Research 117 

of trained historians to execute the recommendations of the com- 
mittee concerning the three historical works. 

Albert J. W. Kern, 

Emil Mannhardt, 


M. D. Learned, 
Richard E. Helbig, 
Henry Detreux, 
Emil Schneider, 
GusTAV Bender, 
Friedrich Baare. 

Adopted, after the paragraphs had been re-read upon motion of 
Delegate Mankiewicz, of Pennsylvania. The following delegates 
participated in the discussion : Dr. Schneider, Trumpold, J. B. 
Mayer, who insists upon the right of non-professional historical in- 
vestigators to gather data for German American history, and Heins, 
who calls attention to the financial side of the whole question. Re- 
solved to grant $200 to "German American Annals." 

(5crman Ctmcrtcan Ctnnals 




Historical, Literary, Linguistic, Educational and Commercial Relations 


Germany and America 


The German American Historical Society 
The National German American Alliance 
The Union of Old German Students in America 



University of Pennsylvania. 


H. C. G. Brandt, Julius Goebel, 

Hamilton College. University of Illinois. 

W. H. Carpenter, j. t. Hatfield, 

Columbia University. Northwestern University. 

W. H. Carruth, W. T. Hewett, 

University of Kansas. Cornell University. 

Hermann Collitz, A. R. Hohlfeld, 

Johns Hopkins University. University of Wisconsin. 

Starr W. Cutting, Hugo K. Schilling, 

University of Chicago. University of California, 

Daniel K. Dodge. H. Schmidt-Wartenberg, 

University of Illinois. University of Chicago. 

A. B. Faust, Hermann Schoenfeld, 

Cornell University. Columbian University. 

KuNO Francke, Calvin Thomas, 

Harvard University. Columbia University. 

Adolph Gerber, H. S. White, 

Late of Earlham College. ' Harvard University. 
Henry Wood, Johns Hopkins University. 

New Series, Vol. 6. 1908. Old Series, Vol. 10. 

published by 


Chas. H. Breitbarth, Business Manager, 


JBerlln : IRew Ifforft : Xclp3ffl : 


jtonDon : parte • 








in Incluto Noribetgenfium Atlienseo , 


Summos in UtroqVe Jure Honores ac 

Privilegia Doctor alijv, piore Majomm, 

rite capcfTcntU,' 

Tuhlico Lrudjtorum Examint 

Franxiscus Daniel Pastorius, 

7). i;. Novcmbr. A. ah incarnatione J. C. 

do Idc LXXVI. 

Literis Henri ci Mailri, Univ. Typogr. 

Title Page ok Francis Daniel Pastorus' Dissertation or Disputation. 

(Photographed from a Copy in the possession of 

Ex-Governor S. W. Pennypacker. ) 

(5crman Qmcrican Qnnals 



New Series, May and June Old Series, 

Vol. VI. No. 3. 1908. Vol. X. No. 3. 


The Founder of Germantown. 

By Marion Dexter Learned. 

(Copyrighted. All rights reserved.) 



The pioneers of the little German colony of Germantown 
formed a community to themselves and conducted their affairs in 
their own way, during the first seven years of the settlement. 
While they adapted themselves to the general form of govern- 
ment established by Penn for the Province of Pennsylvania, they 
nevertheless incorporated many European features into the details 
of township legislation. One acquainted with the municipal and 
village life of Germany and Holland will easily detect the alien 
elements of town legislation in the early laws and court procedure 
of Germantown. In looking over the sanitary regulations of 
Frank furt-on-the-Main, the present writer was impressed with 
certain striking resemblances to the sanitary ordinances of early 
Germantown. It is quite likely that Crefeld and other cities of 
the Lower Rhine contributed precedents for the procedure of the 
little group of Crefelders, who cast their lot with Pastorius in the 
colony of Germantown. In reading the Laws or Ordinances of 
Germantown, one feels the traditions and atmosphere of a Ger- 
man town with its long experience in matters of town legislation, 


122 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

modified and adapted to the English forms of provincial govern- 

It is interesting, even if pathetic, that Pastorius' legal train- 
ing could not enable him to cope with the crafty practitioners at 
the then infant Philadelphia Bar. His code called for honesty and 
consistency in the practice of law, but made no provision for the 
casuistry and trickery of David Lloyd and his associates at the 
Philadelphia Bar. The consequence was that Pastorius appeared 
in unfavorable light as "der deutsche Michel," when he found 
the Philadelphia lawyers had all been "feed" and retained by 
Sprogel to cheat the German Society out of its lands. 

The chief legal service of Pastorius is to be found in his 
work as a scrivener. Here he was without a peer in the Province, 
if not in the Colonies. His clear, concise, legal style; his wide 
knowledge of legal forms both in German and English practice 
(in the collection of which he spared no pains), his mastery of 
minute particulars and his beautiful, easily legible hand, made him 
a favorite both in Germantown and Philadelphia. He was Clerk 
of Germantown the greater part of the period of its existence as 
a chartered municipality ; he was employed during his two years 
in Philadelphia to write for the Friends' Meeting, for which he 
not only copied works of George Fox and others, but kept also the 
Register of Marriages for a considerable time. 

A considerable collection of legal documents, drafted by Pas- 
torius, could be gathered from the collections of the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania, the University of Pennsylvania, ex-Gov- 
ernor S. W. Pennypacker and others in and around the city of 
Philadelphia. The most considerable of his official work as 
scrivener is the Grund-und Lager-Buch, containing the land 
records of Germantown. These works by Pastorius will be dis- 
cussed later. 


The German Pioneer and Founder of Germantown was a 
typical exponent of the learning of his age, and, in spite of the 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 123 

untoward conditions of his lot in the wilds of Pennsylvania, 
became the most many-sided literary man in America, far out- 
classing Cotton Mather, his famous Puritan contemporary in the 
Bay Colony of Massachusetts. The range of Pastorius' literary 
activity has scarcely found a parallel in America from that time 
to the present day. In every field he touched he applied the same 
conscientious effort and skill, whether he was drafting a private 
document or writing a finished poem to his great friend, the Pro- 
prietor, William Penn, himself. It can be said truly of him, even 
of his prose writings as found in the unpretentious form of an 
encyclopedic dictionary of the Beehive: 

"Nil tetigit, non ornavit." 

He touched nothing that he did not adorn. 

He was jurist, scrivener, teacher, moralist and poet all in 
one. He never let an opportunity pass without pointing a moral 
or teaching a useful lesson. It is perhaps not too much to say 
that he has never had a superior, if indeed an equal, as moralist 
in the three hundred years of American history. 

Then, too, the ceaseless activity of his pen is a marvel even 
to the machine-producing writer of the present time. Day and 
night, by the light of the sun and the flickering lard-lamp alike, 
he was plying his busy pen in writing down all the good thoughts 
of himself and others for the generations to come after him. It 
is interesting that George Sandys should have begun to translate 
his Vergil on the banks of the James in the first years of the 
Colony of Virginia, but it would have been far more signifi- 
cant if he had given the first Virginians the best thoughts of all 
times as Pastorius did his two native-born American sons in 

It is difficult to treat the writings of Pastorius in strictly 
chronological order, because some of them extend over a period 
of years. In the following chapters the works which can be dated 
with certainty will be discussed first and those of uncertain date 
will follow. 

124 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

I. Printed Works. 

The first work, which Pastorius published, was his Disputa- 
tion or Dissertation, as we should now call it, printed in 1676 with 
the title : 

I. Disputation. 

Disputatio Onauguralis | De | Rasura Docu | mentorum, &c. 
The full title and a discussion of this are given above. ^ 

2. Letters. 

Two important letters of Pastorius, dated March 7, 1684, 
were published with the following titles : 

Copia, eines / von einem Sohn an seine Eltern aus America, 
abgelassenen Brieffes / | sub date Philadelphia, den 7. Martii 

Sichere Nachricht auss America, wegen der Landschafft | Penn- 
sylvania / von einem dorthin gereissten Teutschen / ] de dato 
Philadelphia, den 7. Martii 1684. 

3. Tractates. 

The next known published work of Pastorius was issued as 
from Germanopoli (Germantown) in 1690, with the following 
title : 

Vier kleine | Doch ungemeine | Und sehr nutzliche | Tractatlein 
I De omnium Sanctorum Vitis | &c [The full title can be seen 
in the photographic reproduction.] 

This work was dedicated to Tobias Schumberg, Pastorius' 
old preceptor in Windsheim, and seems to have been intended for 
a German or European public. The work was evidently compiled 
in large part in Europe and represents the best fruits of the 
author's literary labors before he entered upon his career in 

^ Cf. previous chapter. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 125 

America. The misprints, especially on the title-page, would seem 
to indicate that the author did not read the proof-sheets. The 
misprint Pastoriun for Pastorium is particularly striking and 
would leave us to believe that the printer or the proof-reader had 
only the MS. before him and that this MS. had the Pastorius' 
name written with one of his peculiar "m's" which often look like 
"n's." Furthermore, the Latin numerals of the chapters men- 
tioned on the title page do not agree with the German divisions. 

The Latin dedication to Schumberg is followed by a German 
preface, in which the author states his reasons for writing the 
book. The contents of the book are briefly : 

( 1 ) Brief outlines of the lives of the Saints arranged in 
alphabetical order (pp. 1-117). 

(2) A short account of the Roman bishops and also the 
other popes, &c. (pp. 11 8- 184). 

(3) Concerning the church councils, which are treated in 
chronological order (pp. 185-214). At the close of this chapter 
the word "Ende" is printed. This is followed by 

(4) An appendix, treating of the bishops and patriarchs of 
Constantinople (pp. 215-244). The work is for the most part a 
simple compilation from then accessible sources. Occasionally the 
author has a thrust at the Catholics, particularly in his reference 
to the Pope, where he notes the fact that for over five hundred 
years the early Christians had no popes. 

4. Missive to the Pietists. 

At least two works of Pastorius were printed in the year 
1697. Oiic of these was issued as a missive to the Pietists in 
Germany with the following title : 

Ein I Send-Brieff | Offenhertziger Liebsbezeugitng an die | so 
genannte Pietisten in Hoch- | Teutschland. | Zu Amsterdam / | 
Gedruckt vor Jacob Claus Buchhandler / 1697. 

The authorship and date are learned from the colophon on 
page 15: 

126 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

"Von Eurem liebgeneigten Freund Frantz Daniel Pastorius. 
Germantown in Pennsylvania, den letzten December, 1696." 

This pamphlet growing out of the Keithian controversy 
appeared with the following English title, and was directed 
against Henry Bernhard Koster (Koster), William Davis, 
Thomas Rutter and Thomas Bowyer, "Boasting Disputers" of 
the Keithian ilk : 

Henry Bernhard Koster, William Davis, | Thomas Rutter & 
Thomas Bowyer, | four | Boasting Disputers | Of this World 
briefly | Rebuked, | And Answered according to their Folly, | 
which they themselves have manifested in a | late Pamphlet, 
entituled, Advice for all Pro | fessors and writers. | By Francis 
Daniel Pastorius. | Printed and Sold by William Bradford at 
the I Bible in New- York, 1697. 

At the end of the last printed page the following is printed : 

"Francis Daniel Pastorius | 
The End 
Printed and Sold by William Bradford at the | Bible in New- 
York, 1697." 

There are fifteen printed pages in the pamphlet. The text 
be;gins in the middle of the titlepage. 

This pamphlet is evidently a reply to an account or report 
which Koster sent to Germany tnider the title : Advice for all 

The pamphlet treats the following five cardinal points, in the 
exact words of the work itself, as follows: 

I. Of some swelling words of these vain Braggards. 

H. Of the Unreasonableness of their Challenge. 

HI. Of their abusing and traducing W. P. in particular. 

IV. Of their Slandering and misrepresenting the People 
called Quakers in general ; & 

V. Of their selfguiltiness of what they charge us withal.^ 

'That is, denial of the divinity of Christ. 


, -i> / /« oV"l /i^ VtV (^*-'" «'^ f tr. cY » / ♦- /< -* / 
./fi.M ^c<<f^iuMi lfy\ f!oL^ Jrntc.^ .V 


t^ v^m/z/t?///-'!^ I'tJ^tHVi A '>Kh/ii\>t\Tna'ft 






Title Page of Francis Daniel Pastorius' " F. D. P." ok Common 

Place Book. 
(Manuscript in the possession of Ex-Governor S. W, Pennypacker. ) 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 127 

Internal evidence, especially some Germanisms, would con- 
firm the view that the English pamphlet is based upon the Ger- 
man text, as for example : "in the pages above quoted and more 
others" (p. 3), "they need not travel farther than tozvards this 
Theater of the World" (p. 5), "the publick Theater of Church 
and World" (p. 5), where the article is omitted after the German 
fashion, although the word "besides" in one passage might argue 
for the priority of the English version it may just as well mean 
here "in addition to" : "Printed in the high Dutch tongue, be- 
sides the English" to be read by "some silly Women in Germany." 

There can be no doubt that Pastorius writes as a Quaker and 
sides with the Anti-Keithians, as he uses the pronoun "we" in 
referring to "Friends" and "Quakers," and "our" in the expres- 
sion "our Friends beyond Sea" (p. 3). 

A few characteristic passages will exhibit the spirit and 
temper of the pamphlet, and also serve as speciments of Pastor- 
ius's trenchant controversial style : 

"Though this their said Pamphlet doth not set forth the place 
where it was printed, yet mentioning so many things of Babylon; 
for Example, The Councils, and Clergies, and Universities of Baby- 
lon, page 2. The Babylonian Churches, page 4. The Babylonian 
Beasts, page 7. The four chief Quarters of Babylon, page 8: And 
being it self thoroughly full of Babel, or Confusion, it thereby plainly 
discloseth, that it was hatched in the very Centre of that great City, 
whose wise and learned men most able (in their own Conceit) to 
advise others, can not write but thus sinisterly, even with their right 

"He the said H. B. Koster arriving here in Pensylvania, his 
heart and head filled with Whimsical and boisterous Imaginations, 
but his Hands and Purse em [p] tied of the Money, which our Friends 
beyond Sea imparted unto him, and some in his Company, was as 
cunning as to intice and induce four or five to a Commonalty of good, 
and so settled a Plantation near German Tozvn, upon a Track of 
Land given unto them, calling the same Irenia, that is to say. The 
House of Peace, which not long after became Erinnia, The House 
of raging Contention, and now returned to the Donour, the Brethren 
in America being gone and dispersed, and the Church of Philadelphia 
(falsely so called) proving momentary, and of no moment, Mark 
3- 25." 

128 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

"The Church of these disputers and the World are very close 
one by the other; and if the ignorant Babes, Pietists and Millen- 
ists will take the Counsels given them by these advisers, p. 8. 
and seek this Church, they need not to travel farther than towards 
this Theater of the World, where they may be sure to find her. But 
ours being in God, and the members thereof chosen out of the world, 
and redeemed from the Contentiousness and other vain Customs of 
the same, will never engage in such a stage play or Theatrical Jang- 
ling and Wrangling with these Bablers and Mountebanks of Babylon ; 
In whose four chief Quarters we are not so well acquainted as to find 
out their respective houses and lodgings, where they like Milstones 
having no grist to grind, set themselves on fire ; on fire of hell," &c. 

5. A New Primer. 

There was for many years only a tradition coming down 
from the founders of the Philadelphia Monthly Meeting of 
Friends, that Pastorius published an English Primer, but recently 
a copy of this remarkable book has been discovered. It has the 
following title : 

A New Primmer or Methodical Directions to attain the true 
spelling, reading & writing of English. Whereto are added, 
some things necessary & useful both for the young of this 
Province, and likewis^i for those, who from foreign countries 

and nations come to settle amongst us. By F. D 

Printed by William Bradford in New- York, and sold by the 
Author in Pennsylvania 1698.^ 

6. Description of Pennsylvania. 

The original form of Pastorius' Beschreihung, based upon 
the early letters and reports sent to Germany, was published as 
an Appendix to Melchior Adam Pastorius' Kurtsc Beschreihung 
Der H. R. Reichs Stadt IVindsheim in 1692 with the following 
title : 

Francisci Danielis Pastorii | Sommerhusano-Franci | Kurtze 
Geographische Beschreihung | der letztmahls erfundenen | 

' The only known copy is in Birmingham, England. — Evans. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 129 

Americanischen Landschafft | Pensylvania, | Mit angehenckten 
einigen notablen Bege- | benheiten und Bericht-Schreiben an 
dessen Hrn. | Vattern / Patrioten und gute Freunde. 

The relation of this form of the Beschreibung to the early 
letters on the one hand and the fuller form of the Umstandige 
Gcographische Beschreibung, published in Frankfurt and Leipzig 
in 1790, on the other hand, will be discussed below. 

The most important printed work of Pastorius is this 
Detailed Geographical Description of Pennsylvania, published 
in its full form in 1700, with the following title: 

Umstandige Geogra- | phische | Beschreibung | Der zu allerletzt 
erfundenen | Provintz | Pensylva- | niae, | In denen End- 
Grantzen | Americae | In der West- Welt gelegen / | Durch | 
Franciscum Danielem | Pastorium, [ J. V. Lie. und Friedens- 
Richtern | daselbsten. | Worbey angehencket sind eini- | ge 
notable Begebenheiten / und / | Bericht-Schreiben an dessen 
Herrn | Vattern | Melchiorem Adamum Paste- I rium. | Und 
andere gute Freunde. | Franckfurt und Leipzig / [ Zufinden bey 
Andreas Otto. 1700. 

This book is printed on paper 6^ x 3^ inches and contains 
12 unnumbered preliminary pages, 120 numbered pages, and an 
Appendix of 2 unnumbered pages and pages 123-140 numbered. 
In the front is a "Map of Pennsylvania and West Jersey." 

The second edition was published four years later, with the 
following title : 

Umstandige Gcographische | Beschreibung | Der zu allerletzt 
erfundenen [ Provintz | Pensylva- | nias, | In denen End- 
Grantzen | Americas | In der West-Welt gelegen / | Durch | 

Franciscum Danielem 
Richtern I daselbsten 

Pastorium, | J. V. Lie. und Friedens- 
Worbey angehencket sind einige no- | 
table Bebegenheiten / und Bericht- ) Schreiben an dessen Herrn 
I Vattern | Melchiorem Adamum | Pastorium, | L^nd andere 
gute Freunde. | Franckfurt und Leipzig / | Zufinden bey An- 
dreas Otto. 1704. 

The second edition of 1704 is uniform in size with that of 
1700. But in the copy in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 
Friedrich Kapp's copy, the following are added: 

130 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

Zum Beschluss | Folget des Eigen-Herrns | unci Ober-Haupts 
(lieser Provintz | selbst concepirte, und an seine Freun- | de 
iibersandte | Beschreibnng / | Deren Umstande notabel zu 
lesen | sind. [Pp. 120-140.] 

Then follows a second work entitled : 

Continuatio | Der | Beschreibung der Landschafft | Pensylvanise 
I An denen End-Grantzen | Americce. | Uber vorige des Herrn 
Pastorii | Relationes. | Jn sich haltend : | Die Situation, und 
Fruchtbarkeit des | Erdbodens. Die Schiffreiche und andere | 
Fliisse. Die Anzahl derer bisshero gebauten Stadte. | Die 
seltsame Creaturen an Thieren / Vogeln und Fischen. Die 
Mineralien und Edelgesteine. Deren Eingebohrnen wil- den 
Volcker Sprachen / Religion und Gebrauche. Und | die ersten 
Christlichen Pflantzer und Anbauer | dieses Landes. | Beschrie- 
ben von | Gabriel Thomas | 15. Jahrigen Jnwohner dieses | 
Landes. | Welchen Tractatlein noch beygefiiget sind : | Des. Hn. 
Daniel Falckners | Burgers und Pilgrims in Pensylvania 193. | 
Beantwortungen uiT vorgelegte Fragen von | Guten Freunden. j 
Franckfurt und Leipzig / | Zu finden bey Andreas Otto / Buch- 
handlern. | Jm Jahr Christi 1702. 

This part contains four unnumbered and forty numbered 
pages. Then follows : 

Curieuse Nachricht | Von | Pennsylvania | in | Norden-x^mer- 
ica / I welche / | Auf Begehren guter Freunde / | Uber vorge- 
legte 103. Era- I gen / bey seiner Abreisz aus Teutsch- | land 
nach obigem Lande Anno 1700. | ertheilet /und nun Anno 1702. 
in den Druck | gegeben worden. | Von | Daniel Ealknern / Pro- 
fessore, | Burgern und Pilgrim allda. | Franckfurt und Leipzig / 
I Zu finden bey Andreas Otto / Buchhandlern. | Jm Jahr 
Christi 1702. 

Contains six unnumbered and fifty-eight numbered pages. 
Then follows : 

Beschreibung einiger orter | in Canada | aus des B. de la 
Hontan Reise. 

Contains eighty-five manuscript pages and one blank page. 
As was usually the case with the earlier prints, the second 

Manuscript of Pastorius' " Beehive. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 131 

edition seemed to have been reset, to some extent at least, for 
the lines do not correspond in the two texts. Then, too, the 
vignettes dififer in the two prints. The title-page even is differ- 
ently divided, as the following specimens will show. 

Title Page. 
1700 1704 

Umstandige Georgra- | Umstandige Geopraghische | 


Worbey augehencket sind eini- | Worbey augehencket sind einige no- | 

ge notable begebenheiten / und | table Begebenheiten / und Bericht- | 

Bericht-Schreiben an dessen Herrn | Schreiben an dessen Herrn | 

Melchiorem Adamum Pasto- | Melchiorem Adamum | 

rium I Pastorium | 

An den geneigtcn Leser. 
gelegten Staden und Kauffmafi- | Kaufifmann- j 


auf den Wege auf dem Wege . . . . 

keit meinen Lebens Lauf gegen die | gegen die fro- | 

frohe he &c 

und seine unergijndliche Giit und Barm- | Giite 

der I der frey- | 

freyen en 

1700 1704 

gelehr- | gelehrten | 

P- 2 ten so man- | 

so I cherley 

mancherley .... 

Religio- I 

nen Religionen und | 

Sinnen | Sinnen und spitzige j 

_es I es war von 

ein I ein so grosses | 

von I von welchen der 

War I War ra- 

p. 3 • • • • latitirende latirende 

P- 4 Marseille | Marseil 

denen I le de- 

also I nen also dasz 

An English translation of Pastorius' Bcschreihung by L. H. 
Weisz, was published in 1850 in the Memoirs of the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania (Vol. 4, part 2), and reprinted in Old 
South Leaflets (Gen. Ser. No. 95, Boston, 1898. A new trans- 

132 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

lation has been made under the direction of Dr. J. F. Jameson 
for his series : Original Narratives of Early American History. 

The year after the two hundredth anniversary of the landing 
of the Crefelders, Friedrich Kapp pubHshed a reprint of the 
Beschrcibnng of 1700, with an introduction. The book has the 
following title : 

Franz Daniel Pastorius' | Beschreibung von Pennsylvanien. | 

Nachbiklnng | der in Frankfurt a./M. im Jahre 1700 erschie- 
nenen Original-Ausgabe | [Cut: Vinum Linum et Textrinum.] 
I Herausgegeben | vom | Crefelder Verein fiir wissenschaftliche 
Vortrage. | Mit einer Einleitung | von | Friedrich Kapp. | 
Crefeld. | Druck von Kramer & Baum. | 1884. 

The original edition of 1700 was reviewed quite at length 
the same year in Monatlicher Aussug aiis allerhand neu-her- 
aiisgegebenen / niitdichen und artigen Bilchern. December 
MDCC. Zii findcn Bey Nicol. Forstern / Buchhdndl, in Hano- 
ver [pp. 495-500]. In a footnote the reviewer remarks: "Man 
kan nicht sehen / was fiir ein Printz von York seyn soil." 
This "Printz von York" is mentioned by Pastorius as having at 
that time [1665] "viel Volck" mostly Swedes, whom he com- 
manded to build on the Delaware. The reference is, of course, 
to the Duke of York, who represented the English King after 
the English occupation in 1664 and before the arrival of Penn as 
Proprietor of the Province of Pennsylvania. 

II. Unprinted Works. 

A great many of Pastorius' writings remain unpublished 
in the original manuscripts. Although a number of these manu- 
scripts seem to have been lost, enough have survived to make a 
long series of volumes, if they were all printed. The great folio 
MS. of the Beehive contains, after all, the best of his unprinted 
writings, and would be a great monument to German scholarship 
if it could be published. A number of the works given as sepa- 
rate books in Pastorius' own catalogue of his manuscripts seem 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 133 

to have been incorporated entire or in part in the Beehive, as will 
be indicated in the remarks accompanying this catalogue, which 
is printed below from the original source. 

The following unprinted manuscript works of Pastorius are 
known to be still in existence and have been seen consulted in the 
preparation of this work. They are discussed here in chronolog- 
ical order, as far as the dates could be determined. 

I. F. D. P. 

F. D. P. I Franciscus Daniel Pastorius. | Fortunante Deo Pietas 
Fert Deniq. Palmam. | Fideliter | Deus Providebit. | &c.'* 

This MS. is of paper 4x65-16 inches in size and contains 
620 numbered pages and 28 pages of index. Four hundred and 
twenty-two of these 620 pages are devoted to a kind of dictionary 
of phrases, etc., while the rest contains poems and sentiments 
in German and English, intended, evidently, as the beginnings 
of a large collection, and so preliminary to the Beehive, and 
hence antedating it. Indeed, some of the entries in the MS. would 
seem to point to the period before Pastorius' arrival in America. 
This is corroborated by the fact that what is evidently the original 
contemporaneous draft of the poems relating to the Keith Con- 
troversy, 1692, and the poems addressed to Jacob Tellner on his 
departure for Europe antedate the Beehive, which was written on 
paper that Tellner gave Pastorius before his departure for 
Europe. The original title-page seems to be wanting, evidently 
having been torn out. The pages 423-424 contain a list of 
"Nomina Propria" (52 in all). Page 424 has this interesting 
note on a work of Joachimus Pastoridis : 

"50. Joachimus Pastorius in seinen diflferentijs interpolitica 

genuinam et Diabolica. 

J. A. Pastorius in dem scharflfsinnigen Adler." 

* The original is in the possession of Ex-Governor S. W. Pennypacker, 
who kindly allowed the writer to examine it for this work. 

The full title-page may be seen in the photographic reproduction. 

134 frauds Daniel Pastorius 

Page 431 has what we may regard as F. D. Pastorius' ideal 
of woman : 

"Beschreibung eines rechtschaffenen Weibs. 
An schonheit des leibes, klugem Verstand u. Freyheit eines 
adeln. gemiiths keinem Frauenbild nichts bevor geben. Dasz sie 
auch den allerunempfindlichsten zur Hebe bewegen solte. 

Schon, glimpflich, angenehm u. hauszl auch zugleich, 
An Weisheit u. gestalt, an adel, gut u. reich. 
Die leffzen presilgen roth, hat einen halz, wie ein glatt 
Venetianisches bierglas." 

Pages 58off. contain the German and Enghsh poems on the 
Keith Controversy of 1692, 

2. Medicine Book. 

Medicus Dilectus vid. Colos. 4: 14 & | Medicamina delecta. 
Syrac. 38 : 4. | Das ist Auserlesene Artzney Mittel, | Deren 
Jngredientia in Pennsilvanien und | dergleichen neubegohenen 
Colonien | zu bekomen sind. | Vor sicli und seinen Nechsten vid. 
Luc. 10:36. Marc. 12:3. | aus verschiedenen Authoren zusam 
getragen | von Franco. Daniele Pastorio. | Anno 1695. etc. | 

A variant title page begins : 

Tolia Qualia | Medicinalia, Artificalia, & Naturalia, &c.^ 

On the paper back is written the following in Pastorius' 

hand : 



ist all umsunst 


Accipit a solo Vim Medicina Deo" 

Si Deus tibi non est curae 

Cur te curet Incuriose? 

Cura igitur, non tantum ut valeas, 

sed etiam, ut bene valeas, 

ut aeternum valeas. 

'' Written vertically on right margin. 

" See the photographic reproduction for full text of the page. 

ran0L5 Jktjiit t 

t 1.. Ivt ha 



"^ - VI- ^ ' ■ *'t ) ' ' — I Vl ' ' 1 ' ' ■ ' ' ' ^ 1 j 

f Jf0ifjt jle^tn !» <rti? rt/ii/ j I -^ i 1 

fo '\tflJ- I 

'^^(Ut>Jii^rAn.c(f(iif n^^nr.i'ti P^t fon1i.' /tent 

A Title Page of Pastorus' "Beehive." 


Francis Daniel Pastorius 135 


ut sit 

in Sano Mens Corpore Sana. 


Muth und Blut. 

Geht vor Guth. 


Franz Daniel Pastorius. 

The contents of the MS. include not only a treatise of dis- 
eases, but also of their remedies, particularly the medicinal herbs 
in Pennsylvania and other parts of America, as follows : 

Talia Oualia, &c., pages 1-26 (p. 23 blank). 

Medicus Dilectus, &c., title and other matter, 2pp. (unnum- 

"Inhalt" (table of contents), 4pp. (unnumbered). 

"Register des Artzney-Biichleins," &c., 12 pp. (unnum- 

The text of the "Artzney-Biichlein" is distributed as follows : 

Pp. 1-136, Description and Treatment of Diseases." 

137-201, "Treatise on the Properties of Herbs (1-16, new 
numbering [6-9 gone], entitled "Misch-Masch"). 

202-3, list of authors from whom the book is compiled. 

202 (4 pp. seem to be numbered "202"). 

202-261 (231, 239-246, 248-249 and 16 unnumbered pp. 
are blank) a list of remedies, &c. 

262-270 "Out of Robert Boyle's Medicinal Experiments." 

271-293 blank. 

The authorities mentioned by Pastorius number about 30 
in all. The list is here given : 

"Anzeigung der authoren, aus welchen disz biichlein colligirt ist. 

1. Ein klein geschrieben biichlein meines lieben Vatters 

Melch. Ad. Postorij. 

2. Staricij Heldenschatz, gedruckt 1658. 

3. Johann Tallat Artzney biichlein. 

4. Leonhard Thurneissers Krauterbuch in fol. 1575. 

5. Martin Schmuckens Schatzkastlein in ^°. 1652. 

136 hrancis Daniel Pastorius 

6. L. M. S. L. de occulta Magico-Magnetica morborum quo- 

rundam Curatione natural!, in 8"" 1652. ejusde Lie. 
Martin Scliniuckens Lips. 

7. Wolff Helmhardt Freyherrn von Hohberg Georgica Curi- 

osa in fol. 1682. 

8. Lazari Riverij Observationes Medicae in 8°. 1646. 

9. Het Kleyn i'roetzvyfs Boeck, gedruckt. t'Amsterdani in 8\ 

10. Petri Nylandts Nederlandtse Herbarius in 12°. 1673. 

11. NB. Gulp, oder audi nur ein gross. G. bedeut Nic. Culpep- 

per's English Physician enlarged, Printed at London in 
8". 1698. Welches treftlche buch ein liberaus schlect 
Register hat. 

12. Johahis Coleri Oeconomiae Ruralis & Domesticae Anderer 

Theil oder Haus-Artzney, gedruckt zu Mayntz in fol. 
1645. so eben falls vor gemeine unsturdirte lent sehr 
dienstig, u. in diesem biichlein mit Gol. allegirt ist. 

13. Auch ist heirih referirt zu meinem Calendario Calendar i- 
orum in 8°. 

14. Ghristopher Wirsung sein Artzney Buch in fol. 1568. 

15. Balthasar Schnurr von Lendsidel sein Kunst- u. W'under- 

buch in 8°. 

16. Johaii Ghristoph Thiemen Haus-Feld-Artzney &c buch in 

4°. 1700. 

17. Vorstelick Geschenck dat is En Medecyn boeck, &c., in 

grooter weerden gehouden in den Vorstelicken huyse 
van Nassouwen ende Princen van Orangien t' Amstel- 
dam in 8*^. 1662. 

18. Georgij Hornij Area Mosis, in 12°. 1668. 

19. Philippi Theophrasti Bombasts Faracels Opera in zwey 

theilen, fol. 1603. gedruckt zu Strassburg, und eod. 
anno in 4". zu Franckfurt am Meyn. 

20. William Mather's the Young Man's Gompanion, in 12'^. 


21. Robert Boyle's Medicinal Experiments, in 12°. 1696 & the 

third Volume 1698. he was Fellow of the Royal Society. 

22. James Cooke's Alellisicium Ghirurgiae, in 12°. 1648. 

23. Wm. Salmon's Polygraphices, Or the Arts of Drawing, 

Limning, Painting, Engraving, Etching, Dying, &c. in 
80. 1685. 

24. Jeremiah Love's Glavis Medicinae, or Practice of Physick 

reformed, in 8°, 1674. 

Johanes Golerus p. 75. recomendirt denen gemeinen einfaltig 
luten folgende Antores in re Medico zu lesen : Opera Gualtheri. 
Hermani Ryfen. Frisij Speculum Medicinae; Hieronymi Braun- 
schweigers Haus Apothecke, Thesaurus Pauperum genannt. D. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 137 

Joanis Driandri Artzney u. Practicier-biichlein, Jacobi Theod. Taber- 
naemontani neues Artzneybuch. Jt sein Krauterbuch. D. Oswaldi 
Gabelkovern Artzney-bucb. Remberti Dodonsei Cruyde-boeck, in 
fol. 1554. 

Die Natur u. art aller Krauter, thier, Edelgestein erlernet man 
aus dem Theophrasto ; Bockio ; Lonicero ; Fucbsio ; Dondona^o ; 
Dioscoride mit den Comentarijs Mattbioli. Camerarij horto Medico. 
Mattkioli Compendio de Plantis. Level's Compleat herbal. Culpep- 
per's English Physician. Thurneissers Krauterbuch." 

3. Beehive. 

It is safe to say, that, of all the original German Ameri- 
can documents representing European culture in the Colonial 
period, the most interesting and extensive is the unicum, the folio 
manuscript left by Francis Daniel Pastorius, "the Pennsylvania 
Pilgrim," the founder of Germantown. This document, contain- 
ing Pastorius' Bee-Hive or Bee-Stock, is the Magna Charta 
of German culture in colonial America and a veritable speculum 
scicntionnii of the seventeenth century — the first American Ency- 
clopedia, antedating the epoch of the French Encyclopedists. It 
has a number of title-pages of which this may be taken as one of 
the shortest : 

Francis Daniel Pastorius | his | Hive or Bee-stock | Containing 
above two thousand little Honey-Combs ; | Begun in the year 
1696 I And continued for the use of his Children.^ 

The origin and history of the Beehive of Pastorius are sig- 
nificant, as showing the intregity and loyalty of German family 
tradition in America in colonial times. Pastorius, evidently pain- 
fully conscious of the peril of cultural deterioration confronting 
his descendants in the wilds of the west, where books were few 
and the love of them scarce, composed this Thesaurus of the 
useful knowledge of his time as a heritage to his children, his two 
sons, and, let us confess, as a memorial of what their father had 
known. On the inside of the parchment cover, in his own hand, 
is the following, referring to the book: 

' The most important variant title-pages may be seen in the photographic 

jog Francis Daniel Pas tortus 

"This book saith thus to my two Sons : 

"Part not with me! J'm excellently good. 
If rightly read and rightly understood." 

From the book itself we learn (p. 50) the purpose of the 

"At the first undertaking of this Book my mean scope was, for 
the future Jmitation of my two Sons, onely to collect comnion 
Proverbs, witty Sentences, wise and goodly sayings, with the like 
substantial marrow of other men's writings, etc." See page 55. 

And again (p. 51 ) he states the same fact, speaking of him- 
self as follows: 

"When he took this in hand, he did not think 
To show any man his Paper and his Jnk. 
His only Purpose was, in Black and White, 
With his two Httle ones (departing) to abide. 

"Nevertheless, this may live when he is dead ; and thus he leaves 
it to the Perusing of his Readers ; not caring a doit whether they will 
like it or dislike it. He knows that it will not please all, and doubts 
if it will please some." 

Intimation of a change of plan is given on p. 55 of the MS. : 

"But afterwards considering the copiousness of Words, Phrases 
and Expressions in the English (my said two Sons' Country-lan- 
guage; for, seeing J and my wife are both Germans, J dare not call 
it their mother-) tongue, which they, if possible, should perfectly 
learn to read and write and to indite." 

And also p. 51, quoted above, and in revised form, p. 55 : 

"After J had collected two V'olumes of delightful Proverbs, 
witty Sentences, wise and godly sayings ; comprising for the most 
part necessary and profitable caveats." 

The history of the Beehive manuscript is similar to that of 
most old manuscripts — a succession of disappearances, reappear- 
ances and not a little mutilation. A tradition of this document 
(still current in the Pastorius family) says that Pastorius directed 
that it should be kept in the possession of the male descendant 

Francis Daniel Pastorins 139 

next in line within the hmit of ten miles of Germantown. This 
wish of Pastorins seems to have been heeded by all the heirs of the 
manuscript. A few years ago the document was loaned to the late 
Professor Oswald Seidensticker, through the medium of the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania, and, after being duly returned 
to the Pastorius family, disappeared for a time. Efforts were 
made by persons in and outside of the State to rediscover it, but 
to no purpose. Rumors were afloat that the MS. had gone with 
Washington Pastorius' family to Boston, and thence to Colorado 
Springs. A few years ago, however, late in 1896, the present 
writer was given a clue to the whereabouts of the document, by 
Julius F. Sachse, Esq., and finally allowed by he holder, Mr. 
Daniel Pastorius Bruner, of Germantown, to make use of it for 
the purpose of bringing the most important parts of it before the 
public in an accurate print of the original with critical treatment. 
It seems now that up to that time the MS. had never been away 
from Germantown, except during the period in which it was 
loaned to Professor Seidensticker in Philadelphia. Mr. Bruner 
wrote me, under the date of April 13, 1897, as follows, giving 
the names of the members of the family through whom the MS. 
has been handed down : 

"I don't know positively that the 'Bee-Hive' was ever taken away 
from Philadelphia. Mr. [Washington] Pastorius kept a quantity of 
papers, etc., in the Bank in Germantown, and he stated to me that he 
intended to keep it there. Hence I think you can safely state that it 
has never been out of Philadelphia county, and out of Germantown 
only during the time that Mr. Seidensticker had it. The Family Rec- 
ord shows pretty well in whose possession it has been since the death 
of Francis Daniel Pastorius. The writing is in the hand-writing of 

"i. Francis Daniel Pastorius. 

"2. Henry Pastorius, his son. 

"3. Daniel Pastorius, grandson. 

"4. Abraham Pastorius, great grandson 

"4. Daniel Pastorius, 

My great grandfather. 

"5. Washington Pastorius. 

"6. Francis Daniel Pastorius, son of Washington. 

"7. Daniel Pastorius Bruner." 

140 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

After the death of D. P. Briiner the MS. was returned to 
Francis Daniel Pastorius, of Colorado Springs, who placed it 
on exhibition at the Library of the University of Pennsylvania, 
with special permission to the present writer to make use of it in 
this work. 

The Beehive manuscript presents the external appearance of 
a mediaeval document. It is written on thin paper, in folio 
yYi X 12 inches, and bound in a parchment cover, taken evidently 
from still older books or other documents (one contains the text 
of an old writ of release) and the whole is tied together with two 
strips of faded red leather. Upon the cover is found the follow- 
ing title : 

Alvearium Apiculse Germanopolitanse Anglicanum. 

(written on the edge of the folding cover, also on the back of 
cover, under the folding edge, and in apparently older form on 
the inside reverse of the cover). Each repetition of the title 
represents probably a rebinding or rearrangement of the book. 

The writing itself of the Beehive is in the very regular, fine, 
legible hand of Pastorius, whose signature and handwriting are 
so familiar to those acquainted with the early records of German- 
town indited by the jurist-scribe while agent of the Frankfurt 
Company and afterwards. The first few pages of the MS. in 
its present form have crumbled away at the top under the 
corrosive effect of the ink, which was black, except in a few 
instances where red ink was used for underscoring. The German 
passages are written in German script ; the rest in Latin script. 

The pages of the MS. are ruled along the margins up and 
down and across, and each ruled space, containing a separate 
entry is numbered. 

Occasionally a pen-drawing is found which is intended for 
illustrating or ornamenting the text. The favorite emblem is 
a heart, a pipe or some geometrical figure. 

The fact that the manuscript is slowly disintegrating and 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 141 

has lost some folios makes it desirable to place the contents of 

the surviving folios on record. The contents at present in the 

order of the MS. are the following:^ 

Pages I ?-2 ? contains an introductory account of the origin of 
the Beehive. 

3 ?-5 ? The title of the Beehive in seven languages (Greek, Latin, 
English, Dutch, German, Italian, French) and other intro- 
ductory matter in prose and verse. 

5 ? Address to different classes of readers. 

6? Blank. 

7 ? A second title page. 

8?-24. Index of words or subjects treated in the book. 

24? "An alphabetical register of the names of those who [for- 
sooth] are immortalized by Epitaphs rehearsed in the Manu- 
script from p. II, etc." 

25-40. "A Peculiar Judex or Table to Onomastical Considera- 
cons which begin page 63, iii." 

41-45. Blank. 

46-48. "Symbola Onomastica vide infra pag. 55, 66, 67, i, quae 
hie continuantur." 

49. "Francis Daniel Pastorius his Book, 1696." A title-page. 

50. "The Contents of this Portable Volume of Jmportation." 

I? (New numbering.) "Francis Daniel Pastorius his Alphabet- 
ical Hive." A title-page. 

2?-io? "Tantum Quantum seu Donum Bonum Jnscriptionum. 
Inscriptions of sundry Sorts, And yet the most in Latin 

11-15. "Some Epitaphs ex Libello Epitaphiorum Olim a me 

16-17. Blank. 

18-21. Inscriptions &c. 

*The interrogation point (?) after numbers indicates that the number 
is either wanting or illegible. 

142 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

22. A copy of Verses written by Thomas Elwood. 

23. Blank. 

24. Gospel of Nicodemus and other books discussed. 
25-53. "Emblematical Recreations." 

54. "Mellitotrophium Apiculae Germanopolitanae, F. D. P." 

55 first. "Francis Daniel Pastorius His Hive or Beestock," etc. 

55 second. "Being a Supplement to the next three Leaves, 


56-58 first. "Quakers." 

58 second. "Some Treatises of God's People called Quakers in 


59 first-6i first. "No Quakers." 

61 second. "Quakers." Collection of Friends Writings, &c. 

62 first-63 first. "No Quakers." 

63 second-64 first. "Friends' Writings." 

64 second. "No Quakers." 

65 first. "No Quakers." 

65 second. "Some more Anonymous Writings published by 

those called Quakers." 
66-67 first. "A few Supplements to my former Emblematical 


67 second-67 fourth. "Continuatio Symbolorum Onomasti- 


68 first-68 second. Two leaves pasted together, containing "sorry 

69-70 second. "Index sec|q. Metrorum," to the following poems. 
70 second-122 (59 pp.). "Silvula Rhytmorum Germanopolitan- 

orum." First 14 pp. have no numbers visible; 86 and 87 are 

two leaves pasted together. 
1 23-13 1. Blank, except at the bottom of 131. 
1 31-133. Epigrams and so forth. 

134. Blank. 

135. More Epigrams. 

^.lun .4f. 

- /» -tv '^i jff 

3 IL%- -iff"' -i *"•' li-'it'-' 

'nm:Wiu>i,Ay /c jin^ ^Y^ nycf ^tfu,^ .'tfufj. *a^ »y^fM 

! f3M^«>f tft .>§r>Af May/ , anl ^^fdCitiA *'/ f^i-pi^ 4ki''*'n^ 

.itafoMlCfcJ' JtmuhttUh' mevfu- , Jam- if^i-".'-' • '■"i'^nriA. p.,L \\ 
;' (TA^^ii-hf-it auini.i »iia.ihuJ bc/filc ^tiUJ -rocH'^ ^\^ji^]j^. 

> ditk.Wiqc/it m^aJj ^iidU VhXiZ'^ L S' 'M "•' ;./"'»'" ^f*- 4 -r'/r Jtm. 

^Mum<WL/cnf4 Xt^ '/^7/>i*yij,>c«^^ «.«A?^.>;^^ 

''■^■ ^.hj. _, JxiVCd A'luit/tl toTX 

kficti. OiCi/ 

TT'^^.iSn ■ -^ \ I 


ii_. iri 

A Title Page of Pastorius' " Beehive. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 143 

136-140. "Continuatio Symbolorum Onomasticoriim, adde supra 

p. 55-" 
141 ?-i43? Blank. 

144? Loose page. 

[ ]. I page containing deed of Henry Cassel to Thomas Rutter. 

[ ]. One unnumbered page, blank. 

86 third-87 second. Blank (evidently confused). 

88-110. "Genethliacum, or An hearty Congratulation" and 
"Some Onomastical Considerations occasioned by Our dearly 
Esteemed Name-Sake, John Penn," &c. 

(Six unnumbered pages. Then page 93 numbered, followed by 
eight unnumbered pages, and then pp. 104, 105?, 106 to 

111-124. "Plus Ultra, or Some Further Onomastical Considera- 

126? Omitted. 

127-159. Continuation of "Plus Ultra." 

160-163. "The Tithe-Teacher Plaintiff, the Poor Man De- 

164-252. Continuation of Onomastical Considerations from p. 

253-259? Blank. 

[ ]. "Commemoratory Poem on Francis Daniel Pastorius, 
Howell Powell fecit 31 mo. 3tii. mensis 1720" (In another 
hand ) . 

220 second ?-225 second. Genealogical Table and Sketch of 
Pastorius Family, 6 pp. 

226 second-227. Blank, 2 pp. 

228 second-230? The Pastorius Necrology, 3 pp. 

[ ]-2o8. Unnumbered pages — a sort of Alphabetical Encyclo- 
pedic Dictionary. 
82d p., numbered as 217). "Additions," with a new marginal 
numbering (No. 1-1005, 149th- 150th pp. loose). 

375 (numbering resumed). "The Writings of Some called 
Quakers, as also of some other honest men." 

144 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

376. "The Writings of Some called Quakers and other good 
Authors." (General bibliography, 102 titles in all.) 

377-379? 4 pp. "Those that will read may read the following 
Folios, Quartos, etc." List of facts on various subjects, 
numbered 1 1 1 ff. 

3(So? Bo(^ks Published by those of the Philadelphian Society. 

381 (vide Port-folio 48). Continuation to Encyclopedic Diction- 
ary (93 pp., with the 94th numbered as 380). 

380-385. Continuation of "Additions" to Encyclopedic Diction- 
ary (No. 1006-15 10). 

386. "Catalogue of Francis Daniel Pastorius his Manuscripts, 
besides this present Alvearium or Alphabetical Hive (The 
Contents whereof are speciled above, on the first leaf.)" 

387-398 ( followed by ten pp. unnumbered, and then by 409-41 1 
and 4ii?-542?) Continuation of "Additions" (No. 1511- 

[ ] Two loose sheets. 

The best impression of the Beehive can be derived from a 
perusal of the title-pages as they stand, in each of which some 
new phase of the work is elaborated ; to this end the text of the 
title-pages in their present order in the MS. was accurately 
printed in the Americana Germanica.^ 

The apology for such a Common-Place-Book and the chief 
sources of the work, are given by the author himself on the first 
page as follows : 

"For as much as our Memory is not Capable to retain all re- 
markable words. Phrases, Sentences or Matters of Moment, which 
we do hear and read, Jt becomes every good Scholar to have a 
Common-Placc-Book, & therein to Treasure up whatever deserves 
his Notice, &c. And to the end that he may readily know, both 
whither to dispose and Jnsert each particular, as also where upon 
Occasion to find the same again, &c. he ought to make himself an 
Alphabetical Judex, like that of this Bee-Hive, beginning infra 
page 10. 

Cf. Americana Germanica, I 4, p. 74ff. 

Francis Daniel Pas tor ins 145 

And Seeing it is the largest of my Manuscripts, which J in my 
riper Years did gather out of excellent English Authors, whose 
Names ye may see pag. 56, &c. 

My Desire, Last Will and Testament is, that my Two Sons John 
Samuel and Henry Pastorius shall have & hold the same with the 
Rest of my Writings, mentioned infra page 386. to themselves & 
their heirs for ever, and not to part with them for any thing in this 
World ; but rather to add thereunto some of their own, &c. Because 
the price of Wisdom is above Rubies, and cannot be Valued with the 
precious Onyx or Sapphire : And to get Understanding is rather to 
be chosen than Silver and Gold. &c. 

Prov. 16:16. Job. 28:16, 18. Francis Daniel Pastorius. 

1. In this Volume J only collected the Best out of English (or 

Englished) Books, as you may see from foil. 55 to 64. 
Excepted never the less some few lines out of the Dntch 
Writings of Sebastian Franck, a honest & notable man 
in his Time, Vid. fol. 59, num. 114, 115, 118. 

2. Item out of Georgji Hornij Area Mosis ; Ejusdemq. Orbe 

Jmperante & Politico, vid. fol. 60, num. 138. 

3. Item out of Henrici Cornelij Agrippae libello de Vanitate 

Scientiarum, vid. fol. 59, num. 31. 

4. Item out of Johannis Valtini Andreae Menippo sive Dia- 

logis Satyricis, vid. fol. 59, num. 32. 

5. Item out of the high-German Medicinal & Chirurgical 

Works of Theophrastus Paracelsus, fol. 60, num. 219; 
whereof these are printed in the same Year, viz. i6o^i 
both in folio at Strassburg & in 4°. at Frankfort, j' 
quote them only Parac. fol. & Parac. 4°. where in their 
very Compleat Jndexes or Tables you may look for the 
pages, as also in mine Alvearialibus^" (a small Mscript 
in 8°. ) from page 170 to 274. 

Of these writings I further carried a deal into my Col- 
lectanea Theologica, and into my Talia Qualia Medici- 
nalia, &c. 
6. Item out of Nehemise Crew's Tractatu de Sale Cathartico 
Ebeshamensi, Vide fol. 59, num. 125. 

7. Item Petri de Vege Medici Gratianopolitani Tractatus duo, 

I. Pestis prsecavendae & curandae Methodus certissima. 
II. Per Dogmaticorum cum Spagiricis, in 12°. 1628. Petrus 
de Vege sive Vegceus. 

8. Item Cornelij Drebelij Belg?e Tractatus duo. i. de Natura 
Elementorum; 11 quinta Essentia in 12°. 1628. 

Cf. The table contents of Alvearialia. 

146 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

9. Item Jan Loets Wintersche Avonden. gedruckt tot Utrecht, 

in 12°. 1650. 
10. Item Guldene Annotatien van Franciscus Hecrman; den 
vyfthiende Druck, t' Amsterdam, in 12°. 1676.^^ 

The author himself calls the book an encyclopedia in the 
following verses taken from one of the several title-pages : 

"A Encyclopady of all that can be known, | Those very well may 

make by Common placing do * * * | 
The better sort of things, out of the best of Books, ] Who happily 

their Spears beat into Pruning hooks. | " 

The further history of the MS. is seen from the following: 

"At the first undertaking of this Book my mean Scope was, for 
tile future Jmitation of my two Sons, onely to collect Common 
Proverbs, witty Sentences, wise and godly Sayings, with the like 
substantial Marrow of other Men's Writings, &c. See pag. 55. 

But afterwards Considering the Copiousness of Words, Phrases 
& Expressions in the English ( : my said two Sons Country-lan- 
guage; For seeing J and my wife are both Germans, J dare not well 
call it their Mother :) -Tongue, which they, if possible, should per- 
fectly learn To Read & Write, and to Jndite, J took as much pains & 
patience as to Jmport into this Alphabetical Alvearium all & Singular 
Terms, Jdioms, Maners of Stile & Speech used in the same. Now 
Jnasmuch the former is to supply the place of honey, so these latter 
J would have to be accounted if not for Wax, yet for hive dross. &c. 
See pag. seq." 

"When he took this in hand, he did not think To shew to any 
man his Paper and his Jnk ; His only Purpose was in black and white 
With his two little ones ( : departing:) to abide. Nevertheless this 
may live when he is dead ; And thus he leaves it to the perusing of his 
Readers ; not caring a doit, whether they will like or dislike it." 

" In this Hive there are also alledged a few notable Sentences of the 
primitive Fathers, viz. Ignatius, Polycarpus, Dionysius, Justinus Martyr, 
Irenaeus, Tertullianus, Clemens Alexandrinus, Origenes, Gregorius Tha- 
cem[?], Cyprianus, Arnobius, Lactantius, Eusebius Csesariensis, Athanasius, 
Hilarius, Cyrillus, Ephraem Syrus, Basilius Magnus, Gregorius Nazianzenus, 
Epiphanius, Ambrosius, Gregorius Nyssenus, Theotoretus, Hieronymus, 
Chrysostomus, Augustinus, Petrus Chrysologus, Prosper, Fulgentius, Gre- 
gorius Magnus, Isidorus, Beda, Johanes Damascenus, Nicephorus, Theophy- 
lactus, Anselmus, Rupertus, Bernardus, Petrus Lombardus, Alexander Hales, 
Bonaventura, Thomas Aquinas. N. B. Those of Thomas a Kempis you'll 
find in my Collect. Theolog. in 4°. 


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Title Page ok Fkancis Daniel 1'astorius' "Beehive". 

[Manuscript temporarily deposited by a lineal descendant of Francis 

Daniel Fastorius in the Library of the University of Pennsylvania.) 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 147 

The genesis of the book and the mode of procedure are given 
in what seems to be the earHest form of the title-page.^- Here 
we find the interesting statement that the original form of the 
Beehive was written on a quire of paper which Jacob Tellner gave 
Pastorius before leaving for Europe : 

"After J had collected Two Volums of delightful Proverbs, 
witty Sentences, wise and godly Sayings ; Comprizing for the most 
part necessary & profitable Caveats, Advises, Doctrines & Jnstruc- 
tions ; out of many Authors of many minds & different Opinions, not 
only in my Mother-Tongue, but likewise in the Low-Dutch, French, 
Jtalian and Latin which both Books in 4° are still with me. For the 
better learning of the English, and that my two Sons ( : who prob- 
ably will never attain to the Understanding of the said Languages:) 
might hereafter have some of their Fathers Steps, thereby to be 
guided to the same Diligence & Assiduity of Picking the Best out of 
Good Writings, J endeavoured at Spare-times to make this present 
Hive on a Quire of fine Paper, which a Friend of mine [ : Jacob 
Tellner:^ departing for Europe did give me; And when allover filled 
up with honey-combs, J was Constrained to enlarge my Hive with 
more courser, homely or home-spun Stuff of this Country-Product. 
Thus J leave it for the Perusing of those for whom it was contrived 
in the first beginning thereof; Nevertheless Jf any other besides 
them should happen to be benefitted by these Miscellanies, Jt will not 
sad, but glad my heart. 

Nam Prodesse volo cunctis, nulliq. Nocere : ) 

Semper amare bonos, et tolerare malos. ) r. U. r". 

As for my performance herein J could heartily wish it might 
prove to all honest people's good liking. 

The final fullest form of the title seems to be that in seven 
languages, which runs as follows :^^ 

[Folio 3?] 

'H Tov (f>pav^iaxov ^avLrj\t<i Haaropiov K.v(f)€Xi} MeXiTToyv 

Franciscus Daniel Pastorius Alvear istud 

Jure sibi proprio vindicat atj. suis. 

'- Cf. the title-page in seven languages, especially the English form of 
the title: 

"Francis Daniel Pastorius' Papcr-HiW. 
Whose Beginning once was in Page Fifty-five." 
" Cf. the photographic reproduction. 

148 Francis Daniel Pastorins 

Francis Daniel Pastorius's Faper-Hive, 

Whose Beginning once was in page Fifty-five 

adde pag. 54-51. 49. 9. 8, & 7- 

Franz Daniel Pastorius syn Bie-Stock. 

Frantz Daniel Pastorius sein Immen-korb. 

L'Avia (Albio o Cupile) di Francesco Daniele Pastorio. 

La Ruche (Auge, Panier on Catoire) de Francois Daniel Pastorius. 

Jn these Seven Languages J this my Book do own, vide infra p. 7 num 

Friend, if thou find it, Send the same to Germantown ; 

Thy Recompense shall be the half of half a Crown : 

But, tho' it be no more than half the half of this. 

Pray ! Be Content therewith, & think it not amiss. 

Yea and if, when thou com'st, my Cash perhaps is gone, 

(For Money is thus scarce, that often J have none) 

A Cup of Drink may do : Or else, alas ! thou must 

Trust unto me a while. As J to Others Trust, 

Who failing make me fail : A thing extreme unjust ! 

To which J have no lust ; But must per Force, poor Dust. 

Freund, Was dii findest, wiedergieb, 

Sonst halt man dich vor einen Dieb 
In diesem; und in jenem Leben 

Folgt anders nichts als Hollen-pein. 
Gott Selbst hat disz Gesetz gegeben 

Zu thun, wie man Gethan will seyn. 

Quod Tibi vis fieri, hoc facias Alijs. 

2. My Brains J may not longer break, When now the Hive itself 
docs speak. 

Come Friend ! Be't Gentleman or Groom, 

Peruse me in my Master's Room ; 

But never talk of Borrowing, 

He mightily dislikes the Thing. &c, 

J once was lent, and almost lost ; 

Henceforth J'll keep at home, 

And thus attending on my Post, 

Fear nothing that may come. 
F. D. P. 

Fretus Dei Prsesentia, 

Fatigabo Difficultates Patientia, 

Frustraborq. Dolos Prudentia. 
Fortunante Deo Pietas Fert Denique Palmam, vide infra pag. 
55 & 67. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 149 

And to my Hvo Sons Jt saith: 

Part not with me! J'm excellently good, 
If rightly iis'd & rightly understood. 
You full well know, your father never would 
Have sold this Hive for 7 lbs. of Gold 
Or 462 sh.^Currt. Silver Money 
of Penn Silvania.^* 
Vohov MeXtcrcrat? /xeV yXvKr] crrd^et MeXt, 
Kvdev 8' Kpd'xye'i aiavov ' lov ttUl. Adde infra pag. 54, § 3. 
Rosa quidem Apibus Mel dulce stillat, 
Sed inde Aranea grave efficit Venenum. 
From that Rose, whence the Bees their sweetest honey pluck, 
The Spiders, Tarantuls, the worst of Venom suck. 
Besser bringt man Honigseim 
/7»;»^n-gleich von fernen heim, 
Als dass man nach art der Spinnen 
Selbst was giftigs solt ersinnen. 
'A'yaTvd MeXL " A/3/CT0<f. Mel diligit Ursus. 
Ursus Ego : laetor liquidi dulcedine Mellis, 
Inq. meis Nectar dispono dapsile Cellis. 
M.r) ve/xeaa ^aiolai; ^dpi<; ^aiolaiv OTrijSel. 
Ne parviducas Parva, est sua Gratia Parvis. 
J with Demochares, small Things to scorn forbid : 
Oft in a little Place great Treasures may be hid. 
A Nightingale is better than a kite. Levit. 1 1 : 14. 
No Alms, nor Gift above the Widows Mite. Mark. 12:42. 
A small Diamond is of more worth than the largest Brick. 
In kleinen Sacken ist das best Gewiirtz. 

4. Index to the Beehive. 

Several thousand | Crannies | of | F. D. P.s | Alphabetical 
Hive I in Folio, | Jnto which he collected | 
I. Variety of Words, Phrases & Anglicisms, | 
II. Variety of Comon Sayings & Proverbs | 
III. Rarity of more Jmportant Matters. &c.^''' 

The MS. is ^^ x 6 inches in size and contains 53 written 
pages, 3 blank pages and one fly-leaf in the front, upon which is 

Written vertically on right margin. 

For the detailed title-page see the photographic reproduction. 

150 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

"Presented Aug. 18. 1859 

To Mrs Ann Eliza Schuster 

by Charles M. Wagner, 

Presented to Washington Pastorius 

by his cousin Ann Eliza Pastorius Schuster" 

(lone in the handwriting of the respective donors. The book is 
bound in boards, on the inside of which is pasted, front and back, 
a sheet of the same paper as that upon which the book is written. 
Back of these inside pages and on the last page of the MS. are 
mottoes and sentiments written in Pastorius' hand. The first 
inside cover page contains the following anagram and verses : 

"F. D. P. Favos Diligentia Parat 
Studium et Constantia, 
Labor & Tolerantia 
Colligunt ab Infantia, 
Lectorem Delectantia. 
Et Finem Coronantia. 
Jf we not exercise our Wit, 
A short Time's Sloth corrupteth it. 

Jgnavus : Jgnarus. 
Neglectis urenda Filix innascitur Agris. 
Wie in syn Lant geen Koren saeyt ; 
'Tis seeker, dat hy Distels maeyt. 
An Encyclopedy of all what can be known. 
May very Well be made by Comon-placing down 
The Better Sort of Things out of the Best of Books ; 
And such a Work, no doubt, the Best of men would own, 
Some Better lay aside their Surplis & their Gown, 
Yea and Good Captains beat their Spears to Pruning-hooks. 
Fac Deus Providebit." 

5. Alvearilia. 

Alvearialia, | Or such Phrases and Sentences, | which in haste 
were Booked down here, | before J had Time to Carry them to 
their respective proper Places in my | English-Folio-Bee-hive. 
Francis Daniel Pastorius. | Fac bene Dum vivis. Post | mortem 
vivere, si vis. | Finis Dabit Praemium. | 

On the left margin of the title-page is written: "Francis 
Daniel Pastorius." As will be seen from the photographic half- 
tone, the title-page is decorated with leaves done in colors, which 
are much dimmed with age and use. 








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Index to Pastorius' "Beehive.' 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 151 

The size of the MS. is a small 8° of the time, containing 359 
written and 1 7 numbered blank pp. bound in vellum, covered with 
brown paper. On the vellum and paper cover is written on 
margin and top Alvcarialia. On the inside of the cover, on the 
right margin, is a faint but partially legible Latin inscription: 
"Me juvat Innumeros." 

A kind of explanatory title preface follows the title proper : 

"F. D. P. 

Looking over of late my Rejectanea or Waste-papers, | among a 
great heap of others J met also with | these here partly Jnclosed & 
partly stitch'd together, | which making (as you see) a pretty Little 
Book, I deserve (methinks) a Frontispiece or Title-page | and for- 
asmuch as all whats cancell'd is Jnserted | in mine English Bee-Hive 
in folio, I J thought convenient to call them ] Tatum Quantum Lac 
Infantum, Or \ Talia Qualia Alvcarialia, \ What others did contrive 
J carry to my Hive. \ desiring those, to whose hands they may come, 
I that perhaps shall never have the Opportunity | to behold mine 
abovesd Alphabetical Hive to | make good Use of these hasty Pud- 
dings or Schediasms, | minding always the h: Apostles wholsom 
Admonition | i. Thess. 9: 20. | 

Omnia explorantes Bonum tenete. \ the ear trieth words, &c. 
Job. 34. 3. 1 

Read Reader, read Judiciusly, | 
Shun Jmplicit Credulity: | 
Prove first and then Approve what's Good: | 
Judge not of things not understood. | 
These foregoing few Lines are in lieu of a Preface, | And if any 
would have me dedicate it to some Body, | I herewith Complement- 
ally consecrate the same | To himself, \ of what Quality Soever; | 
provided nevertheless he be One of the Excellent | Spirited in this 
New English World, &c. \ Or a True English Soul, as the 
Athenia Oracles phrase is. | 

NB. Post haste did write these Sheets: S Zoilus, the Nibbler, 
Says well, he can't read all, & therefore calls me Scribbler : 
But if he can not and other can ; Whom J dare call a Better man. 
The Authors, zvhereout J \ after the manner \ of Bees have 
gather'd the little Honey & Wax \ which you find in the following 
sheets, are \ 

1. the first Volume of the Athenian Oracle, p. i 

2. Reginald Scot's discovery of Witchcraft p. 35 

152 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

3. The Rights of the Christian Church asserted agt all 

priests who claim an Jndependent Power over it. 
Anonymous p. 41 

4. E. IV. the husbandman's Manual p. 53 
R. B. nine worthies (sic) 

5. fF'" Temples two Volumes of Letters and his Observa- 

tions on the United provinces of Netherland p. 57 

6. Edward Cocker's Arithmetick p. 72 

7. Poor Robins Almanack 1686 p. 73 

8. Francis Quarles Emblems & hieroglyphicks p. yy 

9. the Trueborn Englishman D'Foe p. 85 

10. Henry Sackever ell's Sermon p. 91 

11. Ainszvorth's Quotations upon the 5 books of Moses, 

Psalms p. 93 

12. Mauint or the Turkish Spy's first volume. p. 103 
Ejusdem Seventh and Eighth Volumes p. 125 

13- P- 113 

14. William Penn's divers Treatises p. 147 

15. Don Diego Saavcdra's 100 Emblems p. 157 

16. Still Ainsworth's Quotations upon the Song of Songs p. 169 

17. Theophrasti Paracelsi Opera in Fol°. two Volumes p. 170 

18. Don Francesco de Quavedo's Visions p. 181 

19. Pietae Hallensis, concerning the Orphan-house at 

Glencka p. 197 

20. Ashhnrst's Remarks on Nath. Heywood's Life p. 201 

21. Henry Coley's Almanack 1698 p. 205 

22. Geo. Parker's Almanack 1699 agt John Partridge p. 206 

23. John Partridge's Almanack 1699 p. 211 

24. Jane Lead's Message to the Philadelphian Society &c p. 212 

Bundle of Revelations untied &c 

25. Jacobi Vivcrij Werelt's Beschryvinghe p. 213 

26. N. H. the husband forced to be Jealous p. 216 

27. Culpepper's Physician's library or ye London Dispensa- 

tory p. 221 

28. le Febure's Compleat Body of Chymistry p. 224 

29. Edxvard Phillip's Theatrum Poetarum p. 230 

30. An account of the Success of the two Danish Missionaries 

in Malabar, 1709 p. 233 

31. Out of divers Writings J know not which. However 

from p. 235 to p. 242 much is taken out of the Life 
of Ambrosius Merlin, written by Thomas Heywood 
in 4° quem merito Valem dixeris atq Magum — a 
prophetical poet p. 234 

31. John Tomkins Piety promoted, Second part p. 250 

32. More out of Jane Lead's Writings p. 252 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 153 

More out of Theophr. Paracelsi Operibus p. 255 

33. Concerning the repealing Penal Laws and Test p. 274 

34. John Beaumont's Treatise of Spirits 1705 p. 281 

35. John Tomkin's Piety promoted, first part p. 291 

36. Reflections upon a Book called Pax Vohis p. 75 
Tf'j. Mass Aurello's history, the second part p. 275 

38. the Life of Cornifie, Count of Ulfeld Great Master of 

Denmarck 1695 p. 276 

39. John Hepburn's Essay agt. Negro-Slavery p. 278 

40. Arthur Dent's Path-Way to Heaven p. 292 

41. The Secret Amours of M. de Maintenon &c p. 329 

42. Tho. Creeck's The Life of Alexander the Great p. 278 

43. Will. Chandler's brief Apology p. 312 

44. Culpeper's Astrological Judgmt. of Diseases p. 312 

45. Free-holder begun the 23th day of December 171 5 p. 333 

46. A Dream at Woodstock p. 297 

47. Gazettes or News-Letters. Ibid. p. 330 

48. Joseph Glanvil's Saducimus Triumphatus ' p. 335 

48. Robert Boyle's Medicinal Experiments 3 parts p. 316 

49. John Tomkin's Piety promoted, third part p. 300 

50. Reflections upon the book Pax Vobis p. 75 

51. The Loyal Americans Almanack 1715 P- 76 

52. Z. Jiaivkins the Life of Gilbert Lateys p. 303 

53. Anth. Will. Bohm's the faithful Steward (Hen. Will. 

Ludolf) P-3i6 

54. Religuiae Ludolfianae p. 318 

55. W^^^ Pen's & Geo. Whithead's Serious Apology p. 154 

56. Frances Shaf toe's Narrative p. 345 

57. Ralph Winterton's Consid""^ upon Eternity p. eodem. 

58. London Yearly Meeting's Epistle 1718 p. 303 

59. Dr. Stoughton's Elixir Magnum p. Jbid. 

60. Geo. Wither's Abuses Stript & Whipt p. 304 

61. The Spectator Vol. i p. 156: 5th Vol. 2^ p. 156 

62. Abr. Cozvley's Works in fol. 1688 p. 292 

63. W^'^ Hughes Flower Garden & Compleat Vineyard, p. 319 

64. Julian the Apostate ./. n. 8*^ 1682 p. 320 

. . . . . rs?] 

05. Fra. Bacon s Resuscitatio ./. in fol. 1647 p. 321 

66. The Life & death of Lasarillo de Tormes in which book 

was a defect from p. 5. to 21* p. 156 
* and from p. 74. to 95. & from 100. to 117 

67. John NichoU's hourglass of Jndian News p. 353 

68. Francis Faii-weather's pleasant prognostication p. 326 

69. Rich^ Peeke's Three to One: An English-Spanish Com- 

bate p. 327 

154 Francis Daniel Pastorius 





the pleasant history of Jack of Newberie p. 353 

JV. Kempe's the Education of Children in Learning p. 327 

the Secret history of Q. Elisabeth & the E. of Essex p. 354 

Sir David Lindsay's Works in 12'' 1714 at Belfast p. 357 

the history of Genesis in 8° 1708 p. 358 

75 A New Academy of Complements in 12° 1717 p. 296." 

6. The Young Country-Clerks Collection. 

The young Country-Clerk's Collection | of the best Presidents 
of Bills, Bonds, Conditions, Acquittances, Releases, | Jndentures, 
Deeds of Sale, Letters of Attorney, Last Wills & Testaments, 
&c. I With many other necessary and useful Forms of such 
like Writings | as are vulgarly in use between Man and Man. | 
An Alphabetical Table whereof is thereunto prefixed. | by 
Francis Daniel Pastorius &c. ^^ 

The MS. is 6 3-16 x 7 11-16 inches. It begins with page 
200 and continues to page 383 (pp. 372-381 apparently missing). 
As regards the first 199 pages, the compiler gives this informa- 
tion at the Cope of the title-page : 

"Where is the Rest, One hundred ninety-nine?^"^ 
Within some Sheets ( : most like to these:) of mine." 

The book was a most indispensable handbook for the 
scrivener of that day. The forms are in English for the most 
part, but occasionally in German. The MS. bears the marks of 
other and later hands, into which it came ; for example, on one 
of the original blank pages (266) is written: 

"The Property of Charles Macknet Pastorius, the great great 
Grandson of the Author of this Book. Presented by his Uncle, his 
best friend, and Adopted Father: 

January ist 1812." 

On page 315 is found a Deed of Sale with the following 
heading, and the name of the famous English scrivener, Charles 
Brockden : 

*• For full detail of the title-page see the photographic reproduction. 
" The last half of the first verse almost entirely gone. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 155 

"Short Deed of Sale. Ch. Brockden." 

7. Deliciae Hortenses, &c. 

Francisci Danielis Pastorij | Deliciae Hortenses, | Or | Garden- 
Recreations. | 

Honest Country-man, Cultor virentis Agelli | 
Thy Garden, Orchard, Fields, 
And Vineyard being planted 
With what good Nature yields, 

Brave things to thee are granted ; 
Besides the Gifts of Grace. 

Therefore go on, and gather, 
Use each kind in its place: 

And our God & Father, 
Who gives thus liberally. 

What's needful for our Living; 
And would us have reply 

Jn bowed-Down Thanksgiving, 
To HIM, to Whom belongs 
All Praise, in Prose and Songs. Adde pag. 12. 
Halle-Lu-Jah ! 
Halle-Lu-Jah ! 
Soli Deo Gloria ! 
Jn Sempiterna Secula. 

The above is the title-page proper. Around all four margins 
are written sentiments in English and Latin, as may be seen in 
the half-tone reproduction of the title-page. The size of the book 

8. Res Propriae, 
Francisci Danielis Pastoij / Res Propriae. 

A small, neatly written manuscript, bound, measuring 
from margin to margin 6^ x 3% inches, and cotnaining: 

P. I Epitome of his life till 20 of June, 1715. 

P. 2 Genealogical chart. 

P. 3-9 Kurtzer Lebens Lauff , &c. 

P. 10 Blank. 

156 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

P. 1 1 -14 Additamenta zu vorgehen, &c. 

P. 14 (Repeated) 30 Inventory of effects brought to Amer- 
ica, Book, &c. 

P. 31. Blank. 

P- 32-39 Account Ennecke Klostermann's land. 

P. 40-41 and two unnumbered, giving an account of his two 

The terminus ad quern is 171 5, as is to be seen in the fact 
that Pastorius gives an epitome of his life till June, 171 5, when 
we may suppose the book was finished. This manuscript is inval- 
uable for data relating to the early life of Pastorius and has been 
freely drawn upon in this biography. 

(To be Continued.) 



The early immigration of Germans to Philadelphia increased 
to such an extent, that before the middle of the eighteenth century 
the English colonists became alarmed for fear that Pennsylvania 
might be alienated from the English crown, and be dominated by 
the German immigrants. Indeed, throughout the eighteenth cen- 
tury the greater part of the German immigrants landed at Phila- 
delphia, and from there were distributed into other States. We 
should naturally expect with so great a population of Germans 
in Philadelphia and the surrounding country, that these people 
would continually extend their influence, and constantly spread 
abroad their ideas of art, religion, music and literature. 

Let us consider for a moment the condition of the Germans 
who landed in this country. In 1683, moved by William Penn's 
alluring proclamations of the glorious new world, as well as by 
the fact that freedom of conscience was granted in Pennsyl- 
vania to all, a band of German immigrants arrived in Philadel- 
phia and founded Germantown. With the exception of the 
scholar, Francis Daniel Pastorious, there were no highly cultured 
men or women among them. These people were of the middle 
class, and were more interested in weaving and agriculture and 
religious salvation, than in the cultivation of the fine arts. The 
conditions in Germany were not conducive to culture. 

The country was just recovering from the Thirty Years' 

War, and the strength of the people was being expended in 

building up the homes, and improving the land made desolate 

during that fierce struggle. At this time, too, the German people 


158 Early Music in Philadelphia with 

had little liberty, but rather were under the thumb of absolutism, 
which was at that time the great force in European countries. It 
was not an epoch favorable to the cultivation of the fine arts. 
There was no great literature, no great art, no great music. There 
was, however, a strong religious spirit, which is often the result 
of hardship and suffering. It is in the field of religion, too, that 
we find the best music during the seventeenth century, although 
it was not original in style, but simply a continuation of Luther's 
music. ^ The hymn writers of that time, both Catholic and Protes- 
tant, are not to be despised, and we need mention but a few 
whose songs have lived even to the present day : as Paul Fleming 
(1609- 1 640) and Paul Gerhardt (1606- 1676) Protestant; Fried- 
rich Spee (1591-1635) and Johann Scheffer (1624-1677), Catho- 
lics. It can be said, then, with some degree of surety, that the 
performance of music by the early German settlers in Philadel- 
phia was confined, in the province of music, to hymns. 

In this department the Germans hold an important position ; 
not only was their church music an essential part of their serv- 
ices, but the number of hymn-writers and the many editions of 
German hymn books published in Philadelphia testify to the love 
which these new settlers had for church music. 

It is only necessary to mention a few of these hymn-writers 
to recall to mind the extreme productiveness of this style of litera- 
ture and music. Among the most important hymn-writers were 
F. D. Pastorius, of Germantown; Johann Kelpuis, of the Wissa- 
hickon; Conrad Beissel, of Ephrata, and Count von Zinzendorf, 
the Moravian.^ 

'Louis Elson, National Music in America, p. 18. 

*Cf. for further information on this subject: J. H. Dubbs, Early German 
Hymnology of Pennsylvania; Hausmann, German American Hymnology 1683- 
iSoo, in Americana Germanica 1898, Vol. II, No. 3, p. 11. 

special Reference to German Music 159 


Church Music and the Manner of its Performance. 

It has already been mentioned that there were many 
German hymn-writers in Philadelphia in the early eighteenth 
centm-y, and it is now in place to consider what was the quality of 
the music in the German churches at that period, and whether 
musical instruments of any kind were used in the Philadelphia 

For the first record it is necessary to go a little beyond Phila- 
delphia to the Hermits of the Wissahickon. To this people un- 
doubtedly belongs the honor of first using instrumental music 
in religious services. Of their voyage across the Atlantic, Kelpuis 

"We had also prayer meetings and sang hymns of praise and 
joy, several of us accompanying on instruments that we had brought 
from London." ^ 

Evidently the instruments which they brought with them 
were not satisfactory or were regarded as inadequate for the 
worship of God, as Kelpuis in a letter to friends in London asked 
that two clarichords with additional strings might be sent."* 

Again the Llermits at the consecration of the new Swedish 
church — Gloria Dei — July 2, 1700, act as choristers and furnish 
instrumental music.^ 

The first German minister ordained in this country was 
Justus Falckner, who was consecrated by the Swedish Lutherans. 
In a letter to Rev. Heinrich Muhlen, of Holstein (1701), Falck- 
ner shows that, even at that early day, music was considered an 
important adjunct of the church service. He says : 

'^ Sachse, German Pietists, p. 22 ; Scidcnsticker, Geschichtsblacttcr, p. 100. 

* Seidensticker, Geschichlsblaetter, p. 100. 

^ Sachse, German Pietists, p. 144 (hereafter quoted as G. P.). 

i6o Early Music in Philadelphia with 

"In short there are Germans here, and perhaps the majority, who 
despise God's Word and all outward good order ; who blaspheme the 
sacraments and frightfully and publicly give scandal 

"I will here take occasion to mention that many others besides 
myself, who know the ways of the land, maintain that music would 
contribute much towards a good Christian service. It would not 
only attract and civilize the wild Indians, but it would do much good 
in spreading the Gospel truths among the sects and others by attract- 
ing them. Instrumental music is especially serviceable here. Thus 
a well-sounding organ would perhaps prove of great profit, to say 
Mothing of the fact that the Indians would come running from far 
and near to listen to such unknown melody, and upon that account 
might become willing to accept our language and teaching, and re- 
main with people who had such agreeable things ; for they are said 
to come ever so far to listen to one who plays even a reed-pipe (rolir- 
pfeiffe) : such an extraordinary love have they for any melodious 
and ringing sound. Now as the melancholy, saturine stingy 
Quaker spirit has abolished (relegiert) all such music, it would 
indeed be a novelty here, and tend to attract many of the young 
people away from the Quakers and sects to attend services where 
such music was found, even against the wishes of their parents. This 
would afford a good opportunity to show them the truth and their 

"If such an organ-instrument (Orgel-werck) were placed in the 
Swedish church .... it would prove of great service to this 

"If there were music in the church, the young people would 
consider church-going a recreation. 

"The Lord of Hosts .... would be praised and honored 
with cymbal and organ. 

"And it may be assumed that even a small organ-instrument 
and music in this place would be acceptable to God. and prove far 
more useful than many hundreds in Europe, where there is already 
a superfluity of such things. 

"There are in Europe masters enough who would build such 
instruments, and a fine one can be secured for 300 or 400 thalers. 
Then if an experienced organist and musician could be found, and 
a curious one, who would undertake so far a journey, he would be 
very welcome here. In case this could not be, if we only had an 
organ, some one or other might be found who had knowledge there- 
of." « 

'Cf. The Missive of Justus Falckner of Germantown, Concerning the 
Religious Condition of Pa. in the Year 1701. Translated by J. F. Sachse. 
Found also in Pa. Mag. of Hist., 1897. 

special Reference to German Music i6i 

The writer of this missive was somewhat of a poet himself, 
and composed several fine hymns, some of which are in use at 
the present day."^ 

Whether the appeal for musical instruments was of avail, 
we know not, but in the Joiirnal of Rev. Andreas Sandel for 
July 20, 1702, is mentioned one Jonas, organist of Gloria Dei 
church. Again, on November 24, 1703, when Falckner was 
ordained in this church, Sachse says : 

"The service was opened with a voluntary on the little organ in 
the gallery by Jonas the organist, supplemented with instrumental 
music by the Mystics on the viol, hautboy, trumpets (Posaunen) and 
kettle drums (Pauk en)'' ^ 

The first church organ in Philadelphia, then, was placed in 
a Swedish Lutheran church largely by means of a German. Al- 
though the merit for this achievement must be divided between 
the Germans and Swedes, in one department of music — the sing- 
ing of hymns — the Swedes probably were pre-eminent. In 1696 
Charles, King of Sweden, sent to the church at Wicacoa, one 
hundred hymn books, ^ while in 171 2 another lot, consisting of 
"360 hymn books of three sorts" were shipped. ^^ The Swedes 
were strict, too, in their regulations of the church services, espe- 
cially of singing. In 1702, Rev. Andreas Sandel imposes a fine 
"for untimely singing, six schillings." ^^ Especially interesting 
is the account concerning the attempt of Pastor Andreas Hes- 
selius, of Christina, Delaware, to reform church singing in 171 3. 
Acrelius says : 

' Sasche, Justus Falckner, pp. 20-21. 

* Justus Falckner, p. 64 ; also G. P., pp. 354-5. Sachse believes this organ 
was one brought over by Kelpius. 

* Israel Acrelius, A History of New Sweden, trans, by Wm. Reynolds, 
in Memoirs of Pa. Hist. Soc, Vol. XI, pp. 197, 366 (hereafter quoted as 

"Acrelius, p. 367; also Andreas Sandel's Diary, in Pa. Mag. Hist. 1906, 
p. 446. 

"Acrelius, p. 217. 

1 62 Early Music in Philadelphia with 

"He had special regard to propriety in church-singing, in which 
there was often such discord, as though they intended to call their 
cows to the church. In opposition to which it was represented that 
as all those who possessed the gift of praising God with a pleasing 
voice in psalms and hymns should not stand mute, so, on the other 
hand, those who were unfitted for this should not with their harsh 
voices, hinder others and make confusion, but, by softly singing after 
the others, train themselves to correct singing. During the singing, 
he went around the church and aided where they failed." ^- 

It is very probable that in Philadelphia, this same instruc- 
tion in church singing prevailed, since Hesselius was for some 
time Provost, and had a right to command, and also, because 
Samuel Hesselius, his brother, occupied the pulpit at Wicacoa 
and could more easily be coerced — if necessary — to establish this 
method of instruction. 

In the other churches of Philadelphia, organs seem to have 
been introduced at a relatively late date. On September 2, 1728, 
a committee having been appointed at Christ Church "to treat 
with Mr. Lod. C. Sprogel,^^ about an organ lately arrived here, 
report that they had done the same, and that he insisted on £200 
for said organ ; and that they had procured men of the best skill 
this place could afford to erect the said organ in a convenient 
house in town, to make trial thereof ; which, being done, it is said 
the organ proves good in its kind, and large enough for our 
church." ^** Upon this recommendation the organ was purchased. 
In the Moravian church, corner of Race and Broad streets, there 
were two organs in 1743,^^ one of which was sold in 1796, and 
a new one built by David Tannenberger.^^ In this same year 

^Acrelius, p. 276. 

" Ludovic Christian Sproegel was one of the "Hermits of the Wissa- 

"Quoted from the Minutes of the Vestry of Christ Church, by Bcnj. 
Borr, History of Christ Church, p. 61. 

" Madeira, Annals of Music in Philadelphia, p. 24. 

** Madeira, Annals of Music in Philadelphia, p. 24 (hereafter quoted as 

special Reference to German Music 163 

(1743) the Moravians in Germantown had an organ costing £60, 
but in 1744 both church and organ reverted to the German Re- 
formed Church. ^^ The CathoHc church had an organ in 1750.^^ 
These are the earhest known organs in use in Philadelphia 
churches. From this time on, the other churches in the city 
gradually established them as an aid to their services. 

One writer, who came to this country from Germany, evi- 
dently had no knowledge of these organs when he said : 

"I came to this country with the first organ [1750] which now 
stands in a High German Lutheran church in the city of Philadel- 
phia, and which was built in Heilbronn." ^^ 

In the face of the evidence already produced, it is needless 
to say that this statement is a little off color, to say the least. 

There were then in Philadelphia several organs before 1755, 
and it is reasonable to assume that in the Moravian church, that 
"wind" and "string" instruments were used, since we find this 
true at the colony in Bethlehem.-*^ The testimony of travellers 
of that time or of members of other churches is of some interest 
and importance. The first witness is William Black, secretary 
of the commission appointed by the Governor of Virginia to 
unite with commissions from Maryland and Pennsylvania for 
the purpose of treating with the Indians. In the year 1744, he 
resided in Philadelphia, during which time he kept a journal 
of interest and importance. June 8 he writes : 

"Minutes and Letters of the Coetus of the German Reformed Church, 
p. 29. 

"Madeira, p. 24. 

"Gottlieb Mittelberger's Journey to Penn. in the Year 1750; translated 
by Carl T. Eben, p. 114. 

*° Wm. Reichel, Something about Trombones, p. 4 ff. See also the state- 
ment concerning Justus Falckner's ordination as quoted above, where musical 
instruments of this character were used. 

164 Early Music in Philadelphia with 

"We went to the Moravian Meeting, where I had the pleasure 
to hear an Excellent Comment on that Passage in Scripture Relating 
to the Prodigal Son, and after some very Agreeable Church Musick, 
half an hour after 9 they broke up." -^ 

This testimony is not without its value, as this gentleman 
was evidently somewhat of a musician himself, since under the 
same date in his diary we find : 

"I Rose from my P)ed and pass'd two hours in writting, the 
rest of the time till Breakfast, I spent with my Fiddle and Flute." ^^ 

Concerning the music in the Moravian church we have other 
evidence, at a later date. John Adams remarks in his diary for 
October 23, 1774: 

"The singing here [Methodist meeting] is very sweet and soft 
indeed ; the first music I have heard in any society except the 
Moravians, and once at church with the organ." -^ 

He also remarks September 4, 1774, upon "the organ and 
a new choir of singers at Christ Church, which were very musi- 
cal." -^ 

Franklin, in 1755, speaks of hearing Moravian music at 
Bethlehem, and praises it generously.--^ A year earlier Acrelius, 
who visited the same place, gives a more detailed account in the 
following words : 

"It was finally agreed that we should sit below [in the audi- 
torium of the church], as the music sounded better there. The 
organ had the accompaniment of violins and flutes. The musicians 
were back in the gallery, so that none of them were seen." One of 
the ministers "read some verses of a German hymn book, after which 
they were sung with excellent music." -^ 

^' Pcnn. Mag. of History, Vol. II, p. 43- 

" Penn. Mag. of Hist. Vol. II, p. 40. 

'"John Adams Works, Vol. II, pp. 401 and 364. 

^Vo/tn Adams Works, Vol. II, pp. 401 and 364. 

"Franklin, Atttobriography. p. 325 [Lippincott, Phila., 1868]. 

"Acrelius, p. 413. 

special Reference to German Music 165 

Their style of music and manner of performing it must 
have been exceptionally good, as compared with the music of 
other churches, to have impressel so favorably such men, who, 
we may be sure, were quite different. There is the sturdy pastor 
Acrelius, understanding church music and the manner of its 
performance; the cordial, genial Ben Franklin, who knew some- 
thing about music from living in London; the somewhat cold 
but highly cultured, John Adams, with his Puritan traditions; 
then the gentleman from Virginia, William Black, who most 
probably partook of the nature of the warm, sunny-tempered 
Southerners, himself somewhat of a musician. Could we ask 
for witnesses more unlike ? 

To the Moravian church undoubtedly belongs the palm for 
music during the eighteenth century; but there was music, and 
good music, in some other churches as well. We have already 
mentioned the music in Christ Church and the Methodist 
Church. Concerning the music in the German Lutheran Church, 
we have the testimony of Daniel Fisher, who writes in his Diary 
for May 25, 1755: 

"Went to the Lutheran Church, a neat Brick Building where 
there is a good organ-^ to which I heard them sing Psalms, agree 
ably enough." ^^ 

Again he says : 

"The Lutheran Church has an organ, and a good one." ^^ 

There were organs then in the churches, to a great extent, 
before 1750. The question now arises were there men who 
could repair these instruments if they got out of order? By the 
end of the fourth decade, there were several men who could 
not only repair an organ, but also build one. Of these men Gus- 
tavus Hesselius is the most important, as he was the first spinet 

The organ Mittelberger brought from Heilbronn ; see above. 
' Penn. Mag. of Hist, Vol. XVII, p. 267. 
' Penn. Mag. of Hist., Vol. XVII, p. 272. 

l66 Early Music in Philadelphia with 

builder in America, having produced specimens as early as 1743,^" 
and probably the first organ builder in Pennsylvania. It is claimed 
that he was the first organ builder in America, and in support of 
that claim an organ is mentioned as built by him for the Moravian 
Church at Bethlehem, Pa., in 1746.^^ The fact is lost sight of 
that a Boston man, Edward Bromfield, generally regarded as 
the first organ builder, constructed an instrument in 1745,^- 
although Hesselius was undoubtedly the first man who built 
many church organs. 

Still another claimant appears for this title — no less a man 
than the Englishman, Doctor Christopher Witt (1675-1765). 
another hermit of the Wissahickon. Doctor Witt possessed a 
large pipe-organ presumably made by him alone, but possibly 
aided by other Hermits. It was built at least while he was living 
with the Settlement on the Wissahickon, and as he left that society 
shortly after the death of Kelpuis,^^ which took place about 
1708,^^ the evidence is in his favor. This organ at his death was 
valued at £40.^^ 

Hesselius was not only a musician, but a painter as well. He 
died in 1755.^'' Connected with Hesselius in 1746 was John G. 
Klemm, a native of Dresden, Germany. Three years later David 
Tannenberger arrived in Philadelphia, a man whom many of his 
contempararies conceded to be the greatest organ builder in 
America, but, as is usually the case, there is another claimant for 
this high honor, as will be seen later. 

David Tanneberger was born March 21, 1728, in Berthesdorf, 
Saxony. He was evidently an all-round musician, and could 
play, sing — he possessed a good voice — build, or repair an organ 

^Penn. Mag. of Hist., XVI, p. 473 (note). 

^ Penn. Mag. of Hist., Vol. XXIX, p. 131 ff; also Reichel, p. 4. 

^L. Elson, History of American Music, p. 43. 

^ German Pietists, pp. 403, 412. 

^ German Pietists, p. 192. 

^German Pietists, p. 418 (note). 

''Penn. Mag. of Hist., Vol. XII, p. 503 (note). 

special Reference to German Music 167 

as occasion presented itself. It is known that he built at least 
fourteen organs during- his stay in Pennsylvania, while no record 
of the number of spinets, which he made and sold for £22.10.?, 
has been discovered. He died May 19, 1804, stricken by paraly- 
sis while tuning an organ at York, Pa.^^ 

As to Tannenberger's reputation as an organ builder, we 
have the testimony of a man who probably knew Tannenberger : 

"Tannenberg belongs to history as tJie organ builder of his day 
and one of renown. He too, was of the German school. Fancy 
stops were not generally in vogue, except the trumpet in the great 
organ, and the vox humana in the swell, of which latter there was 
but one in the city, and that was in Christ Church, and to my young 
ear, a good imitation of the human voice. 

"There are several of Tannenberg's organs yet in breathing 
existence [1857]. Lancaster, Litiz, and Nazareth still hold his 
memory in audible and respectful tones ; and much of his work is 
worthy of imitation. His diapsons were particularly dignified, 
whilst his upper work, 12th, 15th, and sesquialtera, gave brilliancy to 
the whole." ^* 

This testimony of Abraham Ritter, an organist of good 
standing in the Moravian Church, gives some idea of the excel- 
lence of the work and of the reputation which Tannenberger still 
had in the nineteenth centruy. 

We have already spoken of Gottlieb Mittelberger and his 
organ, and, although we cannot depend upon his statements, there 
may be some truth in his somewhat exaggerated account of the 
dedication of his organ. It is at least interesting, and shows that 
the people as a whole were certainly not prejudiced against 
music. He says : 

"After this work had been set up and tuned it was conse- 
crated with great rejoicing and delivered to the Christian St. 
Michael's Church for the praise and service of God. 

"The crowd of hearers was indescribably large ; many people 

^^ Penn. Mag. of Hist., Vol. XXII, p. 231 ff. 

'* Abraham Ritter, Hist, of the Moravian Church in Phila. (1857), p. 59 ff. 

i68 Early Music in Philadelphia with 

came from a great distance, lo, 20, 30, 40 and even 50 hours' journey, 
to see and hear this organ. The number of hearers, who stood 
inside and outside the church, both German and English, were 
estimated at several thousands. I was appointed school-master and 
organist. As I became more and more known in Pennsylvania, and 
the people learned that I had brought fine and good instruments 
with me, many English and German families came 10, 20 and 30 
hours' journey to hear them and the organ, and they were greatly 
surprised because they had never in all their lives seen or heard an 
organ or any of those instruments. ■'*'' 

"At the present time [1754] there are 6 organs in Pennsylvania 
— the first is in Philadelphia, the 2nd in Germantown, the 3rd in 
Providence, the 4th in New Hanover, the 5th in Dulpehocken, all 
of them came to this country during the four years of my sojourn 
there." '° 

This statement concerning the number of organs in Phila- 
delphia cannot be true, as we have shown above that there were 
several. In his list of the organs in Pennsylvania, he neglects 
to mention the one made for the Moravian Church at Bethlehem 
in 1746.^^ The number of people which he claims was present 
at the dedication is probably exaggerated, and, as Mittelberger 
was the chief performer, we can pardon him this slip of the 
pen. It is probable, however, that there was a large number of 
people present, as there would be at any new event entering into 
their narrow lives — especially as there was no charge for admis- 

In 1762 a new organ was built in Philadelphia by Philip 
Feyring for St. Paul's Church. He is the other claimant to the 
honor of being the greatest organ builder of his day.**- One of 
the newspapers was evidently partial to him, since it gives this 
notice : 

^This statement is utterly false, as it will be shown later that there 
were musical instruments in Philadelphia long before this time, and even 
concerts in 1740. 

*° Mittelberger's Journey to Perm., p. 114. 

" Cf. above, p. . 

*' Cf. above, p. . 

special Reference to German Music 169 

"The New Organ, which is putting up in St. Paul's Church in 
this City, will be in such Forwardness as to be used in Divine Service 
on Christmas Day. It is of a new Construction, and made by Mr. 
Philip Fyring," Musical Instrument-Maker, in this City, who may, 
with Justice, be said to be the best Hand at that ingenious Business 
on the Continent." ** 

The organ was evidently in use on Christmas Day and must 
have proven satisfactory, as it called forth a poem lauding both 
Keyring and his organ. 

We have this biographical reference to him in a contem- 
porary newspaper: 

"Mr. Feyring is a German by Birth, but has for some years 
past, practic'd the making of Musical Instruments (particularly 
Spinets and Harpsichords) in this City, with great Repute."*^ 

How many instruments were sold by these organmakers it 
would be difficult to say, although undoubtedly parlor organs were 
found in many houses. There are advertisements of two organs 
for sale among a list of household goods before the end of 1750: 
A "small" organ belonging to Benj. Morgan, 1748,*^ and a 
"large" one, the property of the late Peter Kook, in 1750."*^ 

Religious music in this half century was flourishing, and 
was considered a valuable adjunct of the church service, not only 
in German churches, but also in the Swedish and English 
churches. The composition of hymns up to this time seems to 
have been confined to the Germans. 

Spelled also Feyring. 
Pa. Gazette, Dec. 23, 1762. 
Pa. Gas., Dec. 30, 1762. 
' Pa. Journal, July 7, 174S. 
Pa. Journal, Jan. 2, 1750. 

I JO Early Music in Philadelphia with 


Secular Music. 

From the preceding chapter it has been clearly seen, that 
the Germans in Philadelphia, and indeed in the whole State, were 
strongly religious, and were celebrated for their church music 
and instrument makers, especially for their organ builders. 

Were all the people in Philadelphia as religious as the Ger- 
mans and Quakers seem to have been, and were there no public 
amusements? This is an important question, and one not easily 
answered, especially during the first half of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. It may be thought that this question is not related to Ger- 
man music, but indirectly it is, so that it may be shown whether 
or not the people of Philadelphia were ready to welcome music, 
whether they were in a state of mind favorable for the introduc- 
tion of any amusements. It is necessary to establish these 
facts before we can clearly understand the reasons and cause 
for the introduction of German concert music into America. 

We know, that in Philadelphia during the eighteenth cen- 
tury, there were men of every creed and religion, of every walk 
of life, of many different nationalities, and we may be sure that 
in such a conglomeration of men and ideas there would be some 
to whom amusements would be necessary — even amusements 
which strait-laced people would condemn. The information there 
is upon this subject supports the opinion, that there were amuse- 
ments even in the early part of the eighteenth century. Foremost 
among the pleasures in which the inhabitants of Philadelphia 
indulged, was dancing, and we have reference to this art at an 
early period. In a book written in 1710 is the following state- 
ment : 

"Among the rest of my Friends, I must not forget the facetious 

special Reference to German Music 171 

Mr. Staples, Dancing-Master, who was the first Stranger of Phila- 
delphia that did me the Honour of a Visit." *^ 

As early as 17 16 we find this record : 

"At the Yearly Meeting of the Friends, members were ad- 
vised against 'going to or being in any way concerned in plays, 
games, lotteries, music and dancing.' " *" 

Throughout the first half of the eighteenth century dancing 
was evidently held in due respect by a certain element of the popu- 
lation. In 1728 it forms a part of the curriculum of a boarding 
school.^o In 1730 dancing is taught by Thomas Ball's sister.^^ 
The first really fashionable ball was probably that given by Gov- 
ernor Gordon, in 1726, in honor of the Prince of Wales' birth- 
day.^- To some extent, too, music and dancing were surely a 
part of the marriage festivities, as the following item shows : 

"We hear that Tuesday night last, a young Dutchman was 
married to an old Dutchwoman, who was known to have money. 
They had a fiddle at the Wedding. . . . She danc'd till it 
was late." ^^ 

We find ministers of different denominations complaining of 
the irrcligion of some of the inhabitants. As one writer remarks : 

"We live in an age, when 'tis counted almost a scandal to be 
a Christian. Religion is stil'd Preciseness and Hyprocrisy, and a 
strict Conformity to Truth and Virtue is imputed to be the Effect 
of Melancholly, a Distemper'd Imagination. We daily hear the 

**Hart, American History told by Contemporaries II, p. yy, quoted from 
"The Voyage, Shiprack and Miraculous Escape of Richard Castleman, Gent.," 
appended to "The Voyages and Adventures of Capt. Robert Boyle," London, 
1726, 4th Ed. 1786, p. 331. 

'' Scharf & Wescott, History of Phila., Vol. II, p. 863. 
^American Weekly Mercury, March 5-14, 172%. 
"Fo. Gazette, March 5-13, 1729-30. 
'' Scharf & Wescott, Hist, of Phila., Vol. I, p. 203. 
^"^ Pa. Gas., March 15 to 22, 1738-9. 

172 Early Music in Philadelphia with 

greatest Mysteries of our Faith Ridicul'd and Banter'd, the Clergy 
Despis'd, Expos'd and Degraded; and that even by Men, who have 
not yet Publickly Renounc'd Christianity; but such as would be 
thought to have clearer Heads, and more refin'd Conceptions of 
Things than their Brethren, those Men to their Shame stand Pelting 
Religion at a distance, with little ScofTs and Jests, when there is 
a more Fair and Honourable way of deciding the Matter, by rational 
and indeniable Arguments." ^* 

In opposition to this we have the testimony of Benjamin 
Franklin, who writes : 

"Our people, having no publick amusements to divert their 
attention from study, became better acquainted with books." ^^ 

So, too, a correspondent in the Weekly Mercury writes : 

"Here are no Masquerades, Plays, Balls, Midnight Revellings, 
or Assemblies to Debauch the Mind or promote Intrigue." ^^ 

When, however, we read an advertisement in the same paper 
about a month later like the following, we may be permitted to 
doubt somewhat the statements of the last two men. 

"The Art of Dancing Carefully Taught (as it is now Practic'd 
at Court) by Samuel Perpoint, at his School. . . . where 
for the Recreation of all Gentlemen and Ladies: There will be 
Country Dances every Thursday Evening; likewise he teaches small 
Sword." " 

From this time on, we notice the advertisements of various 
dancing masters, who, often were school masters at the same time. 
Not only did these Philadelphians enjoy dancing, but they were 
partial to late suppers and card playing as well, — playing cards 
was a staple article of importation after 1736.'^^ Another favor- 

^ American Weekly Mercury, June 19-26, 1729 [a correspondent]. 

^'^Autobiography, p. 207. 

^American Weekly Mercury, June 19-26, 1729. 

^^ American Weekly Mercury. July 31 to August 7, 1729. 

''^American Weekly Mercury, February 8, 1736 [first advertised]. 

special Reference to German Music 173 

ite amusement, we may be sure, was playing on the Jew's harp, 
for after 1733, this instrument frequently is advertised.^^ The 
Jew's harp must have been considered a harmless instrument by 
all sects, for as early as 1675 '" one State of Puritan New Eng- 
land it is stated that a law was enacted, "that no one should play 
on any kind of music except the drum, the trumpet and the jew- 
sharp. "®° 

Besides the amusements already mentioned, the Philadel- 
phians had an opportunity to see a rope-dancer in 1724,^^ "Punch 
and Joan his Wife," ^- "Magick Lanthorn" exhibition, ^^ "Camera 
Obscura and Microscope," ^^ a musical clock with a man and 
woman appearing as mountebanks.^^ 

Music was evidently popular at society meetings, banquets, 
etc. Perhaps there was nothing more than singing, but possibly 
a violin and spinet helped to while away the time. For instance, 
in 1 73 1 at the celebration of "St. David's Day," by the "Society 
of Ancient Britons," the evening ended with "Musick, Mirth and 
Friendship." ^^ 

In the two items which will be given now, may be detected, 
perhaps, the incipient germs of musical criticism, or at least the 
idea, which most people probably had of what a professor of 
music should know and be able to do : 

"Elocution is not unlike Musick ; there is scarce a Soul so rustick 
as not to admire both in their Excellency, altho' the Masters of 
those Sciences may lose their proper Share of the Praise. He that 

^'American Weekly Mercury, March 2, 1733 [first advertised]. 

^^ Perkins & Dwiglit, History of Hacndel & Haydn Society, p. 17 (note). 

*' Scharf & Wescott, Vol. II, p. 863. 

^' Pa. Gas., Dec. 30, 1742. 

'^ Pa. Gas., Jan. 27, 1743. 

"Pa. Gas., July 2, 1744. 

*^ Pa. Gas., May 31, 1744. 

'^ Pa. Gaz., Feb. 23 to March 4, 1730-31. 

*^ American Weekly Mercury, Aug. 7-14, 1729. 

174 Early Music in Philadelphia zvith 

having laid before him the several Parts of a Musical Instrument, 
can Unite them in their Places, and tune them to Harmony, merits 
the appelation of a Master in Musick and should be distinguished as 
such, as he that disposes Words into grammatical sentences, and 
eloquent Periods, is a Master of Language." •'^ 

This quotation may argue for the popularity and respect in 
which music was held at that time by at least some of the people. 
We find in this crude statement, that music was thought worthy 
of a position by the side of elocution, which has always held a 
high place in the minds of every people, and so we may be safe 
in believing that music had a place, and an important place, in 
Philadelphia, in the early history of that city. 

Another correspondent states that: 

"Women, like Instruments of Musick, require to be long used 
before their Sweetness or Discord are certainly discovered." "^^ 

Unless the writer of the above knew something about music, 
and unless music was an object of interest or pleasure, so that 
this comparison would be appreciated, he would not likely have 
ventured to use such a simile. 

In 1733 there is a record of a "ball" •*" while, in the next 
year under the heading "London news," there is a notice con- 
cerning the marriage of the Princess Royal to the Prince of 
Orange, which gives the following information: 

"A fine anthem compos'd by Mr. Handell was perform'd by a 
great Number of Voices and Instruments." ^° 

This latter item proves nothing except that the name of 
Handel was introduced into the colonies at an early date, and may 
have remained in the memories of some of the people, since he 
was connected with such an important event. This may possibly 

''American Weekly Mercury, Sept. 10-17, 1730. 
^American Weekly Mercury, Nov. 11, 1733. 
^American Weekly Mercury, May 23, 1734. 

special Reference to German Music 175 

have helped to increase the popularity which his works, later in 
the century, attained in America. 

It has been seen that there was music and dancing at this 
time, and it is now interesting to learn what kind of musical 
instruments were used. It has been shown already, that there 
were Jew's harps, '^' that Kelpuis had clavichords,"- and assuredly 
there were some virginals, although probably few. In the fourth 
decade the various instrument makers mentioned above, "^ prob- 
ably had quite a number of customers. 

In 1729 Andrew Bradford, proprietor of the American 
Weekly Mercury, advertises : 

"A well-strung Virginal to be sold ; being in good Order. En- 
quire of Printer hereof." '^^ 

Dr. Christopher Witt, referred to before,^'' was a capable 
player on the virginal, '^'^ which at his death was estimated at 
£1, 15^'.; ^^ while a virginal belonging to the "Hermits" reverted 
to the widow of Magister Zimmerman."** 

The people who owned instruments of this kind had an 
opportunity to learn to play, since in 1730 a woman — the first 
music teacher in Philadelphia — makes an announcement in the 
newspaper as follows : 

[Thomas Ball's] "Wife teaches Writing and French. Like- 
wise Singing, Playing on the Spinet, Dancing and all sorts of 
Needle- Work are taught by his Sister lately arrived from London." ''^ 

''^Vide above, p. 

" Vide above, p. 

" Vide above, p. 

''* American Weekly Mercury, March 4-13, 1728-9. 

'" See above. 

'* German Pietists, p. 412. 

^^ German Pietists, p. 418 (note). 

'''* Justus Falckner, p. 64 (note). 

"Fa. Gas., July 2-9, 1730. 

176 Early Music in PhilodclpJiia with 

What class of music she and her pupils played, it would be 
hard to say, but it did not cause anyone to start a music store, 
and it is not until 1739 that any great musical works are adver- 
tised at the office of the man of many parts, Benjamin Franklin. 
The following pieces were to be obtained there: "Corelli's 
Sonatas, Geminiani's Concertos, Ditto's Solos. "^"^ 

Besides spinets and virginals there were probably violins, 
German flutes, trumpets, drums, a few viols, etc. For instance, 
in 1749 Anthony Lamb, of New York, advertises among other 
things: "German Flutes," ^^ while other men advertise, in 1750, 
''Hunting pipes," ^- and "fiddle strings," ^^ From 1744 on num- 
erous advertisements of drums appear. 

Before 1740 there is no record of any kind of musical organi- 
zation, but in this year there was such a society. During this 
year the evangelist, Whitefield, visited Philadelphia and made 
a strong impression upon people of all beliefs. One of his 
disciples caused this to be printed : 

"Since Mr. Whitefields' Preaching here, the Dancing school. 
Assembly, and Concert Room have been shut up, as inconsistent 
with the Doctrine of the Gospel : And though the Gentlemen con- 
cern'd, caus'd the Door to be broke open again, we are inform'd that 
no Company came the last Assembly night." ^* 

One of the members, however, denied the charge that dances 
were inconsistent with the doctrine of the gospel, and affirmed 
that the hall was closed up by William Seward, an "Attendant 
and intimate Companion" of Whitefield's. This same writer 
speaks of "Members of the Concert" and the rooms belonging to 
them. He also says that the members "met the Night after 
according to Custom ; and the Thursday following the Company 

^^ Pa. Gas., June 15-22, 1738-9. 

'^^ Pa. Gas., Jan. 31, 1749. 

^ Pa. Journal, Jan. 9, 1750. 

''Pa. Jour, and also Pa. Gas., May 24, 1750. 

^ Pa. Gazette, May i, 1740. 

special Reference to German Music 177 

met to Dance as they used to do ; but the Assembly being only for 
the Winter Season is now discontinued of Course and tlie Concert 
being for the whole Year still goes on as usual." ^'' 

This is interesting, as it is the first record of concerts, and 
also, because these concerts, continued the whole year, not merely 
during the winter months as nowadays. There were "Members 
of the Concert," too, who rented or owned rooms. There must 
then have been some kind of a club or society, which gave these 

These concerts must either have been kept up for years, or 
new series instituted year by year, since our friend William 
Black (already quoted) says in his diary of 1744, June 5: 

"At 8 O'clock went to hear a Concert of Musick ; the Per- 
formers was some Town's Gentlemen, and did Us the Honour of an 
Invitation, we staid till past 11, and I left the Company to go home 
to my lodgings." ^^ 

It is important to observe, that William Black says he had 
the "Honour" to be invited to a concert. One might say that this 
word was simply a common expression. It probably was, and still 
is ; but we believe a man would hardly write such an expression 
in his diary, unless he really thought he was honored. It seems 
probable that this concert and those of 1740 must have been very 
exclusive and were not public entertainments, which anyone 
might attend. 

There was exhibited this same year (1744) a curiosity, 
which would attract a large crowd of people. This was no less 
than : 

"The Unparallelled Musical Clock, made by that great Master 
of Machinery, David Lockwood. It excels all others in the Beauty 
of its Structure and plays the choicest Airs from the most cele- 
brated Operas with the greatest Nicety and Exactness. It per- 
forms with beautiful graces, ingeniously and variously intermixed, 

'^' Pa. Gas., May 8, 1740. 

""Penn. Mag. of Hist., Vol. I, p. 416. 

178 Early Music in Philadelphia ivith 

the French Horn Pieces, perform'd upon the Organ, German and 
Common Flute, Flageolet, etc., Sonata's, Concerto's, Marches, iMinu- 
etts, Jiggs and Scots Airs, composed by Corelli, Alberoni, I\Ir. Handel 
and other great and eminent Masters of Musick." **^ 

This is the first public record we have, that works of such 
famous composers were played, and they must have become 
familiar, in a short time to a great number of the inhabitants. 

It will be remembered that Miss Ball's capabilities in the 
province of music were confined to but two branches, voice and 
spinet. In 1749, however, appears a truly musical genius, if we 
may judge by the number of instruments which he played. This 
man was, as we learn from the following : 

"John Beals, Musick Master from London [who] at his House 
in Fourth Street, near Chestnut Street, joining to Mr. Linton's, collar 
maker, teaches the Violin, Hautboy, German Flute, Common Flute 
and Dulcimer by Note. 

"Said Beals will likewise attend young ladies, or others, that 
may desire it, at their houses. He likewise provides musick for balls 
or other entertainments." ^- 

Here was an opportunity for the inhabitants of the Quaker 
City to improve their time by learning music, and as the variety 
of instruments from which they might choose, was large, no 
doubt some of them became proficient musicians. 

This same year saw the beginnings of drama and opera in 
Philadelphia, given by the English actors, Murray and Kean.^^ 
These dramatic performances were soon discontinued on account 
of the opposition of the public. From now until the latter part 
of the fifth decade of the eighteenth century there were desultory 
attempts to give dramas, but not until 1 759 did the theatre prove 
successful and become permanent. 

There was then in this decade an incipient appreciation of 

Pa. Gas., July 12, 1744. 
'Pa. Gac, March 21, 1749. 
' Madeira, Annals of Music, p. 29. 

special Reference to German Music lyg 

drama to which some music was oftentimes joined. What other 
music was there at this time? In 1750-4 Mittelberger says: 

"The cultivation of music is rather rare as yet. . . . Some 
Englishmen give occasional concerts in private houses with a spinet 
or harpsichord." ®° 

Mittleberger's statement concerning the cultivation of 
music is not quite true. Music undoubtedly was studied a great 
deal more than Mittelberger seems to think. If his statement 
that occasional private concerts were given by Englishmen is 
true, this was probably the kind of concert William Black at- 
tended in 1749,^^ and may have been similar to the concerts of 

During the first half of the eighteenth century Philadelphia 
was not so utterly devoid of musical culture as some of our his- 
torians of music would have us believe. The music was not 
entirely church music, and although musical culture was not so 
important a factor in the life of the people as at the present day, 
still music was beginning to make itself felt among intelligent 
people, and interest in it and appreciation of it were gradually 

University of Pennsylvania. 

' Mittelbergers Journey, p. 114 ff. 
Cf. above, p. 
' Cf. above, p. 


At the Whitsuntide Festival at Washington Park, Philadel- 
phia, on June 8, 1908, Mr. Theodore Sutro, of New York, in his 
most excellent address, divided mankind into three classes : Pessi- 
mists, Conservatives and Optimists. He declared the Conserva- 
tives the most tiresome class, as they always wish to leave 
everything as it was and is ; the Pessimists are the worst class, 
because they always find everything wrong; whatever is done, is 
not enough — they only talk and criticise, but never do anything 
themselves. They always say what ought to have been done and 
what ought to be done ; they put up visionary ideals, but never 
do anything to bring about those things desired. Much better 
is the third class, the Optimists, who do things and act, and bring 
forth things as the conditions demand and wait till they bring 
about other things when new times and conditions demand. Mr. 
Sutro spoke of these three classes in reference to the German 
endeavors in America. 

I can readily endorse Mr. Sutro's words in reference to the 
German American Historical Society and the German American 

Of course, things could be better; this German American 
Historical Society which tries in its Annals to bring before the 
whole of the American world all those matters in which Germans 
and German influence have worked upon the political and social 
status of America, ought to have ten thousand members, instead, 
of less than one thousand; and if the Pessimists wish to have 
matters made better, let them become members of the German 
American Historical Society — of which our great President, 
Theodore Roosevelt, is an honorary member, who in a letter 
addressed to the president of the German American Historical 

German American Historical Society i8i 

Society expressed the pleasure of his acceptance and special thanks 
to the Society for the great compliment thus paid him. It is the 
same President Roosevelt who, some months ago, conversed in 
the German language with a candidate of the Austrian Reichs- 
rat, and who some time ago expressed his great pleasure that 
he could sing in the original German the beautiful hymn "Ein 
feste Burg ist unser Gott." 

Why do the Germans and German Americans not imitate 
the President by using the German language whenever there is an 
opportunity to do so? 

Let the Conservatives become members, as they will readily 
find all that which was and which is — and, of course, the Opti- 
mists will become members, because they rejoice in that which 
has already been done and which is done. 

At the present time there appears in the "German American 
Annals" the biography of Francis Daniel Pastorius, the first 
German who, two hundred and twenty-five years ago, brought 
about the first German settlement in this country. Everyone 
who is German or of German descent, everyone who is Ameri- 
can enough to learn something of the development of his or her 
own country, ought to read the Pastorius Biography, written by 
Prof. Marion Dexter Learned. The Biography of Francis 
Daniel Pastorius will appear also in book form in the course of 
this summer. 

The "German American Annals" treat also other historical 
affairs, be it of social, religious, scientific, commercial or political 
concern, which are and will be for all who have anything to do 
with America, a great incentive to the love of their country. 
The historical research extends to : 

1. The history of the Germans in America in general. 

2. The history of the German societies, associations and 


3. The history of the German churches and schools. 

4. The history of the German newspapers and magazines. 

5. The participation of Germans and German Americans in 

i82 German American Historical Society 

the Spanish American war, as well as in other wars of the Union 
and Colonies. 

6. The part taken by Germans and German Americans in 
industry and commerce, art and science, including engineering, 
agriculture, etc. 

7. The biographies and autobiographies of Germans in 

They will learn that the Pennsylvania Germans decided the 
fight between the English and the French at Fort Duquesne, 
Pittsburgh ; that not all Germans in the Revolutionary War were 
"Hessians," but that "some" of them fought the battle of Tren- 
ton, and that "some" of them preserved Washington's army at 
Valley Forge ; that von Steuben, Muhlenberg, Ludwig, the baker, 
Solomon Hyman and many others were Germans; that the 
Wister, Rittenhouse, Pepper, Leidy, Schaumburg, Tyson families 
are of German descent; that Pennsylvania furnished more Ger- 
mans and German Americans to the Civil War than any other 
race — all this and more would the American nation learn by 
looking into the history of Germans in America. 

In conclusion let me quote editorials from the Philadelphia 
"Record" and "Public Ledger:" 

"We do not intend to have even so much as a tarifif war with 
Germany ; we are indebted to Germany for a large part of our 
population ; we have been importing our theology and science from 
Germany, and we are now importing our social reform therefrom; 
we are about to erect a statue of Baron von Steuben in Lafayette 
Square, Washington ; the ties between us and the Fatherland are 
many and close, and the many points of resemblance between the 
President and the Emperor have often been dwelt on. We need say 
no more to assure the officers and men of the German cruiser Bremen 
that they are heartily welcome in Philadelphia, within whose boun- 
daries lies the first German settlement on the American continent." — 
Philadelphia Record. 

Our German Naval Guests. 

"For the best part of a week the German cruiser Bremen has 
been lying at anchor in the Delaware, and there has been the usual 
exchange of social courtesies between the officers and crew, on the 

Ccnnan American Historical Society 1S3 

one side, and the municipal authorities and the German and German- 
American residents of Philadelphia, on the other. It remained, 
however, for the ceremony of yesterday, when the German 
naval guests joined with the United Singers in the dedication of the 
Haydn statue in Fairmount Park, to afford an opportunity to the 
public at large to extend the cordial welcome which is in the heart 
of every patriotic Philadelphian. 

"There was something peculiarly appropriate in the participation 
of the Bremen's officers and crew in the affair in the Park, for it 
was an occasion which is typical in a marked degree of the especial 
contribution made to the civic life of the city by that portion of its 
population which claims German birth or German parentage. The 
order, thrift and wholesome common sense which are the charac- 
teristics of the German element in the composite which we call 
American, are so universally recognized that to dwell upon them 
would be to emphasize the merely obvious. 

"What the dedication of the Haydn memorial brought into 
especial relief, however, was the activity of the Germans in Phila- 
delphia in poetry, literature and art, and the incalculable benefit 
which they have conferred and are conferring upon the community 
in thus stimulating the practice and the appreciation of the beautiful 
and intellectual. The Haydn statue is but one of many such 
memorials with which the Germans of Philadelphia have adorned the 
Park, and while there is no lack of popular appreciation of the sub- 
stantial worth of the German influence and example in Philadelphia 
this aspect of what they are doing for the community is especially 

"It is taken as a matter of course that in new surroundings the 
German people and their descendants display the same qualities of 
industry and determination which have made the Fatherland what 
it is — one of the great Powers of Europe, an aggressive and progres- 
sive nation, and the keenest of competitors for front rank in the 
commercial life of the world. That they should also have retained 
the power and the practice of intellectual concentration and esthetic 
devotion, which are the bases of German achievements in science, 
literature and art, is a fact that is often overlooked by their fellow 
citizens in this country. Philadelphia has many evidences to show 
of the sincerity and the worth of this side of the life of its German 
and German American population, and the co-operation of the repre- 
sentatives of the military power of the Fatherland with the music 
lovers of Philadelphia, who are none the less Americans because of 
their birth or parentage, is an incident of most happy omen." — Phila- 
delphia Public Ledger. 

184 German American Historical Society 

Apropos of the editorial in the Public Ledger, I wish to 
mention an occurrence. I was walking along Eleventh street 
and met at Eleventh and Walnut three sailors of the German 
cruiser "Bremen." . They were the first German sailors I had seen 
for a number of years. I spoke to them, of course, in German, 
and they were glad to hear the "Muttersprache ;" and one of the 
first things they asked me yas, "Wo ist ein Musikinstrumenten- 
laden, wir mochten ein Instrument kaufen." Of course, I 
directed them to a store which happened to be only a short dis- 
tance away. There is something else I may refer to. It was a 
delight and pleasure to see the German sailors trim, and to see 
their conduct on the streets, parks and wherever they were found. 
Several Americans remarked to me about them, and the highest 
praise which they could give, was to say, "Why, your 
German sailors all are gentlemen." Of course, they probably 
forgot when they spoke, that these sailor boys were the well- 
schooled, and well-raised sons of a German family, whether 
this family was rich or not. Such a "demonstratio ad oculos," 
such visits from German ships are but another link of the con- 
nection between Germany and America. 

Let Germans and Americans read the German American 
Annals and become members of The German American Histori- 
cal Society ! 


©erman Clmcrican Qnnals 




Historical. Literary, Linguistic, Educational and Commercial Relations 


Germany and America 


The German American Historical Society 
The National German American Alliance 
The Union of Old German Students in America 



University of Pennsylvania. 


H, C. G. Brandt, Julius Goebel, 

Hamilton College. University of Illinois. 

W. H. Carpenter, j. t. Hatfield, 

Columbia University. Northwestern University. 

W. H. Carruth, W. T. Hewett, 

University of Kansas. Cornell University. 

Hermann Collitz, A. R. Hohlfeld, 

Johns Hopkins University. University of Wisconsin. 

Starr W. Cutting, Hugo K. Schilling, 

University of Chicago. University of California. 

Daniel K. Dodge. H. Schmidt-Wartenberg, 

University of Illinois. University of Chicago. 

A. B. Faust, Hermann Schoenfeld, 

Cornell University. Columbian University. 

KuNO Francke, Calvin Thomas, 

Harvard University. Columbia University. 

Adolph Gerber, H. S. White, 

Late of Earlham College. Harvard University, 
Henry Wood, Johns Hopkins University, 

New Series, Vol, 6. 1908. Old Series, Vol. 10. 

published by 


E. M. Fogel, Business Manager, 

Box 10, College Hall, University of Pennsylvania 

Berlin : IRcw l^ocft : Xefpsfg : 


XonOon : Paris : 


(Scrman Qmcrican Qnnals 



New Series, July and August Old Series, 

Vol. VI. No. 4. 1908. Vol. X. No. 4. 

The Founder of Germantowu. 

By Marion Dkxter Learned. 

(Copyrighted. All rights reserved.) 


Pastorius' Official Documents. 

In addition to the works in manuscript already discussed, 
Pastorius left a number of important public documents, which 
bear the impress of his mind, ranging all the way from the Protest 
against Negro Slavery of the year 1688, to the Record of Friends 
Certificates of Marriage. These works are here mentioned by 
title and treated briefly in order to give a complete view of Pas- 
torius' activity as a writer. They are five in all, and numbered 
here for convenience in cronological order. 

The most important question of public moment touched upon 
by Pastorius was that of Negro Slavery. While we have no 
statement that he formulated the Protest brought by the Germans 
before the Friends Meeting in 1688, it is easy to detect the ear- 
marks of his style and manner of thought in the quaint German- 
isms of the document. The handwriting also is his. 


1 88 Francis Daniel Pastoritis 


Germantown Friends' Protest Against Slavery, 1688: 

This is to y« Monthly Meeting held at Richard Warrell's. 

These are the reasons why we are against the traffick of men 
Body, as followeth : Js there any that would be done or handled at 
this manner? viz., to be sold or made a slave for all the time of his 
life? How fearfuU & fainthearted are many on sea when they see a 
strange vassel, being afraid it should be a Turck, and they should be 
tacken and sold for slaves into Turckey. Now what is this better 
done as Turcks doe? yea rather is it worse for them, w*^^ say they 
are Christians; for we hear that ye most part of such Negers are 
brought heither against their will & consent; and that many of them 
are stollen. Now, tho' they are black, we cannot conceive there is 
more liberty to have them slaves, as it is to have other white ones. 
There is a saying, that we shall doe to all men, licke as we will be 
done our selves ; making no difference of what generation, descent or 
Colour they are. And those who steal or robb men, and those who 
buy or purchase them, are they not all alike? Here is liberty of 
Conscience, w*^^ is right & reasonable; here ought to be lickewise 
liberty of y® body, except of evildoers, w'^'^ is an other case. But to 
bring men hither, or to robb and sell them against their will, we 
stand against. Jn Europe there are many oppressed for Conscience 
sacke; and here there are those oppressed w^^ are of a black Colour. 
And we, who know that men must not comitt adultery, some doe 
corhitt adultery in others, separating wifes from their housbanils and 
giving them to others ; and some sell the children of those poor 
Creatures to other men. Oh ! doe consider well this things, you who 
doe it; if you would be done at this manner? and if it is done accord- 
ing Christianity? You surpass Holland and Germany in this thing. 
This mackes an ill report in all those Countries of Europe, where 
they hear ofT, that y® Quackers doe here handel men licke they handel 
there y® Cattel. And for that reason some have no mind or inclina- 
tion to come hither, and who shall maintaine this your cause or 
plaid for it? Truely we can not do so, except you shall inform us 
better hereoff, viz : that christians have liberty to practise this 
things. Pray ! What thing in the world can be done worse towards 
us, then if men should robb or steal us away, & sell us for slaves to 
strange Countries, separating housband[s] from their wifes & chil- 
dren. Being now this is not done at that manner, we will be done at, 
therefore we contradict & are against this trafifick of menbody. And 
we who profess that it is not lawfull to steal, must lickewise avoid to 
purchase such things as are stollen, but rather help to stop this rob- 
bing and stealing if possible; and such men ought to be delivered out 

Warburg in Westphalia, About 1650. 
( By the Courtesy of Fritz Quick, of Warburg. ) 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 189 

of y® hands of y*^ Robbers & and sett free as well as in Europe. Then 
is Pennsilvania to have a good report, instead it hath now a bad one 
for this sacke in other Countries. Especially whereas y® Europeans 
are desirous to know in what manner y*^ Quackers doe rule in their 
Province; & most of them doe loock upon us with an envious eye. 
But if this is done well, what shall we say is done evill ? 

If once these slaves, ( iw*^^ they say are so wicked and stubbern 
men:) should joint themselves, fight for their freedom and handel 
their masters & mastrisses as they did handel them before ; will these 
Masters and mastrisses tacke the sword at hand & warr against these 
poor slaves, licke we are able to belive, some will not refuse to doe? 
Or have these Negers not as much right to fight for their freedom, 
as you have to keep them slaves ? 

Now consider well this thing, if it is good or bad? and in case 
you find it to be good to handel these blacks at that manner, we 
desire & require you hereby lovingly, that you may informe us here 
in, which at this time never was done, viz., that Christians have such 
a liberty to do so. to the end we shall be satisfied in this point, & 
satisfie licke wise our good friends & acquaintances in our natif 
Country, to whose it is a terrour or fairfull thing that men should 
be handeld so in Pensilvania. 

This is from our Meeting at Germantown held y^ 18. of the 2. 
month 1688. to be delivred to the Monthly Meeting at Richard 

gerret hendericks 
derick op de graefif 
Francis Daniell Pastorius 
Abraham op Den graef. 

At our monthly meeting at Dublin, ^'^ 30 — 2 mo: 1688 we 
having inspected y® matter above mentioned & considered of it, we 
finde it so weighty that we think it not Expedient for vs to meddle 
with it here, but do Rather comit it to y® consideration of y® Quar- 
terly meeting; y^ tennor of it being nearly Related to y® truth. 
On behalfe of y® monthly meeting. 
Signed, P Jo : Hart. 

This, above mentioned was read in our quarterly meetting at 
Philadelphia, the 4 of y® 4th mo 88 and was from thence recom- 
mended to the Yearly Meetting and the abovesaid Derick and the 
other two mentioned therein to present the same to y® Abovesaid 
meetting it being a thing of too great A weight for this meeting to 

Signed by order of y® meetting 

Anthony Morris. 

190 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

Minute of Burlington Yearly Meeting Minute on the above Protest: 

At a Yearly Meeting held at Burlington the 5th day of the 7th 
month, 1688. 

A Paper being here presented by some German Friends Con- 
cerning the Lawfulness and Unlawfulness of Buying and keeping 
Negroes, It was adjudged not to be so proper for this Meeting to 
give a Positive Judgment in the Case, It having so General a Relation 
to many other Parts, and therefore at present they forbear It. 


The Generall Court Book | of the Corporation of | Germantown. 
I Oder I Raths-Buch | der Germantownischen Gemeinde, j 
angefangen den 2 ten tag des 4 ten Monats Anno 1691. 

The MS. is 8 3-16x12 11-16 inches in size and contains: 

1. The Raths-Buch, ■^^. 1-32. 

2. Alphabet to Book I, Vol. 5, 7 pp. 

3. An old plot of survey. 

4- 79 PP- (unnumbered and all blank except two). 

This MS. of the Raths-Buch is evidently the original minutes 
of the General Court of Germantown,as the entries are in different 
hands. Three different languages — German, Dutch, English — 
are used in various parts of the record. The Raths-Buch is a 
most valuable document for the history of the German language 
in America, inasmuch as it shows that the speech mixture, so 
familiar in the later day American German, especially the Penn- 
sylvania German, began with the pioneers almost immediately 
after their arrival. 


Lex Pennsylvaniensis | in Compedium | redacta. : | h. e. | The 
Great Law of Penn- | silvania — abridged, | for the particular 
use of I Francis Daniel Pastorius. | Salus Populi Suprema Lex 



Francis Daniel Pastorius 191 

A manuscript 5/^x8 1-16 inches in size, containing: 

Title page, i p. 

Index, 6 pp. 

Laws of Pennsylvania, beginning with No. 20 (Laws 1-19 
are wanting), 22 pp. 

Blank 2 pp. 

The laws in this part are briefly abstracted for ready refer- 
ence in practice. 


Leges Pennsilvanianae | h : e : | The great Law of the | Province 

I of I Penn Silvania. | Francis Daniel Pastorius 

his Book I . . . 1690 .... 


The size of this manuscript is 6x7^ inches. The contents 

Title page, i p. (See photographic reproduction.) 

Entry of the dates on which the laws were enacted, p. 2. 

The full text of the laws, pp. 3-82. 

Blank, 4 pp. 

Index, 3 pp. 

Blank, 7 pp. 


1. Copia des Germantownischen Charters. | 

2. Gesetz, Ordnungen und Statuten der Gemeinden ^^ | zu 
Germantown, in denen daselbstigen generalen | Raths Ver- 
samblungen von Zeit zu Zeit gemacht | und publicirt | ^^ 

antecedent to 

The Laws of the Province of Pennsylvania 
the sd Charter & By-Laws . | 

The manuscript measures 6 3-16 (6}i)xy}^ inches and con- 
tains 28 pages in all. It was originally bound in rough black 
pasteboard, which is still preserved. 

All three of these MSS. are now bound up together in the 
order here given, and found in the Historical Society of Penn- 
sylvania. As the title page shows the Leges PennsilvaniancB 

Written "Geineind" in title to the section containing the text. 
" Replaced by "verfertigt" in the title before the text. 

192 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

codex is the oldest of the three. It is probable that the third codex, 
containing the Gesetz, Ordmingcn nnd Statuten of Germantown, 
are of equally early date, although transferred later to this MS. 

Grund- und Lager-Buch | aller and jeden unbeweglichen 
Gliter, | geklart- und ungeklarten | Landes, | in der gantzen 
German Township | Durch Ordre Einer daselbstigen Generalen 
Court I angefangen | von | Francisco Daniele Pastorio 

The book is a large MS. folio, 11 3^ x 18 inches, and has 
the following contents : 

Title page, i page unnumbered ; Ansprach an die Nachkom- 
lingschafift, &c., i unnumbered page; Copia des Patents oder 
Grund-Brieffs iiber die gesamte Germantownship, p. i ; Number 
of acres bought by original purchasers and number of acres in 
the four towns, Germantown, Kriessheim, Sommerhausen, Cre- 
feld, p. 2 ; List of original purchases, p. 3 ; Purchases in Kriess- 
heim, p. 4 ; Purchases in Sommerhausen. p. 5 ; Purchases in Cre- 
feld (no names entered), p. 6; Blank, pp. 7-10; Die Franckfur- 
tische Compagnie (no entries), p. 11; Blank, 12-42 (4 pp. less 
than numbering calls for); Jacob Tellner (no entry), p. 43; 
Blank, pp. 44-48 ; Power of Attorney of Johan Stripers and his 
wife, p. 50; Blank, pp. 51-54 (2 pp. wanting); Dirck Lipman, 
ein Erster Kaiiffer (no entry), p. 55; Blank, pp. 56-60; Govert 
Remkins, ein Erster Kaiiffer (no entry), p. 61 ; Blank pp. 62- 
64 ; Lenert Arets, ein Erster Kaiiffer, p. 65 ; Blank, pp. 66-70 ; 
Jacob Jsaacs, ein Erster Kaiiffer (no entry), p. 71 ; Blank, pp. 
72-76 (2 pp. wanting); Franz Daniel Pastorius (no entry), p. 
yj; Blank, pp. 78-80 (81-82 wanting); Georg Hartzfelder (no 
entry), p. 83; Blank, pp. 84-86; Peter Keiirlis (no entry), p. 87-, 
Blank, pp. 88-90; Tiines Kunders (no entry), p. 91 ; Blank, pp. 
92-94; Jan Lensen (two documents), p. 95; Blank, pp. 96-98; 
Reinert Tisen (five documents), pp. 99-100; Blank, pp. 1 01 -104; 
Jan Liicken (one document), p. 105; Blank, pp. 1 06-1 10 (iii- 
112 wanting) ; Gerhard Henrichs (no entry), p. 113; Blank, pp. 


3u 2<CO?®^€9J'©2i53}?/ 

Title Page of Pastorius' " Missive to tiik Piktists 

IN Germany ". 
(By the Courtesy of Dr. Julius F. Sachse, of I'hiladelphia. ) 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 193 

1 1 4-1 18; David Scherckges (no entry), p. 119; Shoemaker 
document, p. 120; Blank, pp. 121-122; Wolter Simens (no en- 
try), p. 123; Blank, pp. 124-126; Dirck Kolck (no entry), p. 127; 
Blank, pp. 128-130; Wigart Levering (no entry), p. 131 ; Blank, 
p. 132; Herman von Bon (no entry), p. 133; Blank, p. 134; 
Gerhard Levering (no entry), p. 135; Blank, pp. 136-138; Hen- 
rich Sellen (no entry), p. 139; Blank, pp. 140-142; Jsaack 
Schefer (no entry), p. 143; Blank, pp. 144-146 (147-148 want- 
ing); Heinrich Buchholtz (no entry), p. 149; Blank, pp. 150- 
152; Cornelis Bom (no entry), p. 153; Blank, pp. 154-156 (157- 
158 wanting); Isaac Dilbeeck, pp. 159-160 (two documents); 
Blank, pp. 161-162; Efiecke Klostermans (two documents), p. 
163; Blank, pp. 164-166; Jan Doeden (no entry), p. 167; Blank, 
pp. 168-170; Andres Souplis (no entry), p. 171 ; Blank, pp. 172- 
174; Willem Riittinghusen (no entry), p. 175; Blank, pp. 176- 
178; Claus Riittinghusen (no entry), p. 179; Blank, pp. 180- 
182; Dirck Keyser (no entry), p. 183; Blank, pp. 184-186; Wil- 
lem Strepers (four documents), pp. 187-189; Blank, p. 190; 
Dirck op de Graeff (no entry), p. 191 ; Blank, pp. 192-194; Her- 
man op de Graeff (one document), p. 195; Blank, p. 196; Five 
op den Graaff documents and memorandum, p. 197; Herman 
Dors document, p. 198; Abraham op de Graeff (one document), 
p. 19; Blank, pp. 200-201; George Walker (one document), p. 
202; Jan Simens (one document), p. 203; William Strepers 
document, p. 204; Blank, pp. 205-206; Paul Wulff, pp. 207-210 
(five documents); Johannes Bleickers, pp. 211-212 (two docu- 
ments); Blank, pp. 213-214; Jacob Schumacher (no entry), p. 
215; Blank, p. 216-218; Heifert Papen (double document), pp. 
219-220; Blank, pp. 221-222; Jacob Jansen Kliimges (no en- 
try), p. 223; Blank, pp. 224-226; Cornelis Sjoerts (no entry), 
p. 227; Blank, pp. 228-230; Hans Peter Umstat (no entry), p. 
231; Blank, pp. 232-234; Peter Schumacher (four documents), 
pp. 235-236; Blank, pp. 237-238 (239-240 wanting); Claus 
Tamson (one document), p. 241; Blank, pp. 242-244; Hanns 
Milan (no entry), p. 245; Blank, pp. 246-248; Henrich Frey 
(no entry), p. 249; Blank, pp. 250-252; Johannes Kassel and 

194 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

Arnold Cassel (four documents), pp. 253-254; Blank, pp. 255- 
258; Aret Klincken (three documents), pp. 259-260; Blank, pp. 
261-262; John Silans (three documents), p. 263; Blank, pp. 264- 
266; Reinier Hermans (no entry), p. 267; Blank (268-269 
wanting), pp. 270-272; Henrich Sellen (no entry), p. 273; 
Blank, pp. 274-276; Dirck Sellen (one document), p. 277; Blank, 
pp. 278-281; Gerard Riittinghousen (one document), p. 282; 
Blank, pp. 283-288; Willjam Streper's document and Matthias 
van Bebber document, p. 289 ; Blank, pp. 290-304 ; William Strep- 
ers document and Matthias van Bebber document, pp. 305-306; 
Blank, pp. 307-323; Thomas Tresse (one document), p. 324; 
Blank, pp. 325-338 (2 pp. numbered 328) ; William Streepers 
(three documents), pp. 239-241; Blank, pp. 342-344; Abraham 
Tonnis (one document), pp. 345-346; Blank, pp. 347-368; Jn 
het Lands van Crefelt (one document), p. 369; Blank, pp. 370- 
380; [Index], 2 unnumbered pages and i blank page. 

The Grund und Lager-Buch is in a sense the most national 
book indited by Pastorius, inasmuch as it is addressed to the 
German people in America and their descendants. It is also 
from the literary point of view the most interesting document 
emanating from him alone because the Latin "Address to Pos- 
terity" has become immortalized as classical in English Amer- 
ican literature by the Quaker poet Whittier, in his Pennsylvania 
Pilgrim. The Latin and German addresses are given here both 
in the original and in English translation, as well as in the photo- 
graphic reproduction. 

"Ansprach an die Nachkomlingschaft, und Alle, die dieses 
Lager-Buch continuiren oder fortsetzen. 

Wehrte und Geliebte Nachkomlinge! Damit Jhr zu alien 
Zeiten wissen moget, von weme, wann, wie undt warumb die so ge- 
nannte Germantownship sey angefangen worden ; und also Eurer 
Vor- Eltern ursprung merckliche ungemachligkeiten und wohlmein- 
endliche Jntention Euch kiirtzlich entdecket werde, habe ich allhier 
Vorredsweis was weniges darvon bey zu fiigen meiner Schuldigkeit 
zu seyn erachtet. Anfanglich nun Nachdem Carolus, dieses Nahmens 
der Zweyte, Konig von Engelland, durch sonderbahre Schickung des 
Allerhochsten und aus erheblichen ursachenhiesigeLandschafftPenn- 
silvanien an Willjam-Penn und seine Erben, krafft offenen brieffs 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 


de dato den 4ten Martij 1680., iibergebcn und abgetretten hatte, sind 
nebenst andern auch einige Pcrsonen in Hoch- und Nieder Teutsch- 
land ( :deren Nahmen in dem allgemeinen Patent oder Grundbrieff 
uber diese Gcrmantovvnship p. i. zu ersehen:) bewogen worden, in 
allem 43000. Acker lands in gemeldter Provinz Pennsilvanien von 
gedm Willjam Penn, vermittelst Benjamin Furly, dessen gevollmach- 
t^igten zu Rotterdam in Holland, an sicb zu kauffen, der zuverlassigen 
/^bsicht, bey damahligen schweren laiifften sowohl selbst aus dem 
verwirrten Europa anhero [ : als in ein zweytes Pellam:] zu entflihcn, 
wie nicht mmder andere redliche und arbeitsame leut zu transportiren 
umb allhier unter mehrerwehnten Willjam Penns verhoffentlich 
gerechten und liebreichen Regierung ein friedsam, still und Gottge- 
falhges Leben zu fiihren. Anno 1683. den 2ten tag des 2ten Monats 
( :Apnlis :) begab ich Frantz Daniel Pastorius mich ( :gleicli ein Vor- 
lauffer vermuthlich vieler nachfolgenden ehrlichen lands leute:) auff 
den weg, und arrivirte den 20ten des 6ten Monats ( :Augusti:) mit 
cthchen kncchten und magden Gott lob ! f risch und gesund zu Phila- 
delphia. Bald darauff nembl. den 6ten des 8ten Monats ( : Octobris •) 
kamen eben falls in besagtem Philada. an Dirck- und Herman- 
und Abraham Jsaacs op den Grasff, Lenert Arets, Tiines Kunders 
Remert Tisen, Willhelm Strepers, Jan Lensen, Peter Keurlis Jan 
Smiens Johanes Bleickers. Abraham Tunes und Jan Liicken, mit 
dero respective Weibern, Kindern und gesind, zusamen 13. Fami- 
hen. Da wir dann ungesaiimt von Willjam Penn begehrten, dass Er 
das samtliche von obgedn Hoch- und Nieder Teutschen erkauffte 
Land an einem stiick, und zwar bey einem schiffbaren Strom, solte 
auslegen und abmessen lassen. Dieweilen Er aber uns hierinnen 
nicht willfahren kunnte, sondern bisz zu iiberkunfft mehrerer 
Hausgesinde eine Township unfern dem Philadelphischen Stattgebiet 
ethche meil oberhalb des Scullkill Falls, anprasentirte, haben wir 
sothanen Landstrich besichtiget und demnach derselbe uns seiner 
hohen geburg halber nicht anstandig, von oftgem. Willjam Penn 
versucht, die Township lieber buschwarts ein auff ebenern grund zu 
zustehen ; dessen Er wohl zufrieden, und darauff den 24 ten Octobris 
durch Thomas Fairman 14. losen oder Erbe abmessen liesz umb 
welche oberwehnte 13. Familien den 25ten dito durch Zettul das los 
zogen, und sofort anfiengen Keller und Hiitten zu machen, worinnen 
si^ den Winter nicht sonder grosse beschwerligkeit zubrachten. 

"Den Ort nennten wir Gcrmantown, welches der Teutschen item 
Briider Statt bedeutet ; Etliche gaben ihm den bey Nahmen Armen 
Town, sindemahl viel der vorgedn. ersten beginere sich nicht einst 
auff etliche wochcn, zu gcschweigen Monaten, provisioniren kunntcn. 
Und mag wcder gcnug bcschrieben, noch von denen vermoglichern 
Nachkomlingen geglaubt werdcn, in was Mangel und Armuth, anbey 
mit welch einer Christn. Vergnugligkeit und unermudctem Fleiss 

196 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

diese German Townsliip begunen scy ; da daii mehrgemn. Willjam 
Penns offtmaliger durchdringender Anmuthigung und wiirklichen 
assistenz nicht zu vergessen ; wie auch, dasz, als Er nacher Engelland 
abgesegelt. gegen das Vorjahr einigen der Einwohner ihr muth so 
gar entfallen, dass sie anders wohin verhausen wolten ; welches doch 
auff der bestandigern Zusprach unterblieben ist, imd Sie anjetzo 
beederseits ursach haben, Gottes vatterliche Giite und Vorsorg dank- 
barlich zu riihmen. 

"Anno 1684, den 20ten und folgende tag des I2ten Monats 
( :Februar:) wurde von gedm. Thomas Fairman der umbkreisz der 
German township, nembUch nach Jnnhalt des von Willjam Penn er- 
theilten, und ins general landmesser Amt eingelieferten, warrants, 
6000. Ackers abgemessen, kurtz darnach aber durch dessen ordre 
( : unerachtet wz wir dagegen einwenden kunnten:) 1000. ackers 
darvon, langs der Scullkillseite, wieder abgeschnitten ; wobey es also 
verblieben, bisz Anno 1687. den 29. Decembris diese unsre Gemian- 
township zum andern mahl von Thomas Fairman, und zwar mit 
accurater sorgfalt. gemessen, und darinnen 5700. acker lands be- 
funden worden, iiber welche wir das auff folgender Seite abcopirte 
Patent oder Grundbrieff genomen haben. 

"Ferner wurden zu selbiger Zeit alien und Jeden Einwohnern 
zu Germantown ihre gantze und halbe losen in richtiger Ordnung 
zugemessen, wie aus dem draught oder Abriss und gegenwartigem 
buch, clarer erhellet; Nembl : 2750. ackers. Anno 1689. den 4ten des 
2ten Monats (:Aprilis:) haben die Kaiiffer und Erbpachts lent, 
denen die iibrige 2950. ackers der Germantownship zubehoren, 
dieselbe durchs los unter sich in drey absonderliche Dorffsschafften 
vertheilt; und Anno 1690. den I4ten des Xlten Monats ( Januarii:) 
von Thomas Fairman die Durchschnitt dardurch thun lassen ; den 
vordersten an Germantown anstossenden Theil Kriszheim ; den Mit- 
telsten ( :von meiner geburts statt:) Sommerhausen ; und den hin- 
dersten Crefeld benahmset; wie p. 2. umbstandlicher ausweiset. 

"Hierbey ist gelegentlich zu erinnern, dasz wir die Urheber 
dieses Wercks, wegen ermanglender sattsamer experienz in solcherley 
sachen, vieles gethan haben, das wir hemach theils selbst andern, 
theils der kliigern Nachfahren Verbesserung anbefehlen, miissen. 
Daii in ansehung der beschwerlichen Ausrottung des holtzes &c. 
haben wir anfangl : die Erb oder Losen nur 7. ruthen breit ausgelegt ; 
jedoch nachgehends. da mit dergleichen harten arbeit was beszer ge- 
wehren kunnten, dieselbe um andere 7. ruthen und 4. Fuss erweitert. 
Auch war unser ersteres Vornehmen, es bey 25. losen bewenden zu 
lassen ; weszhalben wir dann vor dem sechsten Erb auff der West- 
seite ( : als neben einer Zwerchstrasz, und inmitten des Orts:) einen 
acker zum Marck- und begrabnisz platz, auch zu gemeinen Gebaiien 
vorbehalten haben. Dieweilen aber verschiedene, beedes gewesene 
Dienstboten und aus Teutschland uberkomende, gern bey uns zu 


L /? ^^^^-^:f*^ ^s'^^^-^-H^ ^s^!%.-^ 

"7^ • /•% 

'Ml^Miitt'i^ a. J 

'- V • ■^.-"n&f"'^- ' ■ '- — "• *... . .■ ' a" - — ■ " ■* -* • 

Oldest Title Page of Pastorius' Copy of the "Laws of 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 197 

Germantown bleiben unci wohnen wolten, vergrosserten wir die 
anzahl der losen auf 55. Jngleichen hatte unserer Jntention nach die 
lange strasz in einer geraden Nord West linj durch gantz German- 
town lauffen und die zwerchstraszen recht gegen einander iiber und 
von einerley Weite seyn sollen ; welches doch die darzwischen fal- 
lende Siimpff und unbeqvemheiten ; haubtsachl : aber die mit dem 
Volk anwachsende diversitat der Sinnen und andere dergestaltige 
umbstande verhindert haben. 

Zum beschlusz mag ich wohl mit einem angehenckten NB. 
denen Nachkomlingen zu wissen fiigen, dasz German Towns vor- 
nehmste eusserliche Auffnehmen ( : wo fern bereits so zu reden gezie- 
met:) vom Flachs bau, spinnen und weben herriihre; und sonder 
Zweiffel durch dieses Kraiitlein auch hinfiiro die Armuth und Diirff- 
tigkeit noch vieler curirt werden konne; weshalben dan daszelbe mit 
gebiihrlichem Fleiss zu saen und wahr zu nehmen ist. 

"Hiermit nun abbrechende, wiinsche ich von hertzen, dasz die 
leider ! schon all zu viel iiberthatige Zwietracht und Uneinigkeit aus 
der Germantowner hertzen und gemiithern gantzlich vertilgt werde, 
sie samtlich aber, alte und Junge, grosse und kleine in wahrer Liebe 
zu Gott und ihrem Neben Menschen fromm und gerecht leben, 
gedultig leiden, selig sterben, und so in die Ewige Ruh u. Herrligkeit 
eingehen mogen ! Amen. 

Frantz Daniel Pastorius." 

"Salve Posteritas! 

Posteritas Germanopolitana ! 

et ex argumento insequentis paginse 

primitus observa, 

Parentes ac Majores Tuos 


dulce Solum, quod eos genuerat, alueratq' diu, 

voluntario exilio 


[ : oh Patrios Focos ! :] 

ut in silvosa hac Pennsilvania, 

deserta Solitudine, 

minus Soliciti 

residuum ^tatis 

Germane, h. e. instar Fratrum, 


Porro etiam inde addiscas, 

Qvantffi molis erat, 

exantlato jam mari Atlantico, 

in Septentrionali ist hoc Americae tractu, 


condere gentem. 

198 Francis Daniel Pastorius 


Series dilecta Nepotum! 

ubi fuimns exemplar honesti, 

nostrum imitare exemplum ; 

Sin autem a semita tam difficili aberravimus, 

Quod paenitenter agnoscitur, 

ignosce ; 

Et sic te faciant aliena pericula Cautam. 

Vale Posteritas! 

Vale Germanitas ! 

Aetemum Vale! 

F. D. P." 
Address to posterity and all who shall continue or keep up 
this Land Record. 

Dear and Beloved Successors. In order that you may 
know at all times by whom, when, how, and why the so-called 
Germantownship was begun and that the origin, noteworthy 
hardships and well-meaning purpose of your forefathers may be 
briefly disclosed to you, I have considered it my duty to add a lit- 
tle about it here by way of preface. In the beginning, then, after 
Charles, King of England, the second of this name, by the special 
Providence of the Most High and for weighty considerations had 
granted and ceded to William Penn and his heirs the Province of 
Pennsylvania in a public charter dated March 4th, 1680, a number 
of persons in High and Low Germany (whose names may be seen 
in the general patent or grant of this Germantownship p. i) among 
others were led to purchase of the said William Penn through Ben- 
jamin Furly his plenipotentiary at Rotterdam in Holland 43000 
acres of land in all in the above mentioned Province of Pennsyl- 
vania, with the confident expectation that by fleeing hither from 
Europe, as it were into a second Pellam, we might escape the dis- 
turbances and oppressions of that time, and, likewise transport 
other honest and industrious people in order that we might lead a 
quiet, peaceful, Godly life under the rule of the oft-mentioned Wil- 
liam Penn, which it is hoped, will be just and benign. On the sec- 
ond day of the second month (April) 1683, I, Francis Daniel Pas- 
torius (a forerunner presumably of many honest countrymen who 
are to follow), began the journey and arrived the 20th of the sixth 
month (August) with a nvmiber of hired men and maids, God be 
praised, safe and sound, in Philadelphia. Soon afterwards, viz. on 
the 6th of the eighth month (October) arrived likewise in Phila- 
delphia Dirck and Herman and Abraham Isaacs op den Graeff, 
Lenert Arets, Tiines Kunders, Reinert Tisen, Wilhelm Strepers, 
Jan Lensen, Peter Keurlis, Jan Simens, Johanes Bleickers, Abra- 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 199 

ham Tiines, and Jan Liicken, with their respective wives, children, 
and servants, together thirteen families, when we without delay 
requested of William Penn that he should have laid out and sur- 
veyed in one tract on a navigable stream all the land bought by the 
above mentioned High and Low Germans. 

Inasmuch as he could not acceed to our wishes in this matter, 
but offered a township some miles above the Falls of the Schuyl- 
kill not far from the city of Philadelphia, awaiting the arrival of a 
number of families, we examined the land, and, as it was not suit- 
able for us because of its high hills, we requested William Penn 
that he grant us the township on more level ground in the wooded 
region, to which he agreed and afterwards on the 24th of October 
had fourteen lots or hereditary shares, surveyed by Thomas Fair- 
man, for which the above mentioned thirteen families drew lots on 
the 25th of the same month, and began forthwith to construct cel- 
lars and houses, in which they spent the winter, not without great 

We called the place Germantown, which signifies likewise the 
city of Germans and the city of Brothers; some gave it the name 
Armentown (Poortown) because many of the aforesaid settlers 
could not procure themselves provision for even a few weeks much 
less months. And it cannot be adequately described nor believed 
by the more prosperous decendents, in what want and poverty, but 
at the same time with what Christian contentment and unwearied 
industry this Germantown was begun. 

Therefore, the frequent earnest encouragement and actual as- 
sistance of William Penn, who has often been mentioned, are not to 
be forgotten ; also the fact that when he had sailed to England, and 
the courage of some of the inhabitants had failed at the thought 
of the previous year, so that they wished to take up their abode else- 
where, which however was prevented by his continued encourage- 
ment ; and you now have reason on both accounts to gratefully 
praise the fatherly goodness and care of God. 

Anno 1684, the 20th and following days of the 12th month 
(February) the tract of the German township viz., 6000 acres ac- 
cording to the purport of the warrant issued by William Penn and 
delivered to the Surveyor General's office, was surveyed ; but shortly 
afterwards by his order 1000 acres of it along the Schuylkill were 
again cut ofif (regardless of what we could say against it). Thus 
it remained until this our German township was again surveyed a 
second time by Thomas Fairman on the 29th of December, and this 
time with scrupulous accuracy and found to contain 5700 acres of 
land for which we have taken out the patent or land charter copied 
on the next page. 

200 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

Moreover, at the same time the whole and half lots were sur- 
veyed in proper order to the inhabitants of Germantown, all and 
singly, as may be seen more clearly from the draft or chart and 
this book, namely, 2750 acres. On the 4th of the second month 
(April) 1689, the purchasers and hereditary tenants to whom the 
remaining 2950 acres of the German township belong, distributed this 
land among themselves, by lot, into three separate villages, and, 
on the 14th of the nth month (January) 1690, had it laid off by 
Thomas Fairman, and called the nearest portion, adjoining Ger- 
mantown, Krissheim, the middle portion Somerhausen, after my 
native city, and the farthest portion Crefeld, as is shown more in 
detail on page 2. In this connection it is to be incidentally remem- 
bered that we, the beginners in this work, because of the lack of 
sufficient experience in such things, have done many things which 
we afterwards must ourselves change or recommend to our wiser 
successors for improvement. For because of the difficult clearing 
of the woodland, etc., we laid out in the beginning only seven-rod 
tracts or lots, but afterwards when we were able to get along better 
with such difficult labor, we added to these lots seven perches and 
four feet. Then, too, our first intention was to stop with 25 lots ; 
accordingly, we then reserved an acre for a market place, a grave- 
yard, and also for commercial buildings on the west side in front of 
the sixth lot by a cross street in the middle of the town ; but inasmuch 
as a number of former servants and others arriving from Ger- 
many wished to remain and live with us in Germantown, we in- 
creased the number of lots to 55. In like manner, it was our in- 
tention that the long street was to run in a straight northwest line 
through the entire village of Germantown, and the cross streets 
directly opposite each other and of one width, which, however, the 
intervening swamps and inconveniences, but chiefly the growing 
diversity of opinion among the people, prevented. 

In conclusion, I may properly add with an appended N. B., 
for the information of those that are to follow, that Germantown's 
most prominent external prosperity, so far as it is befitting to speak 
of such at this early stage, is due to flax raising, spinning, and 
weaving, and doubtless by means of this little plant, also in the 
future the poverty and want of many can yet be remedied, and for 
this reason it should be sown and cared for with becoming indus- 
try. Closing with this, I wish sincerely that the dissention and 
strife which, alas! are all too rife, may be entirely erased from the 
hearts and minds of the people of Germantown, and that they all, 
old and young, great and small, may live piously and honestly in 
true love to God and their neighbors, suffer in patience, die happy, 
and thus enter into eternal peace and glory. Amen. 

Franz Daniel Pastorius. 

Umftdnbige ©cogra^ 


©er 5u allcrle^t erfun^enen 





I J. V. Lie. unt)5riet)cnfi>;3iict)(an 


\t notable §3eciet)cnf)eiten / mb 

^cric&t>®ceceibeii an DcjTcii ^erm 


Unt) ont)cccciute grc«nt)c> 

SuiinOen l^ei) S(nDrt'a6 Otto. 2700. 

Title Page of Pastorius' "DESCRirnoN ok Pennsylvania," 1700. 
(From the Copy in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.) 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 201 

"Hail to Posterity ! 
Hail future men of Germanopolis ! 

Let the young generations yet to be 
Look kindly upon this. 
Think how your fathers left their native land, — 

Dear German land ! O sacret hearths and homes ! — 
And where the wild beast roams 

In patience planned 
New forest homes beyond the mighty sea, 

There undisturbed and free 
To live as brothers of one family, 
What pains and cares befell. 
What trials and what fears, 
Remember, and wherein we have done well 

Follow our footsteps, men of coming years ! 
Where we have failed to do 
Aright, or wisely live. 
Be warned by us, the better way pursue, 
And knowing we were human, even as you. 
Pity us and forgive ! 

Farewell, Posterity! 
Farewell, dear Germany ! 
Forevermore farewell ! 

F. D. P.^^a 

A Record | of Friends Certificates of Marriage | belonging to 
the Monthly Meeting of Philadelphia 1672. 

The first marriages recorded took place in England. The 
last entry in Pastorius's hand is dated "15th, 4th, 1699." The 
record is then continued in another hand. 

Although the range of Pastorius's reading in English litera- 
ture includes the Venerable Bede among the Church Fathers, and 
Chaucer among the poets, he seems to have known nothing of 
Shakespeare. Indeed, it is surprising that in the century when 
English comedians had made a deep impression upon the Ger- 
man stage, including in their repertoire a number of Shakes- 
peare's plays, a German scholar like Pastorius, who had himself 
been in England in the early eighties of that same century, 
should not once mention the name of the Bard of Avon. This 
shows how little the personality of Shakespeare meant to the 
Continent, as for that matter, to England itself, in the second 

'a The verses are from Whittier's Pennsylvania Pilgrim. 

202 Francis Daniel Pastorins 

half of the seventeenth century, and it explains the dazzling effect 
of the discovery of Shakespeare's genius in the middle of the 
eighteenth century in Germany. 

On the other hand, Pastorius was strongly influenced by the 
religious literature of England, as may be clearly seen from the 
title of the books from which he made extracts for his Beehive, 
and from the works mentioned in his library, as well as from the 
enormous collection of Quakeriana and other works mentioned 
or recommended in the Beehive. 

The poetic technique exhibited in his poems is that of the 
seventeenth century. The Alexandrine is perhaps the most 
prominent form of verse in Pastorius's serious poems. The poems 
dedicated to the daughters of Thomas Lloyd and to William 
Penn and others are written for the most part in Alexandrines. 

An equally frequent form is the "Knittelvers" of Hans 
Sachs.-" Instead of the rimed couplets, which are the rule in 
Hans Sachs, Pastorius occasionally continues the same rime 
scheme for ten or more verses, as in the poem on books.-^ 
Another form of verse quite frequently employed is the four- 
stress trochaic verse which is derived from the mediaeval Latin 
hymn.^^ In addition to these very typical forms of verse Pas- 
torius employed a great variety of shorter verse-forms, combining 
them frequently into strophic groups of unusual rhythmical 
effect. Even the antique is reflected in his work, but he seems to 
have preferred for his own thought the metrical forms of the 
period lying closer to his own time. There is little evidence that 
he was particularly interested in the content of the writings of 
either the First or Second Silesian School of Poets. He seems 
to have drawn his insipration, like Opitz and Fleming, from 
earlier sources. 

^ Cf. The poems entitled: Ziir Zeit der Anno 1692 in Pennsylvanien ent- 
siandencn Trennung.. (Printed from the Beehive in Americana Gerjnanica I, 
4, pp. 107-110.) 

^ Sylvula Rhythmorum Germanopolitanorum, No. 35. (Cf. Americana 
Germanica I, 4, pp. 106-7.) 

°*Cf. the Latin Epistle addressed to Schumbergius. (Cf. S Uvula, No. 
121 in the Beehive and also F. D. P. and the Beschreibung,) 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 203 


A complete list of books in Pastorius' library is preserved 
in his own hand and is here printed : 

An Manuscriptis habe ich 

In Folio. 
I. Alvearium or Alphabetical Hive. 

In Quarto. 

1. Academische Spaarstunden. 

2. Miscellanea Theologico-Moralia. 

3. Exercit. Arithmet. 

4. Emblematical Recreations. 

5. Ein dick ungeschrieben buch. 

6. Young Countrey-Clerk. 

7. Confusanea Geometriae. 

8. Gramatical Rudiments of the Latin Tongue. 

9. Pen syl vane. Gesetz. Item Germantone. Statutae. 

10. Deliciae hortenses & Voluptates Apianae. 

11. Anleitung zur Englischen Sprach. 

12. Poetica Pastoriana. 

13. Moral Sayings meeterly Versified. 

14. Johailis Godtmanni Speculum Sapientiae. 

15. W'" Peiis Schliiszel von mir tibersetzt. 

16. An Omer full of Mafia for my Ship-mates. 

17. Good Counsel for bad Lawyers & Attornies. 

18. Vaticinium de Reditu Guillielmi Penni. 

19. A Compendium of Arithmetick. 

In Octavo. 

1. Meine Reisbeschreibung od Jtinerarium. 

2. Phraseologia Teutonica. 

3. Academischer Spaar-Stunden Vorlaufifer od Miscellanea 


4. Liber Epitaphiorum. 

5. Artzney- und Kuntsbiichlein. 

^ An earlier and slightly variant but less complete list is found in the 
Beehive, p. 386. The list here given is taken from the Res Propria; which is 
later than the Beehive. Seidensticker (First Century of German Printing in 
America) printed the shorter list. 


Francis Daniel Pastorius 















Rudimento Linguae Angl. 

Collections Biblicae oder Theologica Anglicana in grun 

Pergament nebenst vielen andern, so uneingebunden. 
Melligo Sententiarum latine. 
Calendarium Calendariorum. 
Angling & other Tracts of Husbandry. 
The Monthly Monitor. 
Discipline of the Church of Christ. 
Deliciae hortenses Germanopolitanae. 
Arithmetick and Copies. 
Apiarium :oder Bienen-biichlein. 
Onomastical Considerations. 
Bernh. Pet. Karl's Catechism English'd by me. 
English Rhymes, twice. 

W'" Pens Friichte der Einsamk, von mir verteutscht. 
Private Annotations. 
A Fascicle of Several Mens Mscripts. 
J Saml. Pastorius his Cherry harvest of Arithmet. 

In Duodecimo. 

1. Law-Terms added to the Compleat Justice. 

2. Additamenta ad Fene's Gramaticam Gallicam. 

3. - - - ad Caffae - ~ - Jtalicam. 

4. - - - ad the Writing Scholars Companion. 

5. Latinae Primordia Linguae. 

6. Ein geschr. Anhang an Tim. Rolls Garten-biichlein. 

7. Spiegel eines wahrhafTtig bekehrten Christen. 

An Land-Charten, Die 4 Welltheil u. Teutschland. 

NB. Mein zu Altorff gewesener Stubengesell Willhelm von 
Diiten J. U. Lie. enthielt mir 2. geschriebene Phrasesbiichlein. 

[Two works at least, which are known to have existed, but are 
not included in this list, are : 

Res Proprias. 
Cash Book.l 

An Gedruckten Biichern habe ich theils mit ins land gebracht, 
theils verehrt bekomen, auch einige wenige gekauft: Hingegen 
andere verkaufft und weggegeben, als hier mit angemerckt steht. 

Francis Daniel Fastorius 205 

Iti Folio. 

1. Ed: Leighij. Critica Sacra. 

2. Der Staten Bibel. 

3. Cambridge Concordance. 

4. Hohbergs Georgica Curiosa. 

5. Tabulae Chronologicae Helmstadiensis. 

6. Sebast. Franckens Cosmographia. 

7. Nich. Bayard's Tryal for high Treason. 

8. An Act for Ascertaining the Currency of Money. 

9. The Bishops Declaration. 

10. John Casimir's Catalogue of Medicines. 

11. G. Fox to the Planters in America. 

12. Philaretus agt. Swearing & Cursing. 

13. Concerning Election of Assembly men. 

14. Cone. Caesar's Due. 

15. Th. Layths Warning. 

16. Joh Clausen Zeugnisz. 

17. Ben. Fletcher's Proclamation. 

18. Geo. Joy's Complaint agt New England. 

19. D. Erberfelds frauen leich-Reimen. 

20. Proceeding agt Rebels. 

21. Yearly Meeting Epistles. 

22. G Keiths Appeal. 

23. Tho. Budd agt W" Pefi. 

In Quarto. 

1. An English Bible, printed at Oxford. 

2. Rob. Barclay's Apology. 

3. Ein Hochteutsche Bible, gedruckt zu Lunenburg. 

4. A Collection of several Friends Writings. 
5- Nich. Hunt's Newborn Christian. 

6. Joh. Henr. Voigts prognostica. 

7. Ant. W"i Boehm. fun. Sermon to Pr Geo : twice, gave to 

each one. 

8. Jac. Telner's Treatise. 

9. Dan. Leeds rebuked. 

10. Js. Pefiingtons Wegh des Levens ende Doots. to Henry P. 

11. Rob. Barcl. Apology nederduytsch. to Henry P. 

12. Du Mont's Reyse naa het Oosten. 

13- Fragmentum Alcorani, in hochteutsch. 

14- J. Tauleri Kern-lehr. 

15. Gasp. Panthesij Jtinerarium. 

16. Geo: Keith's Universal Grace asserted. 

17. Marg. Fells Standard of the Lord revealed. 

18. An Abstract of the Laws of Peiisilva. 

2o6 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

19. In einem Band : Jn-liefcle tot de Verloorene. Js. Peningt. 

wegh des levens en doots. W Ames van den Wegh des 
levens. W. Pens Waarheyt ontdecht. J. Park's Chr. 
Jesus verhooght. G. Fox wat wy van Christo geloven. 
M F. Vrouwen Spreeken. Fr. Howgils heerlyckheyt 
van de waere Kerch. Stephen Crips geklanck des 
alarms. Bened Figken beantwortet. Jtem Gerrit 
Roosen. Jt: ein Jesuit. Jt. Ds Minist. zu Hamburg 
Verschiedene Sendbrief. Morgan Watkins Marks of 
the true Church. Nic. Knights Comparison between 
true & false Ministers. Tho. Hudchinsons forced Uni- 
formity. R. Farnsworths pure langvage, & W. Pens 

20. Sonst Zusamen gebunden : Pens & Meads Tryal. W, Pens 

Answ: to a libell. Ejusd. Answ: to a Letter. W. 
Shewens agt. Talebearers. G. Foxes line of right. 
Clergy-mans letter to a Clergy man. A letter to R. 
Bridgeman Shipton Wifes & others prophecies. 

21. G. Foxes Vision. [ ?] Beware of Seducing Spirits. Qua- 

kers no plotters. An answ : to Semper Jdem. agt. per- 
secution. Qrs. assemblies vindicated. 

22. W. P. Continued Cry of the Oppressed for Justice. G. 

Benson cone: Oaths & Swearing. Th. Ellwoods Cau- 
tion to Constables. Ben. Lindleys Shiboleth of Priest- 
hood. R. Haydocks Skirmisher Confounded. Tam 
Quam for Jurors. Jnocency defended agt. Lord Corn- 
bury. Dying-words of some young men. 

23. G Whiteheads Truth & Jiiocency vindicated. Answer to 

Lod. Muggleton. the Anabaptists lying wonder, relig- 
ious Meetings no Conventicles. 

24. E. Burne's Looking Glass. W. Smiths earthly Wisdom 

Confounded. J. Parke's God's Judgments upon the 
wicked world. J. S.'s the Case of Qrs. cone: Oathes. 
the Case of protestant dissenters, shewing those to be 
no papists, & the Law of absenting from Church not 
agt. them. 

25. Dan. Leeds rebuked. G Keith proved a prevaricator: 

proteus Ecclesiasticus, or G K proved an Apostate, the 
Bomb Search'd. Remarks upon the great Mystery of 
Fox-Craft. J. Wyeth's Vindication of W. P. 

26. G Ks refutation of 3. Opposers to Truth. Ejusd Serious 

Appeal. Qrs. of Rhode Island vindicated. G Ks plea 
of the Jnnocent. Ejusd. Some Fundamental Truths. 
Ejusd. Expostulation with Tho : Lloid. An Exhorta- 
tion cone : buying of Negroes. Gross Error & hypoc- 
rasie detected in Geo: Whitehead. W" Lancasters 
, questions. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 207 

27. the Rulers & Priests of Somerset shire persecuting the 

faithful Witnesses of the Lord. 

28. John Perrots Epistle &c. & Judas his 30. pieces. 

29. G. Foxes family order of Whites, Blacks & Jndians. Ap- 

peal that there may not be a beggar in England. Wm. 
Shewen agt. Talebearers. 

30. W"! Russels No Seventh-day-Sabbath. 

31. A short View of the Prelatical Church of England. 

32. Hen. Bernh Kosters Advice for all Professors. 
^^. Edw. Coote's English School-master. 

34. Ziegenbalgs bericht aus Tranquebar. R. Coppers 2. Schrei- 

ben. T. L. Kohlhansen schrift an die Obrigkeit zu 

35. Wederlegginge H. Jungs. G. Foxen Sendbrief u. Richt 

snoer. P. Hendricks Answ : aen Gerrit Roosen. R 
Barcl: brief aan de Ambass. tot Nimegen. St Crisps 
Oorsaecken van de Ellende der Nederlanden. Spiegel 
voor de Stad Emden. Jt. voor Niew-York door J. T. 
G Ks antw op XI. Vragen. S Crisps Klaren Wegh. 

36. G. Foxen antw: an Tob. Stietman. P. Henrichs ad 

eundem. R. Barcl. Antw. an Ben. Figken. G. Fox ad 
eundem. Jtem an Adrian Pauli. 

37. S. Crisps Klang des Allarms. G. Fox von d tauflF. James 

Parnels Untersuchung des glaubens. W. Catons Wort 
zu rechter Zeit. W. Ames Guter Rath. G. Fox wider 
Verfolfung. Antw. an Ben. Figken. Jt. an Gerrit 
Roosen. W. Gibsons Ansprach an die (Jbr. zu Dant- 
zig. G Foxen Wamung an die Obr. zu Hamburg. 

38. Disputatio Jnauguralis F. D. P. 

39. W. Catons een Woort ter rechten tyt. M. F. vrouwen. 

Spreeken gerechtvaerdigt. Fr. Howgils Erfdeel Jakobs. 
W. Catons Ondersoeker voldaen. W. P. Christenryck 
gedagvaart. M. Stephensons Roep van de Dott tot het 

40. Fr. Howgils Eroflfnung des bauchs der Morgenrothe. 

Edw. Burroughs Banicre alien Volckern dargestellt. 
Warumb die Qrs d.Weltlehrer verleugnen. G. Fox an 
alle Konig. Ejusd. Sendschreiben an John HI Konig in 

41. Den Grooten en Witten Duyvel. 

42. De Bisschop voor Groningen, Tragi-Comedie. 

43. Joh. Rode Baniere of Standaert des Heeren. 

44. Quadrans Astronomicus & Geometricus. 

45. Conductor Generalis, Or a Guide for Constables. &c. 1686. 

2o8 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

In Great Octavo. 

B. Ariae Montani Nov. Test. Graeco-lat. 

Elisha Coles Dictionary. 

Biiiarti Dictionarium Belgico-lat. 

Nath. Duez Diction : Jtalico-Gallicum. 

Midi. Pexenfelderi Apparatus Eruditionis. 

Macarij u. anderer Altvatter Schrifften. 

Claude Mauger's Gramaire Frangoise. 

hi Octavo. 

1. An English Bible printed at Oxford. 

2. Pauli Tossani Loci Comunes Theologici. 

3. Jer. Dyke's good Conscience. 

4. Nicli. Culpper's English Physician. 

5. Jac. Schiitzij Compedium Juris Civilis. 

6. Andr. Reyheri Manuductio Poetica. 

7. Comenij Lexicon Atriale. 

8. Ejusd. Janua Lingu : Lat: Germ: Gall: & Ital. 

9. Ejusd. Janua Lingu. Lat: & Angl. 

10. Joh. Val. Andreae Menippus. 

11. Melch. Ad. Pastorij Contemplatio terrestr. Vanitatum. 

12. Bart. Keckermani Sy sterna Logicae. 

13. Riverij Observationes Medicae. 

14. Pet. Rami Prselectiones in Virgilij Georgica. 

15. Joh. Boemi Mores omnium Gentium. 

16. Le Maitre d'hotch verehrt an Elisabeth Hill. 

17. Xtian Keiman Gramatica Graeca. 

18. Lutheri Teutsche Bibel. gegeben an Heinrich P. 

19. Ejusd. Neu Testament, cum Judice Manuscripto. 

20. Felbingers neu Testament. 

21. Rob. Barclay's Catechismus in Latein. 

22. — Jtem in English, to J. Samuel Pastorius. 

23. — Jtem in Nieder-teutsch. to Henry P. 

24. Tho. Chalkley's loving Jnvitation. twice, gave to each one. 

25. Wm. Penn's Call to Christendom, 

26. Wm. Dell's Laerdom om Daabe. 
2y. Betriibter Seelen Heiligthum. 

28. Wm. Penns No Cross, No Crown. 

29. Rob. Barclay's English Catechism bought for is. 

30. Dan. Leed's Trumpet, for is. 

31. the 12. Patriarch's Testamts. twice, for 2s. to each one. 

32. A Short Jntroduction of Gramar. for lod. 

Warrant for Survey of Land for Dutch and German Purchasers. 
(Original in Department of Internal Affairs, Harrisburg, Pa.) 

Warrant for Survey of Lots for Germans in Philadelphia. 
(Original in Department of Internal Affairs, Harrisburg, Pa.) 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 209 

33. Wil Bartjens Cyfferinge. 

34. Christ All in All, & Woe to Drunkards. 

35. R. H. the young Clerks Guide. 

36. Edw. Cocker the young Clerk's Tutor. 
^y. Wel-Levens-Kunst. 

38. The Elements of Geometric. 

39. Old Almanacks. 

40. Kohlhansens Erinerung. 

41. Ejusd. Anmerkungen. 

42. Ejusd. abscheul. finsterniss. 

43. P. Henr. Entdecker Entdeckt. 

44. St. Crisps Triumph d Wahrheit. 

45. Th. Lawson's Antwort. 

46. The Young Mans Companion. 

47. The privilege of Liberty & Property. 

48. Geo. Fox the Younger's Collection. 

49. G. F. & E. H. Arraignmt. of Popery. 

50. E. P. Rabshakeh rebuked. 

51. Th. Elwoods Answer to G. Ks. Narrative. 

52. Kohlhansens Schrifften wider Lobern. 

— . auch sein und mein Brief an die Pietisten. 

53. Rich. Baker's Testimony to the power of God. 

54. Guill Penn's la Clef. 

55. J. Bockett's ye poor mechanick's Plea. 

56. Jos. Wyeth's primitive Christianity continued. 

57. Th. Elwood's Truth Defended. 

58. G. Keith's pretended antidote proved Poyson. 

59. Dan. Leeds News of a Trumpet. 

60. Pietas Hallensis. part 2d & Progress of the Conversion of 

the Malabarians. part 2d. 

61. Jerem. Love's Clavis Medicinse. 

62. Hinr. Meiszners Arithmet : Blumgartlein. 

63. Steven Crisp's Triumph der Wahrheit. 

64. Th. Lawsons Antwort an Zentgraff. 

65. A just Censure of Fr. Bugg's address to the Parliamt. 

66. W". Davis's Answ : to John Wats. 

67. A Letter to Mons. Pettecum. 

68. Reflexions on the State of the Church Universal. 

69. Ant. Will Boehm's Sermon on ye day of Epiphany. 

70. Pet. Henrich's Antwort an P. Reinhard Hermanni. 

71. G. Foxen Sent-brief. 

72. John Tribbeko's Farewel-Sermon to the Palatines. 

73. Pet. Hendrich's algemeene Sendbrief. 
&Benj. Furley's Wederlegger wederleght. 

74. Geo. Foxe's la primitive Ordination des Eveques. 


Francis Deiniel Pastorius 

75. Dan. Leeds brief Reply to Caleb Pusey's mscript. 

76. Abr. Fuller's Testimony concerning his Son Joseph. 

yy. Zusam gebunden: M. J. Baurin abschieds-reden. Dis- 
quisitio de SS : Trinitate. Arnds Vorred. Justiniani 
bekehrung unglaubiger Volcker, Jt. : Verlaugnung sein- 
selt. Geist. lieder. the Christian a Quaker, good hus- 
bandry. Geode Vrydag. der Vlamingen gcloofs Con- 
fessie. Felbingers Politien. Christ : huyshoudinge. Betkij 
leidens gemeinschaft. Lobwasser vom Reich Christi. 
Joh. Michaelis Glaubens grund. Domin. Beer ged : 
liber Biblische Spriich. 

78. Van Gods Voorweetenschap en's Menssn Vrye Werking. 

79. Dirk Muller's Christelycke Gesangen van Christus. 

80. Spiegel der lydsame Heyligen. 

81. Wortel der Nederlantsche Oorloghen. 

82. Le Guide de Londres. 1710. 

83. Le Nouveau Testament, a Mons. 1677. 

84. Claudius Mauger's French Gramer, 1688, an Heinrich P. 

In Duodecimo. 

1. Th. Tryon's Miscellanea. I9:2d. 

2. Ejusd. Some Memoirs of his Life. 

3. The Compleat Justice. 

4. The young Secretaries Guide. 

5. Joh. Arnds Wahres Christenthum, sold for 15^. 

6. Statij Schatzkamer der glaubigen, for lo'^. Spener's prie- 

sterthum, for 2^. 

7. W". Shewen's Christian Faith & Experience. 

8. Ejusd. Councel to the Christian Traveller. 

9. Spira respirans. 

10. Meditationi di S. Agostino. 

11. Subyte Geestelycke Meditatien by J. Clemens. 

12. Freyburgers Chiliasmus Sanctus. 

13. Adam Reussners Psalmenbuch. 

14. Ralph Venning's Orthodox Paradoxes. 

15. Theatrum Poetarum by Edw. Phillips. 

16. Welt-Alter. 

17. Cheureau L'Ecole du Sage. 

18. Comenij Synopsis Physicse. 

19. L. An. Senecffi Opera. 

20. Guil Amesij Casus Conscientiae. 

21. J. Soet's Wintersche Avonden. 

22. Geo : Horni j Orbis Jmperans & Politicus. 

23. Ejusd. Area Mosis. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 211 

24. W. C. Kriegsman von Eintzeln Zusamenkiinfften. 

25. John Seller's hydrographia. 

26. An English Bible bought of Rich, vander Werf for 17s. 

was spoiled by J. Pettinger. to H. P. 

28. The Writing Scholars Companion, for i^. t,^. 

29. J. D. Gramatica Hispanica. Gramaire Espangnole. 

30. Fr. de Fene Gramatica Gallica 

31. CaroH Caff^e Gram. Italica. | c^m Annotat. 

i manuscnptis. 

^2. Tho. Upsher's Epistle to Friends in Jreland. 

^;^. Jac. Bohmens Aurora. 

34. Ejusd. Weg zu Christo. 

35. The Negro Christianized. 

36. A Catalogue of Books. 

^7. Jer. Dykens Wiirdiger Tischgenoss. 

38. Wil. Saldeni Christliche Kinderschul. 

39. Ladies rich Closet of Rarities, lent to EHz. Hood. 

40. And. Schotti Jtinerarium Jtaliae. 

41. Jod. Sinceri Jtinerarium Gallise. 

42. Weghweyser door Vranckryck. 

43. Gotfr. Hegenitij Jtinerarium. 

44. Mart. Beers Enchiridion Geopraphige. 

45. Fr. Heerman's guldene Annotatien. 

46. Defensie van D. Martin Luther. 

47. D. J. Bedse Judicium de bonorum Secessione a malis. 

48. Dr. Jac. Spenneri pia desideria. 

49. Raed aen de gescheyrde Christenhyt. 

50. La Lyturgie ou Prieres publiques. 

51. Catechisme familier par Phillippe le Noir. 

52. The English Schoolmaster. 

53. Tim. Rolls Blumen Biichlein. 

54. M. A. Pastorij Soliloquia. Ejusd. Jnstitutio Xtiana. 

55. Wasenburgij gheestelycke Scheepvaert. an Mar-Sprick. 

56. G. Foxe's Primmer. 

57. Keache's Jnstruction for Children. 

58. Lubini Clavis Grsece linguae. 

59. Dictionariolum Germ : Gall : Latinum. 

60. Histoire Amoureuse des Gaules. 

61. Char. Hooles Vocabularium parvum. 

62. Ein anders von 8. Sprachen. 

63. John Tomkin's Trumpet Sounded. & W". Tomlinson's 

short work of greatest Concern. 

64. J. Aug. Lietzheimer- u. August Herman Franckens 


65. Kenzeichen eines Wahren Christen. 

212 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

66. Corn. Drebelij de Natura elementorum. 

67. Nich. Bifield's Signs of a godly man. 

68. Henr. Corn. Agrippa de Vanitate Scientiarum. 

69. J : Ax ford's hidden things brought to Light. 

70. OHver Heywood's heavenly Converse. 

71. Mar. Jul. Baurin lebens-lauff. 

72. W^. Pens Expostulacon with the Jnhah. of Pensilva. 

73. An Essay towards the peace of Europe. 

74. Edw. Cooks Reports. 

75. Hier Cardani Neroos Lof ( ?) 

1. Joh. Wollebij Compendium Theologiae. 

2. Edw. Cooks Reports in 12°. 

3. Graad Boecxken. 

4. Ben. Baxter's Cases of Difficulty. 

5. [crossed out] 

6. Bacchean Magazine by W. Y. 

7. Pauli Egardi Koniglich Priesterthum. 

8. Micro-Cosmographie. 

9. Ch. Marshall's Epistle. 

10. Lutheri Neu Testament. 

11. Lud. Baily's iibung der Gottseligkeit. 

12. Joh. Jonstonij Constantia Naturae. 

13. Th. a Kempis 4. libri de Jmitatione Christi. in latein. 

14. Jtem, in English, given to Sarah Goodson. 

15. Jtem, in French. 

16. Joseph Hall's beschafifenheit eines wahren Christen. 

17. Gedenckbiichlein, und Psalmen Davids. 

18. Joh. Matthise Ramus Olivse Septentr. 

19. Er. Roterod. Encomium Moriae. 

20. Dionisij Speculum Amatorum Mundi. 

21. J. H. Horbij Von Gott besuchtes Wintzheim. 

22. Enchiridion of Popish Devotion. 
2^. Gesangbiichlein. 

24. Nieder Teutsch Testament. Sold for 4^. 

Pastorius's Last Days. 

Although Pastorius seems to have had a "choleric" tempera- 
ment, suggesting physical disorder, he seems to have enjoyed 

general good health. Nevertheless he had a number of severe 
illnesses and seems to have had his share of malaria, which then 
sprang up spontaneously out of the new soil and densely wooded 
swamps. He relates that seventeen months after his arrival he 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 213 

was attacked by a severe exhausting fever, January 23, 1685, 
which jeopardized his life. Then in 171 3 he suffered intensely 
from a gathering on the thigh, which healed only after a long 
time, during which period he re-wrote his treatise on Good Coun- 
sel to Bad Lawyers and Attorneys. The next year, May 16, 
1 714, he had another attack of fever (such as he had frequently 
experienced and cured it with rum and pepperberries), curing it 
with Epsom salt. February 25th, 171 6-1 7 he was seized with a 
severe cough and expectoration, and, after holding out some 
days in the schoolroom, was attacked by a fever and was criti- 
cally ill, but recovered his appetite after three weeks. He men- 
tions Griffith Owen, Richard and Hannah Hill, Samuel Preston, 
Isaac and Mary Norris and "several of the Germans" as having 
been very kind and attentive to him during this illness. 

We learn here incidentally that Pastorius was still teaching 
school in 171 6-1 7 within some two years of the time of his 
death. The attack last described was evidently pneumonia or 
incipient tuberculosis and showed a deterioration of his system. 

The exact date of Pastorius's death is not known, but was 
between December 26th, 17 19, the date of his will, and January 
13th, 1720, the date the will was proven. In his will he described 
himself as "being at present very sick and weak in body." The 
inventory of his effects was filed January 21st, 1720. The late 
D. P. Bruner left this note: 

"I think he must have died unexpectedly, December 27, 1719." 

The older statements that Pastorius died September 27th, 
1 719, as recorded in the Beehive, by Henry Pastorius, his son, is 
evidently a mistake, as Pastorius wrote and witnessed a deed 
from Reese Potts and Elizabeth, his wife, to John Cunrads the 
"First day of October in the sixth year of the reign of King 
George over Great Britain, &c., A. D., 1719." 

He was interred presumably in the Friends' Burying Ground, 
in Germantown, although neither record nor tombstone tells us 

It was fitting that he who cared so little for the esteem of 

214 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

the world while he lived should, like his fellow Pietests and 
Friends, rest in obscurity in the little German Town, which has 
kept pace with the march of the centuries without losing many 
of its old landmarks. 

It would be easy to select an epitaph for the German Jurist- 
Pioneer from the testimony of his contemporaries, such as the 
tribute of William Penn, who called him 

"Vir sobrius, probus, prudens & pius." 

or the poetic tribute paid by Howell Powell a short time after 
the death of Pastorius : 

A Commemoratory Poem on Francis Daniel Pastorius. 

What Francis Daniel Pastorius 
Hath tane his flight from hence to Olympus ? 
Lost to his Posterity, y^ German Town Speci'lly 
Lost (tho' great gaines to him) it was to many. 
The Hermes, Glory, Crown, and Linguist's gone 
Who oft Jnterpreted Teutonick tongue. 
The Scribe, and Tutor, German's Bolar Guide, 
An Antiquarian that was far from Pride, 
Religious Zealous Amanuensis ; 
An Universal man in Arts [&] Sciences: 
Who Lov'd his Friends; Britains; yea are Na[tions] 
Zealous for the Truth, full of Compassions 
Ah ! may Germanopolis be 'gen supplied 
Of that great Loss, their Honour Once, their Guide, 
A wise Achilles as he was be Sent 
' Lowly, Lovely Learn'd Lively Still Content. 
Now free from Cares, Dire troubles that attend 
This brittle Case, the Heavnely Quire befriend 
Him Still : Joyes in the Glorious Lamb alone 
Seeth the Beatifick Vision 
You his Family offspring take Example 
By Francis Just Sincere & truly humble 
Tho' you Condole the Loss of 's Company 
He got a better ; be Content thereby, 
Tho many Lost a Friend ; He got, yet they 
Rejoyce that he hath Nobler still for ay : 
Tho Dead to his Corp'ral Form, that Sleep, He Lives 
Jn Jmmortality needs no Reprieve. 


Francis Daniel Pastorius 215 

Vade Dijs Superis homo Scandere Culmen Olympi, 
Francisce seqtie vale ; tu cape carpe viam. 
Opto simul quieris, vestigia recta sequiq; 
Te pedibus verbij, te simul esse bonos. 

Howell Powell fecit 
31 mo 3th mense 1720 

Appendix A. 

Diplomatic Print of the Agreement of the German Company of 


Jm Nahmen und zur Ehre GOttes ! 

Wir Unterschriebene urkunden und bekennen hiemit / demnach 
wir zusammen fiinff und zwantzig tausend Acker / Englischer Masz 
/ unvertheilten Lands / in der Americanischen Provintz Pennsyl- 
vania, gesampter Hand gekauffet / auch jeglicher sein Antheil nach 
Auszweisz dariiber besagender Rechnungen wiircklich bezahlt haben : 

Jacob von de Wallen 2500 \ 

und Caspar Merian 2500. jetzund Jacob 

von de Walle 833/^ 

und Daniel Behagel 1666^ 

Lt. Johann Jacob Schiitz 4000 

Johann Wilhelm Uberfeld / jetzund Franz \ 5000. 

Daniel Pastorius 1000 

Jacob von de Wallen 1666?^ 

Georg Strausz, jetzund Johanna Eleonora 

von Merlau / ( cooo. 

M. Johann Wilhelm Peters -^ Hauszfrau. . 1666^ 

Daniel Behagel i666yz 

Dr. Gerhard von Mastricht 1666^ ^ 

Dr. Thomas von Wilich 1666^ ' 5000. 

und Johannes le Brim 1666^ \ 

Balthasar Jawert o^o^ \A \ 

Johannes Kemler 1666^ j ^°°°' 

Summa .... 25000. 

Dass wir wegen sothaner Giither / vor uns / respective unsere 
Hauzfrauen / kmder und Erben / im Nahmen GOttes eine Gemein- 
schafft Oder Societdt angetretten und geschlossen haben / auff Art 
und Weisz als hiernach folgt : 

'* Mistake for Petersen, see the signature at the end of the document. 

2i6 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

I. Obbesagte Landereyen [sic] wie unci wo sie uns sampt unci 
sonciers angewiesen seyn / oder ins kiinfftige angewiesen werden 
mogen / selbsten auch die iiber obig specificirtes / uns compctircnde 
Stadt-losz / namlich die vier oder sechs Platze in der Stadt Philadel- 
phia zum Auffbauen neuer Hauser / und incirca beylaufftig 300. 
Acker in der Stadt Gerechtigkeit unci Freyheit vor und umb Phila- 
delphia gelegen / und das neulichst / zur Ziegelbsckerey [sic] an 
Scbollkiel / erkauffte Land / sampt alien und jeden / an alien Orten 
und Enden in gantz P ennsylvanien auffgerichteten und kiinfftigen 
Gebauen und anderen meliorationen, auch dahin gesendete / dorten 
gekauffte oder sonsten erlangte VictuaUa, Kauffmanns Wahren / 
Viehe / Hauszgerath / &c. erlangte und kiinfftige Real- Rechten und 
Gerechtigkeiten / sollen jetzt und kiinfftig / in gleichen Rechten 
gemeinschafftlich seyn unci bleiben / nach eines peden obspecificirtem 
Antheil / so er in derselben Compagnie hat. 

2. Alles und jedes / was zu deren cultivirimg und Anrichtung 
/ zu Gebauen / item zu Uberschickung [sic] der Dienstbotten / 
Pacht-Leuten und andern Personen / auch der Kauffmanns-Wahren 
/ Lebens-Mitteln / Werckzeug &c. und dorten im Lande an Hand- 
wercker und Taglohner &c. Summa an alien Kosten / wie die 
Nahmen haben m5gen / in America und Euro pa biszhero angewendet 
worden ist / oder kiinfftig auff hiemechst benahmte Weisz / ver- 
wendet wercien mochte / soil auff gemeine Kosten geschehen pro rata 
eines jeden Antheils. 

3. Dargegen auch alle Nutzungen / Gefall / was daselbsten 
erworben / gebauet / gepflantzet / fruchtbar gemacht / und gezeuget 
wird / es sey an Erd-Gewachs / leibeigenen Menschen / Viehe / 
Manufactnren &c. nichts iiberall auszgenommen / sollen unter alien 
Interessenten pro rato der Ackerzahl / gemein seyn. 

4. Was dieser Compagnie Angelegenheit betrifft / sollen die 
fiinff Haupt-Stamme (jedes 5000. vor ein Haupt-Stamm gerechnet / 
oder wie man sich kiinfftig etwan anders vergleichen mag) unter 
sich uberlegen / und nach den meisten Stimmen (jegliches tausend 
Acker hat zehen Stimmen) forderlichst beschliessen. 

5. Dorten, im Land soil jederzeit ein Bevollmachtigter der 
Compagnie, und auff dessen Sterbens-Abwesens- und Unvermogens- 
Fall / demselben ein Suhstitutns, mit Schrifftlicher / von beyden Par- 
theyen auszgefertigten Bestallung / verordnet seyn : Diese beyde 
sollen jahrlich unter ihrer beyder Hand-Unterschrifften / und der 
Compagnie Pettschafft / ein ordentliches Inventarium, alles dessen / 
was die Compagnie dorten hat / mit Specification der gebauten und 
ungebauten Aecker / Wiesen / Wasseren / Waldungen / Hauser / 
dero Grentzen / auch des Gesindes / der Pacht-Leuten / des Viehes 
/ der Friichten / Victualien, Kauffmanns-Wahren / Schulden und 
Gegenschulden / Paarschafften &c. verfertigen / und neben dero 

Francisci Danielfs Pastorii 

Sommerhufano- Franch 
btt Wmhie erfunDenen 

SKit ange&erirften einigett ti0tabfcn25cdcj 

i)enbeiten unb ^ericf)t.ecj)reiben an D^fTen^rn. 
•Pattern/ PatriofenunD gute grcunbe* 


* (Brtuge betunbtf anf was'tPeife id>/ 
t>on meinm '^inbidhmen at%/auf 
bem tP 'ge bitfcv ddtlid^mt meincrt 
tebf nsJiauff cjegen 5ie H'<^t>silm^feitiwdn* 
^nidytetunbin aiUmmeintmOlbun babincti) 
ixadnet l>4be/ ivu id? ;:>m allef rt ^meH WiiktX 

ten / unb feme uncfgi'unbiict)^ ci^iite itebcn la'f 
nenmocbte. Urtb obwobiejt ki> mbftunbtvti 
gemdnen rOiffenf^talfreni 5ct frcyen Jd^nnftc/ 
^as Studiunt Juris fe!iciterabIoivii-et/t5ic Jtdf 
memo begrifferi / aiicp Oen fo qenanrttert grop 
fen Tour Oiird) bk tanbfd)affim fjetban / f^ 
l)abe id) jebort) do aUen(|>mnunO^SnOen mci^ 
hengi'offejlen ^ii?sp un'o^^emvlymit^ an Mbevs 
^id)t9Qavmbu/ai9 cigeucUd; ^uuia^vm/iv<> 

^ £>od? 

Title F^age of Pastorius' "Description of Pennsylvania' 
(Appended to Melchior Adam Pastorius' "Description 
of Windsheim," 1692.) 

Francis Daniel Pasforius 217 

Rechnung / iiber Kosten und Nutzungen / Einnahmen und Auszgab 
/ Ab- und Zugang / in alien Stiicken / an demjemgen / welchem 
jedesmahls der Compagnie Correspondents committivet seyn wird / 
und mit einem andern folgenden Schifif / dessen noch ein auszge- 
fertigtes Original herausz senden / auch auff solche Manier den 
dortigen Zustand zeitlich berichten. 

6. Hier zu Land sollen ein oder zwey Schreiber der Com- 
pagnie, entweder ausz den Conipagnons oder Frembden / durch die 
meinste Stimmen / scllrifftlich bestellet werden / welche der Com- 
pagnie Rechnungen und Correspondents in Americam fiihren / dero 
gehorige Brieffen erbrechen / ihren Jnhalt Extracts-\\[^\se / oder 
da es nothig / Copeylich / an die. 5. Haupt-Stamme (von welchen 
und durch welche ferner alle und jede Interessenten das 
Jhrige zu erlangen / auch zu bestellen und zu verrichten 
haben) insinniren / das Tag-Buch / wegen des Pennsyl- 
vanischen Wercks / ausz dortigen Brieffen / oder hiesigen 
Begebenheiten / mit kurtzen Worten / doch auszfiihrlich und fleissig 
einschreiben / was zu bestellen oder zu beobachten ist / in ein son- 
deres Memorial notiren / die Rechnungen nechst revision der Inven- 
torien / und annotation des Zu- oder Abgangs / mit Tag und datum, 
so weit man ausz Brieffen oder sonsten kommen kan / alle Jahr 
ultimo Decembr. schliessen / nach beschehener approbation der fiinff 
Haupt-Stamme / oder dero Bevollmachtigten / in ein Buch zusam- 
men schreiben / und neben den Documenten und dero Compagnie 
Original- Schreiben / mit auffgeschriebenem Tag und datum, auch 
Copeyen der abgelassenen Brieffen / an einen sichern der Com- 
pagnie beliebigen Ort / und zwar zu jetgiger Zeit zu Franckfurt am 
Mayn / als woselbsten dieses Werck seinen ersten An fang genom- 
men / und die starkste Theil noch zur Zeit hingehoren / in guter 
Ordnung nach dero Register / unter zweyen Schlossen verwahren / 
und in allem ohne der fiinff Haupt-Stamme absonderliche Bewil- 
ligung nichts Hauptsachliches unternehmen oder auszfertigen / 
dabeneben vor alle diese Miihe / nach Gestalt der Sachen / eine 
mittelmassige Ergetzlichkeit ausz der Compagnie geniessen sollen : 
Dabeneben mag jeglicher Haupt-Stani vor sich und seine zugehorige 
Theilsgenossen / was ihme beliebet / ausz sothanen Brieffen ex- 
trahiren : Die Originalia aber sollen in der Schreiberey verwahrt 

7. Kiinfftig sol die Compagnie dero Brieff und Contracten &c. 
mit einem besondern / nebens vorgedachten Original documentis 
verwahrten Siegel auszfertigen / auch ein anderes / in Grosse und 
Umbschrifft etwas unterschiedenes Siegel dero Factorn in Pennsyl- 
vania, dessen sich daselbsten gleicher massen zu bedienen / iibersen- 
den : Ohne solche Siegel sollen keine Brieff oder Contracten / im 
Nahmen der Compagnie hin und her gesendet / oder gultig geachtet 

2i8 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

8. Dafern jemand von tins / odcr unscrn Erben selbsten nach 
Pennsylvanien reisen / oder ihm einen Sitz zubereiten eincn vorausz- 
gehenden Bevallmachtigten vor sich allein senden / und allerley 
Eigenthumb zu seinem Gebrauch deme mitgeben oder mitnehmen 
wolte / so mag der oder dieselbe / solches auff seine eigene Kosten 
und Gefahr thun / folgendlich pro rato seines Antheils vor jedes 
tausend Acker sechzig an einem Stuck unbereitetes Land / wie wir 
es von dem Gonverneur empfangen / vor sich auszlesen / und davon 
soil er der Compagnie jahrlich von jeden zehen Acker einen Eng- 
lischen Schilling / als Erb-Pacht / zur recognition entrichten : Und 
wo ihm dieses Land nicht genug / sondern zu enge seyn wiirde 
/ sollen ihme noch weiter / nach proportion seines Antheils / 60. 
Acker wie gemeldt / von tausenden gerechnet / umb die Helfft des 
Preises /als es die Compagnie selbiger Zeit an Frembde in Erb-Pacht 
auszzugeben pfleget / auch im Fall er noch mehrers Land verlangte 
/ wann es die Compagnie entbehren mag / in dem Preisz / und mit 
denen Conditionibus, wie einem Frembden iiberlassen werden. Auff 
diesen Landern nun / welche einer oder der andere solcher Gestalten 
vor sich allein beziehet / soil derselbe nach Belieben handeln / auch 
allerley gemeinschafftliche / dortige bewegliche und unbewegliche 
Giiter / fiir andern Frembden / gebrauchen und geniessen ; doch 
dasz dieses alles dem gemeinen Wesen der Compagnie ohnnachtheilig 
seye; auch sollen solche in Pennsylvania wohnende Compagnons, der 
Compagnie dortigem Factor, den Landsublichen Zinsz / Lohn / 
Bezahlung oder Wehrt von allem / was sie gemeinschafftliches vor 
sich gebrauchen / entrichten ; worvon sie bey folgender repartition 
ihren Antheil wicder zu empfangen haben. Wolte aber die Gesampte 
Compagnie auff allgemeines Gutbefinden / jemanden von ihren Theil- 
genossen / zu ihrem germeinschafftlichen Dienst / und auff' ihre 
gemeinschafftliche Kosten dorthin vibergehen lassen / so soil mit 
selbigem auff" solchen Fall absonderlicher Vergleich getroft'en 
werden: Auff alien Fall aber und in alien Stiicken die dortige Com- 
pagnons und deren Erben nicht weniger als die in Eurot>a seyend / 
an diesem Contract, und der meisten Stimmen Ktinfftige Verord- 
nungen / verbunden seyn. 

9. Dafern die Schreiber oder sonsten einer oder mehrere mit 
der Compagnie Gutbefinden / als obgemeldet / Geld vorschiessen 
wiirden / so sollen solche debitores dero vorgeschossenes Capital 
auffs langste innerhalb Jahres Frist / con dato des Vorschusses / 
sampt fiinff pro Cento Jahrlichen Inter esse wieder zu entrichten 
schuldig / und desswegen ihr Antheil zur special-hypothec hiemit 
in bester Form Rechtens verschrieben seyn. 

10. Da jemand von uns / oder den unserigen / iiber kurtz oder 
lang / ohne Ehegemahl / und ohne Eheliche Leibs-Erben vcrstiirbe / 
auch wie er es mit seinem Antheil / dieser gemeinschafftlichen Giiter 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 219 

/ nach seinem Todt gehalten haben wolle / per Testamentum oder 
andere schrifft-oder mundliche glaubwiirdige Verordnung nicht ausz- 
triicklich und absonderlich erkliiret hatte / so soil dessen Antheil der 
samptlichen Compagnie, jeden nach proportion seines habenden 
Antheils / anwachsen und hiemit iibergeben seyn / auch anders nicht 
/ als ob er allein den Gebrauch solcher Giiter / Zeit seines Lebens 
sich vorbehalten / und das wahre Eigenthumb der Compagnie gleich 
Anfangs incorporircX hatte / gehalten werden ; und sollen alle die 
Sterb-Fall der Compagnons, auch wer derselben in diesem Werck 
nachgelassene Erben seyen / von dero jedesmahliger Schreiber in 
beglaubter Form entweder unter des Verstorbenen gesampter nechs- 
ten Verwandschafft / oder anderer beglaubten Persohnen attestat, 
forderlich berichtet / oder bisz zu dessen Gewissheit / des Verstor- 
benen Nahmen in Rechnungen und Biicher contimiir&t / und dessen 
etwa erfolgendes contingent, in der Compagnie Cassa, bey den 
On^rwoZ-Brieffschafften verwahret werden. 

11. Es soil niemand / so ein Participant in dieser Compagnie 
ist / bemachtigt seyn / sein Land oder dessen Gerechtigkeit / alles 
oder zum Theil / an jemanden / ausser der Compagnie, ohne Bewil- 
ligung / oder wenigstens ersten Anbietung / der Compagnie, zu 
veraussen ; wolte aber eines oder das andere von uns / unsern 
Weibern / Kindern / oder wer kiinfftig Participant der Compagnie 
seyn mochte / seine portion oder dero Antheil iiber kurtz oder lang 
begeben / aber ausz der Compagnie niemand selbiges an sich bringen 
oder kauffen / alsdann erst soil dem Verkauffer frey stehen / an 
jemanden anders zu verkauffen / doch dergestalt / dasz jederzeit die 
Compagnie, oder wann sie es nicht haben wolte / jemanden ausz der 
Compagnie innerhalb drey Monat / nach gcschehener Anzeigung der 
Verausserung / frey stehen solle / das Verkauffte mit Darlegung 
des Kauffschillings an sich zu nehmen / und zu ihrem Profit zehen 
pro Cento vom Kaufifschilling abzuziehen / oder weniger zu geben / 
als solcher neue Kauffer das verausserte Antheil gekaufft hat: 
Dessen Wehrt der Verkauffer und Kauffer auff sein Gewissen 
anzuzeigen schuldig seyn soil. 

12. Jm unvershofften Fall iiber kurtz oder lang zwichen uns 
/ unseren Erben und Nachkomen / wegen dieser Giiter und deren 
dependentien einiger Miszverstand oder Anlass zum Streit vorfallen 
mochte / soil solches zwischen den Gliedern der Gesellschafft / oder 
dafern diese von beyden Theilen nicht gantz unpartheyisch gehalten 
wiirden / durch andere von den uneinigen Partheyen / einmiithiglich 
erwehlte zwey redliche Persohnen / mit Macht / dasz diese zwey 
erwehlte Persohnen / die dritte / wann sie es nothig achten / zu sich 
nehmen /auff Art und Weisz / als jetzt beschrieben wird / ge- 
schlichtet werden : Nemlich die erwehlte Schieds-Freunde sollen auff 
bestimpten Tag und Orth / in Beywesen der misshelligen Partheyen 

220 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

/ Oder dero Bevollmachtigten / nach Anruffung Gottlichen Bey- 
stands / und reifflicher der Sachen Uberlegung / das Werck nach 
ihrem besten Verstand und Gutdiincken durch ihre Urtheil / wann 
sie die Partheyen nicht vergleichen konnen / entscheiden. Jm Fall 
aber diese drey nicht einig werden / oder die meiste Stimmen nicht 
auszfinden konten / so sollen sie sich bey ein oder zweyen Haupt- 
participanten Raths erholen / und darnach die Urtheil verfassen und 
auszsprechen : Wogegen hernacher auff keine Weisz oder Weg 
etwas ferner gethan / gehandelt oder admittivet werden soil / auff 
keine Weisz oder Weg / mit Recht oder mit Gewalt / von keinem 
Richter oder Menschen / der gantzen Welt / in Euro pa oder Amer- 
ica: Und dafern jemand hiergegen sich zu setzen anmassen wolte / 
soil er ed ipso seines gantzen Antheils verlustig / und darzu des Orts 
/ wo er wohnet / allgemeinen Allmosen-Kasten mit einer Straff / 
von 200. Rthl. ohne alle exception, auch ohne fernere declaration, 
ipso facto verfallen seyn. 

Alles treulich und sonder Gefahrde: Dessen zu wahrer Urkund 
ist gegenwartiger nach reifflicher Uberlegung von alien Interesseiiten 
einmiithiglich beliebter Brieff / unter aller und jeder eigenhandigen 
Unterschrifft und vorgetrucktem Jnsiegel Zwolffmahl auszgefertiget 
/ und jeglichem dessen ein exemplar zugestellet / auch eines zu den 
gemeinschafftlichen documentis geleget worden. Welcher gegeben 
zu Franckfurt am Mayn / den 12. Novemb. anno 1686. 

(Seal) Johann Jacob Schiitz 

(Seal) Gerhard Von Mastricht 

(Seal) Daniel Bahaghel 

(Seal) Jacobus Vande Walle 

(Seal) iohan Wilhelm Petersen 

(Seal) Johannes Kemler 

(Seal) Frantz Daniel Pastorius 
(Seal) Thorn, v. wylich 
(Seal) Johan Le Brun 

(Seal) Balthaser jawert-'' 

" The foreign words are written in antiqiia in the original, according to 
the custom of the time, but are here set in italic. A sample page with signatures 
is reproduced in half-tone from Pastorius' own copy of the Agreement, which 
is now in the Collection of Mr. George C. Thomas, of Philadelphia. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 221 

Appendix B. 

Exemplum sine lixemplo. 


(to borrow the Jnscription of One of John Wilson's Plays.) 

The Cheats and the Projectors. 

J Francis Daniel Pastorius having formerly, (to wit these 
28 years past,) by Doctor Schultz & other honest men in high 
Germany, (Purchasers of 25000. Acres of land in this Province 
of Pennsilvania, and known by the name of the Francfort Com- 
pany,) been made & Constituted their Attorney, And still being 
concern'd as Copartner with them to clear my Conscience (as 
touching the Administration of their sd Estate,) before all 
People, to whom the Reading hereof may come, as J always en- 
deavour'd to keep the same void of offence towards the all-seeing 
Eyes of God, J am, if it were, constrained to publish this short 
Relation, for as much as the aforesd Francfort Company is at present 
Ejected outof their 25000. Acres of land, sumo Jure i. e. Suma 
Jnjuria, by extreme Right, extreme Wrong. Now Jntending Brevity, 
J shall let my Reader know, that the sd Company ( : being all persons 
of approved Jntegrity & learning became at least some of them per- 
sonally acquainted with out Worthy Proprietary & Govern.'" William 
Penn, and purchased of him at a full rate the abovementioned 25000. 
Acres, & in the very Jnfancy of this sd Province disbursed large 
sums of money for the transporting of Servants Tenants and others: 
And that J according to the best of my poor Ability (as many of the 
primitive Jnhabitants & Settlers yet Surviving Swedes Dutch and 
English may testify,) administred their Affairs 17. years and an 
half; But conscious of my weakness, have often requested them to 
disburden me of this Load of theirs J took on my shoulders by their 
frequent Assurance to be behind my heels into this Country as soon 
as the Jce were broken : Whereupon the heirs of the sd first Pur- 
chasers did appeint in my room Daniel Falkner, John Kelpius & 
John Jawert, NB to act Jointly & Severally. 

However when the sd John Kelpius had a forecast, in what 
chanel things would run, he with all speed in a certain Jnstrument 
( : of Geo : Lowther's devise, who was the first Lawyer, that un- 
happily got an hand into the Companies business,:) declared his 
Unwillingness to be any further Concern'd therein, & therefore was 
termed Civiliter Mortuus. Then Daniel Falkner & John Jawert acted 
in the dual number as the sd Companies Attornies for some few 
years : For he the sd Jawert being married and Settled in Marieland, 
Falkner tum'd such a Spent-thrift and Ever-drunk-ever-dry, that 
he made Bone-fires of the Companies flax in open Street at German- 
town, giving a bit of Silver money to one Lad for lighting his 
Tobacco-pipe, and a piece of Eight to another for shewing him a 

222 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

house in Philadelphia, which in his Sober-fits he knew as well as his 
own. &c. Hereupon his Joint-Attorney John Jawert affixed an 
Advertisement at the then Meeting house of Germantown aforesd 
dated the 9th of November 1705: wherein he forewarn'd all persons, 
who had any Rent or other Debt to pay into the sd Company, to 
forbear the Paying thereof, &c. And so all was a sleep, as Dormice 
do in winter, till about 2. years agoe one John Henry Sprogel, 
arrived in this Province, who being he, that by the Collusion and 
treachery of the sd Daniel Falkner, & by the wicked Assistance of 
the Projectors hereafter to be spoken of, has through J know not 
what Fiction of the Law, Ejected the sd Company out of their real 
Estate of 25000. Acres, J think it not amiss to give some little account 
of him. 

His Parents, I hear, are of a good report, and to be pittied for 
such a Scandal to their Family ; this Degenerate & Prodigal Child 
came the first time into this Province in anno 1700. and quickly 
Owing more than he was worth, went over to his Native land in 
order to procure some cash of his Father, whom he said to be a rich 
Bishop on that side. Jn his return he was taken by the French, & 
carried to Dunkerk, whence he escap'd with an empty Brigantine 
into Holland, and by the (now repented of) Recomendation of 
Benjamin Furly & his Book keeper H. L. found so much Credit with 
John van der Gaegh Merchant at Rotterdam & others as to bee 
Jntrusted with a deal of goods; After he departed outof that coun- 
try and could not be found when search'd for in England, he came 
at last to Philada. and there took his Oath, (as J am credibly in- 
form'd) that all the sd Goods were his own directly & Jndirectly. 
Some of the Germantown people then Visiting this their Great Coun- 
treyman, and inquiring for Letters, were looked upon as Slaves, he 
being the only Anglified in all the Province of Pennsilvania. 

How be it, none of us all (J believe,) will ever have such a 
base and disloyal heart toward our Sovereign Lady the Queen of 
Great Britain, as to get his Naturaliation by the like disingenuous 
knack as he did, viz. to borrow a key & to wear another man's coat 
as though it were his own. &c. 

But to return to the Francfort Companies Concern, he the 
aforesd John Henry Sprogel, having along with him a Letter of 
Attorney from the sd Benjamin Furly, sold 1000. Acres of land, 
part of the sd Furly's Purchase in this Province unto David Lloyd, 
at a reasonable price, so as to have his Jrreasonable advice in Law 
for the most unjust Entry upon the Companie's land. For he the 
sd Sprogel finding no means to satisfy his Old and Just Debts, was 
forced to cantrive a New untrodden way of Clearing his Scores, and 
to play the Gentleman sprung out of a Grocer's Shop; Therefore 
among a Swarm of tedious Lies, ( : Wherewith J dare not trouble 
the Reader,:) he also spread this, that he stroke a bargain for the 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 223 

Companies land with Doctor Gerhard van Alastricht, one of the part- 
ners, of whom J but newly received an extreme kind Letter to the 
clean Contrary thereof; AForeover, the sd Sprogel to pacify the above 
mentioned John Jawert. ( : who likewise has a Share in the sd Com- 
pany :) proffered unto him 700. Pounds Pensilvania Silver money for 
the land, and 100. Pounds besides as a Gratuity to himself, &c. But 
he, the sd Jawert being to honest for an Imposture & Bribe of this 
black stamp, Sprogel was driven to that Extremity ( : hap what may, 
and let Frost & Fraud have hereafter as foul Ends as they will,:) 
that he now must Obtain the 25000. Acres & Arrears of Quitrents 
due to the Franc fort Company solely & alone of Daniel Falkner, who 
plunged in needlessly contracted Debts over head & ears, could 
expect no gladder Tidings, (as he said himself:) than the same 
Proffer made unto him. Here David Lloyd ( : whom to name again, 
J am almost ashamed,:) very gingerly to play his Roll, Fictionem 
Juris ad reipia detrudendos veros Passessores, the which never the 
less, it seems he was not bold-faced enough to do in his proper 
Clothes, but one Tho: Macnamara, a Lawyer, if it were, started up 
for the purpose outof Marieland, ( : for a couple of Periwigs, which 
he himself told me was all he had of this my brave Client for blush- 
ing in this Case:) Nominally inferred in the Ejectment, lending 
like as the Cat her Paws to a more crafty Creature, for the drawing 
of the rosted Chestnuts from off the glewing Coals. Jf any demand 
how this D. LI. and Macnamara could possibly in so horrible a 
manner Circumvent the County Court? J suppose, the fittest Answer, 
J can give to this Question, is what Judge Groudon de- 
clared before our honourable Lieutenant Goven.'' sitting in 
Council, viz that at the tail of the Court Daniel Falkner 
and John Henry Sprogel did appear, aixl the aforenamed D. LI. and 
M. laid the Matter before the Court, and none there, to Object any 
thing, &c. ( : For this cheating trick was so Clandestinely, that J 
and John Jawert were altogether igiaorant thereof, and when Tho: 
Clark the Queens Attorney then present in Court did but rise, the 
others Suspecting he might say somewhat in Obstruction of their 
hainous design, was gently pull'd down by the sleeve, and promised 
40. Shillings to be quiet, when he had nothing to offer,:) Thus they 
surprised the Court, and Ob-et subreptitie compassed the Eject- 
ment. Three days after the breaking up of the aforesd Court J 
heard of this unhandsom Juggle, and gave Jntelligence thereof to 
John Jawert, who forthwith came up, and putt in his humble Request 
to our sd well respected Lieutenant Govern.'' and his hon'able Coun- 
cil, we had the sd Tho: Clark assign'd to defend or Pleade our 
Cause, and so Jawert paid him a Fee of ten Pounds, but to this 
day the sd Sprogel still stirs his stumps in the Companies lands & 
Rents without the least Controlment. 

Since all this there arrived divers Letters from beyond Sea, 

224 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

deciphering pretty fully abundance of the detestable gulleries, where 
by he, the sd Sprogel, ensnared & trapan'd the Jmplicity of Upright 
& plaindealing people in Holland, Admonishing him not to persist in 
his Evil-doings, but to Confess and make reparations to the de- 
frauded, if not fourfold as peninent Zaccheus did, Yet as far as 
his ill gotten Griff-graff gains should reach, &c. And further there 
came also fresh Letters of Attorney from all the Partners of the 
Francfort Company Living in Germany Jmpow'ring some very able 
Men in Philada. to redress their so horribly disdressed Estate in this 
Province, by one worse than the worst Land-Pirate in the world 
could have done, the which J hope they will undertake, and heartily 
wish, that the Lord ( : who is called a Father of the fatherless, and a 
Judge of the Widows, whereof there are at this Jnstant Several 
in the abovesd Company:) may prosper their Just Proceedings, and 
all, who reverence Righteousness & Equity, Countenance them 
therein and not be partakers of the Spoil, ( : nor of the Curse entailed 
thereon:) with the aforesd John Henry Sprogel, for whom not- 
withstanding the foregoing discoverey of his unheard-of Villainies 
J retain that since love as to pray to God Allmighty to Convict & 
Convert of & from his Perverseness, that he forsake his diabolical 
lies, pride, bragging and boasting, and not longer continue 
the Vasal of Satan and heir of Hell, but become a child of heaven, 
and a Follower of Christ, our Ever-blessed Saciour, who as he is 
Truth Jtself, so likewise meek and lowly in heart, leading outof all 
Cozening Practices into the way of holiness & Eternal Felicity. 

Survey of Pastorus' Land. 
(Original in the Department of Internal Affairs, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 22^ 

Description of the Map of Gcrmantown, 1688. 

Situation der Germantonship in Pennsilvania. 
6 Englische Meil von Philadelphia gelegen. 

Diese Township begriefft 5190 acker landts, deren Lini aus gegenwartigem 
abrisz von Marckbaum zu marckbaum kann ersehen werden. Sie komt Eigen- 
thumlich denen ffurtischen nnd Crefeltn. Kaiiffern in gleicher Helffte zu, wie 
bereits anderwerts gemeldet. 

Die Scolkill num 2. ligl nur eine halbe stund darvon, u. konnen wir bey 
stillem Wetter den daselbetigen Wasserfall num: i. deutl : horen. 

Aus gedm. Scollkill fieuszt ein bach, von den Indianern Wesehetkum 
genannt, num : 3. in etl. noch Kleinere vertheilt, durch unsere Township, auch 
rinnt noch einander bach in unser land nahmens Wingacocum num 4. an 
welchem Gerhard Heinrichs dicht hinter seinem Vatter eine miihl num. 5 
zu bauen Vorhabens ist. 

Jn der vor etl. Jahren angelegten Statt Germantown sind 54. Statt Erb 
od losen auffgenommen, und bisz auff Sieben bereits beseht. unsere Compe 
hat darum SV2 losz so bisz auf eines geclart und besaiimt ; die iibrige aber an 
Erbpachtsleut ausgethan worden. Der Compe. los sind sub num 6. mit* 
notiret, und steht deroselben Haus auff denen zwey ersten.** 

Die lange strasz mitten durch den platz ist 60 und die Zwerchgassen 40 
fusz jedes los aber 14 ruthen breit die Einwohner sind folgende in nachgsetz- 
ter ordnung. auff der ostseite i. Peter Keurlis. 2. Thunes Kunders. 3. Jan 
lensen. 4. Lenert Arets. 5. Reinert Tissen. 6. Jan Liicken.* 7. Abraham 
Thunes. * 8. et. 9. Gerhart Heinrix. 10. David Scherges.* 11. Wolter 
Simens.* 12. Derick op den Kalck.* 13. Wigart Levering. 14. Hermann 
von Bonn.* 15. Gerhard Levering.* 16. Heinrich Sellen. 17. Jsaac Schafer.* 
18. Heinrich Buchholtz.* 19J/2. die Ffurte. Compe. 20. Cornelis Bom.* J/2. 
Jsaac Dilbeck.* 22. Ffurt. Compe. 2sy2. Jan Duten. 24. Andres Suply. 

Auff der Westseite. i. Jann Strepers. 2. Derick op den graef. 3. 
Hermann op den graef. 4. Abraham op den graef. 5. Willjam Strepers. 6. 
Paul Wulff.* 7. Johannes Bleikers.* 8 und 9. Ffurte. Compagnie. 10. 
Jacob Schumacher. 11. Jsaac Jacobs. 12. Jacob Tellner. 13. Heifert Pape.* 
14. Jacob Kliimkes.* 15. Cornelis Sjoert. 16. Hanns Peter Umbstet. 17^. 
Peter Schumacher. 18^. Jacob Tellner.* 20^. Baron Wunderlich.* 21 J^. 
Andres Kriskum. 22. Claus Tamson.* 23. Hanns Millan.* 24^. Heinrich 

NB. : Die Nahmen, worhinter ein * stehet, sind unserer Compe Erb- 

Dieweilen wir Germantown num 6. angelegt, ehe uns dz land zuge- 
messen worden, und sich nachgehendts auf der Seite nach Philadelphia weg 
der Statt Liberty nicht eben viel land vor uns finden laszen, komt es, dasz 
sothan Germantown gleichsan auff der fordersten Spitz der township lieget, 
damit aber nun ebenwohl das hinter land auch moge employirt und genutzet 
werden, haben wir zusammen entschlossen, ein neu Dorff num. 7. fast am end 
anzulegen, auf dasz beede platz ihre felder und Vietrifft in mitten der town- 
ship, und also so nach miiglich bey hand haben mogen. Dieser Neue ort 
ist noch nicht begonnen, hat auch noch Keinen nahmen. Diirffte aber nun 
bey der letztmahligen Krisheimer Freund gliickln. iiberkunfft ein an fang 
alldar gemacht werden, und Johannes Cassel einer von den ersten alldort 
seyn. worvon mit nechstem umbstandlre nachricht ertheile. 

226 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

Appendix C. 
The Pastorius Family. 

The name Pastorius (Pastor, Pastoir) was doubtless 
originally a cognomen. The earliest record of the name thus far 
found is that of "Herrn Pastor von Burtscheid," Feb. ii, 1325. 
The name of "Pieter der Pastoir" with that of his father, "Rittcr 
Ludwig von Cleberg," is mentioned as a "Burgmann" of the 
House of Grentzau, Nov. 11, 1338. Both Pieter and his father 
have the title Ritter von Cleberg. This accounts for the clover 
leaf in the coat-of-arms of certain branches of the Pastorius 
family, for the three hills on the datestone of Melchior Adam 
Pastorius' house in Sommerhausen and possibly for the clover 
leaf which Francis Daniel Pastorius placed on the seal of Ger- 

The present writer has been able, with the aid of newly dis- 
covered sources, to trace the Westphalian branch of the Pastorius 
family, the ancestors of Francis Daniel Pastorius, the founder of 
Germantown, back to the early fifteenth century. The name 
appears in the Low German form of "Scepers" in the list of the 
members of the City Council (Stadtrat) of Warburg, Westphalia, 
for more than a century, as the following names and dates from 
the list of the Warburg Council will show : 

1439 Henrich Scepers. 

1440 loan Scepers. 

1 44 1 Henrich Scepers. 

1442 loan Scepers. 

1443 Henrich Scepers. 

1444 loan Scepers. 

1445 Henrich Scepers. 
1447 loan Scepers. 
1449 loan Scepers. 

1 45 1 Henrich Scepers. 

(Starb in diesem Jahr. ) 

1452 loan Scepers. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 227 

1459 Henrich Scepers. 
1 46 1 Henrich Scepers. 
1463 Henrich Scepers. 
obiit hoc anno 
1475 Henrich Scepers. 

1478, 1480, 1485, 1487, 1489, 1491, 1493, 1496, 149S. 1500, 
1504, 1506, 1508, 15 10, 1 5 12 Henrich Scepers. 
1 5 13' 15 1?' Hihebrand Scepers. 

1 5 18 Henrich Scepers. 

15 19 Hillebrand Scepers. 

1520 Henrich Scepers. 

1 52 1, 1523 Hillebrand Scepers. 

1524 loan Scepers. 

1525, 1527 Hillebrand Scepers. 

1528, 1530 Henrich Scepers. 

1531. 1533. 1535 Hillebrand Scepers. 

1536 Henrich Scepers. 

1537 Hillebrand Scepers. 

1538 Henrich Scepers. 

1539 Hillebrand Scepers. 

(bekleidete im Stadtrate das Amt eines Weinherrn 
u. starb um Ostern des Jahres. ) 

1540 Henrich Scepers. 

1 541 Balzer Scepers. 

In the Archives of Warburg other valuable manuscript docu- 
ments were found relating to the Pastorius family. Among 
these are three letters written by Martinus Pastorius (or Pastor 
as he signs himself) of Erfurt, to recover a debt due him from 
his brother Henrich and his half-brother Herbold as his part 
of the inheritance — a consideration of 20 rix dollars, fixed July 
24, 1618, by two commissaries of the Council, Henrich Thwing 
and Jobst Thoman, as one letter relates. The three letters are 
addressed to the City Council of Warburg and dated Jan. 8, 1619 
(correcto stilo), Feb. 18, 1620, and Oct. 26, 1621, respectively. 
In the letter of Oct. 26, 162 1, we learn that the half-brother, Her- 

228 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

bold, robbed his old father and cruelly treated him and that the 
father died at Easter 1620.-^ 

The case of Martin Pastor against his brothers was finally 
decided by the Juristic Faculty of the University of Jena in a 
document, which we reproduce here photographically, because of 
its interest as a legal form of the time. The document is dated 
Oct. 17, 1621 (O. S.). 

The other letter found among the Archives of Warburg 
is addressed by Melchior Adam Pastorius of Windsheim to the 
Council of Warburg, inquiring about his ancestors. Here we 
learn for the first time that the (High) German form of the Pas- 
torius name was "SchalTer," and that the family were weavers by 
trade. The text of the letter, which is in Melchior Adam Pas- 
torius' own clear hand, is printed here for the first time : 

Wohledle Fiirsichtige undt Hochweise 
Insonders Grosgiinstige Hochgeehrte Herren. 

Denenselben mag ich hierbey nicht verhalten, wie das mein 
gelibter Vatter Martin Pastor, zu Teutsch Schaifer genanth, gewe- 
ster assessor des lobl. Chur Mayntzischen Gericht inder Statt Er- 
ffurtt, seel, aus dero Statt gebiirttig, und Eines Warburgischen Bur- 
gers Sohn gewesen, dessen Briidere dem Verlauth nach ettwa Zeug- 
webere gewesen sein sollen : 

Wann dann nun durch die passirte sowohlen 30. lahrige, als 
audi nach der hand niehr gefolgte Kriegs Tuniulten Ich unter andern 
obgedachten Martin Pastors kindern weith in die frenibde gerathen, 
und mich bey 3^ jahren in jtalien, zu Rom, nachgehends in Franck- 
reich und Oestreich uffgehalten, bis mich durch Gottlichen Rath und 
schickunge in dess heyl. Romischen Reichs Statt Windsheimb in 
Francken hauslich nidergelassen, und anfanglichen eine Raths: nach 
der handt Burgemeisters Stelle sampt andern Ehren Aemptern ver- 
tretten, auch mitt lieben kindern von Gott gesegnet worden bin, so 
zum theil ihre studia absoluiret, zuni theil aber denen noch incum- 
biren, vnd nun ich sampt diesen posterirenden lieben Meinigen sehr 
hohes Verlangen tragen ettwas wenigs von unserm Origine und 
lieben VorEltern in notitiam und Wissenschafift zu bringen. So will 
solchem nach die guete zuuersicht zu Meinern Grosgiinstig: Hoch- 
geehrten Herren tragen, die werden ob solchen meinem hertzlichen 

°* "Und Montag Anno 1622. inn den heyligen Osterman mein lieber Vatter 
verstorben," &c. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 229 

Verlangen nit allein kein Missfallen tragen, sondern auch der lieben 
Warheit zu steur Mir so Viel gutthat und freundschafift erweisen, 
das sie aus dero Burger Registern sowohln, als dem Statt Tauffbuche 
Nachschlagen und uffsuchen lassen, all der ienigen Schaffere Nah- 
men undt hanthierungen, welche in dero lobl. Statt iemahls gewohnet 
haben, vnd solche (lurch dero verodneten Syndicum oder Statt- 
schreiber vmb die dancknehmige gebiihr extrahiren und vnter dero 
Cantzley Secret expediren, so dann Einem Kauff: oder Handels- 
manne, welcher nacher Franckfurtt correspondiret zuestellen zu las- 
sen, deme dann alle notificirende spesen und Amptsgebiihren durch 
He. Caspar Reinen Meinen genollmachtigten mitt hochstem Dancke 
restituirt werden sollen. 

Vndt gleich wie ich mich hierinn falls hochgeneigter gratifica- 
tion undt willfahrigkeit getroste, als werde dise mir vor meinem 
Ende causirende frewede durch meine posteros gegen alle War- 
burgische Statt Kinder in zuetragenden gelegenheitten aller mog- 
ligkeit nach vergelten lassen, Inmassen dann nechst heylwartiger 
Gottl. empfehlunge allsteths bin und verbleibe: 

Meiner Insonders Grosgiinstigen Hochgeehrten Herren 

Dienst bereith ergebenster 
Melchior Adam Pastorius J. V. D*". 
Aelterer Burgemeister, Scholarcha, 
und Bawherr in des. Heyl. Rom. Reichstatt 
Windsheimb in Francken. 

Datum Windsheimb den 23/13. Jan. 1680. 

Pastorius Genealogy.-^ 

Fridericus Pastorius, of Warburg, Westphalia, died at 
Easter, 1620 (Melchior Adam Pastorius says he died in 1640, 
leaving an only son, Martinus Pastorius, but Martinus in a let- 
ter addressed to the Council of Warburg mentions two brothers, 
Heinrich and Herbold, designating the latter as "half brother," 
and stating that the father died at Easter, 1620). Francis Dan- 
iel Pastorius, son of Melchior Adam, gives the name of his great 
grandfather as Christian and not Fridericus. It is possible that he 
mistook the name of his maternal grandfather, Christianus von 
Flinsberg, for that of his paternal great grandfather. 

"' The genealogy printed here was collected by the late Daniel Pastorius 
Bruner. No attempt has been made to complete it. It is printed here, with 
some additions and corrections, in the hope that some member of the family 
may continue it. 

230 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

Children : Martinus, 

Martinus Pastorius (Fridericus),^^ born in Warburg, 
Westphalia, 1576, settled in Erfurt, probably in 16 18. 
Married as his first wife, Eva Rodiger. 
Children : Casparus. 

Married as his second wife, Brigitta Flinsberger. 
Children : Johannes Augustinus, 

Margaretha (married Laurentius Bebeler, a Chir- 
urgus in Elfeld), 



Melchior Adam, 


Melchior Adam Pastorius (Martinus, Fridericus), born 
at Erfurt, September 22, 1624, died at Niirnberg, February 4, 


Married as his first wife, January 22, 1651, Magdalena Diez 
(born, February 4, 1607, died, March 27, 1657). 

Children: Franciscus Daniel Pastorius. 

Married as his second wife, February 9, 1658, Eva Mar- 
garetha Gelchsheimer (daughter of Johann Gelchsheimer, Jurium 
Doctor et Jure Consultus in Windsheim; died, June 14, 1661). 

Children: Susanna Eva (born, December 7, 1658, died, 
January 4 [14], 1659). 
Susanna Eva (born, June 10, 1660), 

Married as his third wife, January 21, 1662, Barbara Greu- 
lichen (or Greulich nee Heider, in Hfflttenheim; died, March 26, 

No issue. 

^'The Christian names of the ancestors back to Fridericus are given in 
parenthesis following respective subsequent progenitors as here: (Frideri- 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 231 

Marridjrl, as his fourth wife, September 22, 1674, Dorothea 

Esther Volckmann (or Volckmanns, daughter of Adam Volck- 

mann, in Niirnberg). 

Children: Johann Samuel (born, Oct. 15, 1675, died, Aug. 
18, 1687). 
Anna Catharina (born, March 20, 1678). 
Margaretha Barbara (born, Aug. 14, 1680). 
Augustin Adam (born, Aug. 5, 1682). 

Franciscus Daniel Pastorius (Melchior Adam, Mar- 
tinus, Fridericus), born, September 26, 1651, in Sommerhausen, 
Franconia; died, in 1719, in Germantown Pennsylvania. Mar- 
ried, November 26, 1688, in Germantown, Enneke Klostermann, 
of Miihlheim-on-the-Ruhr (died, March 9, 1723). 

Children: Johann Samuel, 

Johann Samuel Pastorius (Franciscus Daniel, Melchior 
Adam, Martinus, Fridericus), born, March 30-31, 1690,^^ in 
Germantown; died, April 29, 1722. 

Married, May 30, 1716, Hannah Lucken (daughter of Jan 
Lncken), passed meeting May 30, 1 716. 

Children Daniel (born, December 22, 171 7). 

John (born, July 16, 1721 ; died, Jan. 2, 1749- 
50); will dated November 2, 1749, proven 
January 17, 1750, buried at Germantown 
Meeting, November 4, 1749. 

Heinrich Pastorius (Franciscus Daniel, Melchior Adam, 
Martinus, Fridericus), born, April i, 1692, in Germantown. 

Married Sarah Boutcher, passed meeting November 30, 
1720. (An entry in the Beehive gives date of marriage thus: 
"Anno 1 720- 1 the 7th day of February.") 

'^Pastorius left this note in the Beehive: 

"NB. : This child being born on a First-day-night, the First in the house 
we now dwell in;" &c. Here we have the approximate date of Pastorius' 
occupancy of the Germantown house. 

232 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

Children: Mary (born, January 18, 1722). 
Samuel (born, March 15, 1724). 
Hannah (born, March i, 1726; died, August 12, 

Benjamin (born, August 4, 1728; died, October 

18, 1728). 
Ann (born, November 5, 1729; married John 

Wynn, about 1750) ; died Sept. i, 1790. 

Daniel Pastorius (John Samuel, Franciscus Daniel, Mel- 
chior Adam, Martinus, Fridericus), born, December 22, 171 7; 
died, November, 1754. 

Married Sarah Shoemaker, February 23, 1743. 

Children: Hannah (born in Germantown, November 17, 

Abraham (born, October 10, 1745). 
Daniel (born, November 13, 1747). 
Samuel (see below). 

Ann Pastorius (Heinrich, Franciscus Daniel, Melchior 
Adam, Martinus, Fridericus), born, November 5, 1729; died, 
September i, 1790. 

Married John Wynn^" (died, April 19, 1787). 
Children: Pastorius (died, April 25, 1787; unmarried). 

Sarah (married, February 11, 1772, James Hall. 
Isaac (born, March 29, 1759; died, February 16, 
1798; married, July 8, 1784, Mary East- 
burn, born August 3, 1769; died, August 
26, 1803, daughter of Robert and Esther 
(Franks) Eastburn. 

Ann (born, August i, 1765; died, August 5, 
1857; married May 15, 1789, Thomas 

^ "The above family usually spelled the name Wynne without the "e" as 
do all of their descendants to the present day." — J. Clifford Campion, Jr. 

II. 3in untttfjotften Sail thtt kt^ om Irtn^ ;iwirct!fn mil unfften drbtn mi 
(afi jiiinStrcit Kctfallen in6cf)tc/ fell folcfjea ^nxfc^en ^cn ©Itctcm ^(t ©crellfcfiaflt/ 
cCcv Dnfcvn Dicfc ton 6et)^cnI^etIfn:ncf)t ^antj uiii?ortbet}tra) c\cbaltm tt•ur^cn;'^urli 
mtt®Tactt/ba|j Mcfe jn?ct)mrcHte <pcifcf)nfn' etc Mittc/njannitc c« iicthia iwfitfn/ju 
•Ktc^ iicfimcn/nuff 2(ct unb ^cifi/ o[« Ktjt befc^rubcn tvirt/ g:(cl)llcfttcttvcrt'cn; OIciip 
licO tic crtt3Cl)ltc Scfttc^« -5rcun^e fdlm flutf wrtiinvHcn ta^ ulI^ Cttb/ tn ^^ctittcfcn 
licr im#niacn cpartt^f t)cn/ o^fr bcr'^ ©ct5cIliniW)tigten/ nacft Cinruftiinc) ©ortlic^m 
<8et)ftrtn&tf / unt> retffltc^ct M i5na)cn Uberlcfluug / ia6 SJcrcr micf) ibrcin bcftm 
^afioiil Uiit @ut^uncfcll ^urcf) tf>re Urttjril/ trann |le ^ic <partf>crm nlcfit \jfTcjld» 
. d)tn ttnnen/ entfc^eifim. 3in gad aba bicfc ^rcr nid)t ctntjj »cr^c1l/ o^cr fie mnftf 
©tumnoHrit^ aufifrnben r6ntcn / fo foKen |lc iTcf) Ocn cin o^cr jrecrcn ^^uipt - parti- 
aptnttsi ?}{attii et^olen/ irnb tamcui) Mc Urt^trt tcrfalTcn un^ ouiitrtcctcn : ©ogc* 
flen ^(tnoid&ct ouf friiie Skifi otcr^SBc (\ ctroatf fmtcr gctl^aii/ gchan^clt obtr admitti- 
ttt Ottlxn foil/ anff Ww<ffitt6 oDft 25f^ mit 5Kc(^t occr ma (gcttalt/ t>oii ftincm 
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unc ^arJU Dt « Drt^ / wo tt tw^urt/ allgonrinni 2lia«orfn»Sartfn init cinrr @mi^ 

DOn iOO.0ltl&L O^m OJU exception, OUC() Of)nf fmiCte declaration, ipfo Faao VJCrfrtKctt 

aU« tmilict) unl> fonba ©ffS^lx : 2Xflfn }u nw^rct UrtunC ift gcc^cmvartt* 
9« nat^ tfiffltt^ Utvcrltoung ton alien Incercirentm tiimiitMid) (xlicbtct ^ricflf/ 
imtrtoUtt unt jtlxt rigraWnWgtn Umft^^rtfft tinD tocrgfrnictttni 3n(ici]cl ^nuMtf". 
ino^ oit^fmigrt/irab jtglk^ Nflcn rin exemplar jngffrtllrt/ and) rtnce ^u ^cll gc 
ittrinft^ffntc^ documencis gtkgtt ttOffcoi. 25«((&« flfgcboi ju Srfliicf furt am 

Wml Nnu.Novcmb. anno 1686, ,-^ 


'^^Tje^Tn-: r^.' lOy^'c^ : 




r /ct.«^/ ^ 

Signatures op' the "Agrp:p:ment" of the Fkankfurt Company, 

November 12, 1686. 

(Original in the Collection of George C. Thomas, of Philadelphia.) 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 233 

Hooton, Jr., born, July 20, 1866; died, June 
II, 1806, son of Thomas and Bathsheba ( ) 
Hooton of Evesham Township, Burlington 
Co., N.J.) . 

Abraham Pastorius (Daniel, John Samuel, Franciscus 
Daniel, Melchior Adam, Martinus, Fridericus), born in German- 
town, October 10, 1745, in 1779 adjudged a traitor and lost his 
property by confiscation, after which he went with his family to 
Canada, died in New Orleans, in May, 181 5. 

Married, April 20, 1769, Eleanor Leech (died Feb. 29, 1779, 
and buried at Oxford Meeting House. ) 

Children: First child stillborn (buried at the Oxford Meet- 
Eleanor (born, January 8, 1772; died, October 

5. ^773)- 
Charles (born, February 15, 1774). 
Daniel (born, December, 1776). 
Margaret (born, October 4, 1777, on the night of 

the battle of Germantown). 
Eleanor Leech (born, February 29, 1779). 

Samuel Pastorius (Daniel, John Samuel, Franciscus Dan- 
iel, Melchior Adam, Martinus, Fridericus), born in Germantown, 
September 13, 1747, died in Philadelphia, of yellow fever, in 

Married, Sarah Lincoln (died of yellow fever in 1798). 

Children ; Sarah, married John Tull, and had a large fam- 


Francis Daniel, 

Mary (married Mr. Story). 

John (born, October 4, 1777, on the night of the 

battle of Germantown; died in February, 

1865, unmarried). 
Esther (died in childhood). 

234 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

Abraham (born in Philadelphia, married Char- 
lotte Wilson, in 1816, lost at sea in 1825. 

Samuel (married and lived in Baltimore; no 

Rachel (died in childhood). 

Ann (married John Allen, died in 1876). 

Hannah (died in infancy). 

Charles Macknett. 

Daniel Pastorius, second (Daniel, John Samuel, Fran- 
ciscus Daniel, Melchior Affam, Martinus, Fridericus), born in 
Germantown, will dated January 31, 1831, proven February 14, 

Married Elizabeth Mechlin, April 19, 1786. 
Children: Mary (born, September 5, 1788; married John 
Reiff, of Montgomery Co.). 
Letitia (born, December 6, 1790; married Mr. 

Thomas ) . 
Joseph (born, March 7, 1793). 
Charles (born, October 5, 1795: married Mar- 
garet Broadus. This item is entered also 
under Joseph). 
Daniel (born, August 2. 1797). 

Francis Daniel Pastorius, second (Samuel, Daniel, John 
Samuel, Franciscus Daniel, Melchior Adam, Martinus, Frideri- 

Married Margaret 

Children : A daughter ; married Mr. Lawrence Shuster, of 
Spring Garden, Philadelphia. 

Abraham Pastorius (Samuel, Daniel, John Samuel, Fran- 
ciscus Daniel, Melchior Adam, Martinus, Fridericus), born in 

Married Charlotte Wilson in 18 16. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 235 

Children : Washington, 

Margaretta (born in Phila. July 2, 1820; married 

Elton Rogers ; had two children ; died March 

31, 1849). 
John (died in infancy). 
Francis Daniel (born, May i, 1825; died, 1828). 

Charles Macknett (Samuel, Daniel, John Samuel, Fran- 
ciscus Daniel, Melchior Adam, Martinus, Fridericus). 
Married Ann Rex Hortter, of Germantown. 
Children: Jacob Macknett (died, October 11, 1832, aged 4 
Rachel (married Lemuel Zell, and had a number 

of children). 
Anna (born, August 26, 1833). 
Charles Macknett, 

Mary Pastorius (Daniel, Daniel, John Samuel, Franciscus 
Daniel, Melchior Adam, Martinus, Fridericus), born, September 

Married John Reiff, of Montgomery County. 
Children : Jacob, 

Daniel P., 






Daniel Pastorius (Daniel, Daniel, John Samuel, Fran- 
ciscus Daniel, Melchior Adam, Martinus, Fridericus), born, 
August 2, 1797; died, 1864. Married Tacy Styer, daughter of 
Charles and Tacy Styer, of Whitpain Township, Montgomery 
County, Pa. 

236 Francis Daniel Pastorius 

Children: Myra (died in infancy). 

John (born, 1824; unmarried). 

Mary Macknett (see below). 

Elisabeth Sheppard (born, February 20, 1828; 

married, 1866, Rev. John S. Cromlich, of 

Pittsburg. No children). 
Daniel (died in infancy). 
Francis Daniel (married Frances Beaver; no 

Daniel (see below). 


\ (Twins died in infancy). 

Washington Pastorius (Abraham, Samuel, Daniel, John 
Samuel, Franciscus Daniel, Melchior Adam, Martinus, Frideri- 
cus), born in Philadelphia, January 4, 1818; married Mary W. 

Children: Henry Wolff (born in Germantown, July 12, 
1855; died, August 11, 1869). 
Sallie Wolff (born in Germantown, July 11, 

Washington (born in Roxboro, June 27, 1861). 
Francis Daniel (born in Roxboro, September 

27, 1863). 
Charles Sharpless (born in Germantown, April 

22, 1866). 
Charlotta (born in Germantown, January 23, 

Horace Evans (born in Germantown. September 
II, 1876). 

Charles Macknett Pastorius (Charles Macknett, Sam- 
uel, Daniel, John Samuel, Franciscus Daniel, Melchior Adam, 
Martinus, Fridericus), born, October 5, 1837; died, September 
28, 1870. Married Hannah Nice, of Germantown. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius 237 

Children : Samuel Nice, 

Henry Clay Pastorius (Charles Macknett, Samuel, 
Daniel, John Samuel, Franciscus Daniel, Melchoir Adam, Mar- 
tinus, Fridericus), born, February 7, 1850. Married Mary de 
Huff Smith. 

Children: Jacob Macknett (died, October 11, 1832), 
Cyrus Tatman (born, 1875). 
Henry Clay (born, February, 1877). 

Mary Macknett Pastorius (Daniel, Daniel, Daniel, John 
Samuel, Franciscus Daniel, Melchior Adam, Martinus, Frideri- 
cus), born, September 2, 1826. Married, August i, 1849, Davies 
E. Bruner, son of Ab. Bruner, of Columbia, Lancaster County, 

Children: Davies Evans (born, September 12, 1850). 
Daniel Pastorius (born. May 15, 1852). 
Rebecca Tacy (born, December 2, 1857; died, 

January 4, 1858). 
Abraham (Abram), (born, January 9, 1859). 

Daniel Pastorius (Daniel, Daniel, Daniel, John Samuel, 
Franciscus Daniel, Melchior Adam, Martinus, Fridericus), born, 
March 6, 1836. Married Clara Dalzell, youngest daughter of 
William Dalzell, of New Jersey. 

Children: Clara Dalzell (born, November 3, 1869). 
Daniel Berkley (born, July 31, 1871). 


PRIOR TO 1846.^ 

Schiller was perhaps the most permanently influential of the 
German poets in causing the introduction and spread of German 
literature in America. Goethe did much, but he also excited 
violent opposition, and hence was detrimental, as well as helpful. 
Jean Paul and Herder were important factors, while Lavater, 
Gellert, Gessner and Klopstock may not be overlooked in sum- 
ming up the result. 

Of the great names of the eighteenth century, Lessing and 
Wieland seem to have had a share in the work entirely dispro- 
portionate to their position in the literary world. While their 
names occur in the magazines more frequently than some of their 
compeers mentioned above, a large number of the references 
are unimportant, their best works were comparatively little 
known, and the attitude of the critics toward them was for the 
most part unfavorable. The religious skepticism of the one and 
the erotic tendencies of the other evidently militated strongly 
against them. The present paper aims to make this clear by a 
brief review of the material. 

When we consider the fact that it was very largely through 
the medium of the drama that German literature first made its 
way to America, it may seem strange that we find so little trace 
of Lessing in the earlier periods. True, Wilkens records" a 
translation of Miss Sara Sampson, by David Rittenhouse, of 
Philadelphia, in the year 1789, remarkable as perhaps the first 

* Notes supplementary to German Literature in American Magazines 
prior to I846. Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1907. Lack 
of space forbade including them there ; cf. note 1, p. 56. For brevity's sake 
the main study will be referred to here simply as "bulletin ;" and the heavy- 
faced numbers in the following foot-notes refer to "List A" of the same. 

^ Early Influence of German Literature in America. Americana Ger- 
manica. Ill, 103. 

Lessing and Wieland 239 

translation of a German drama in America; but he finds no in- 
dication that it was ever staged, and I have found no reference 
to it in the magazines of the eighteenth century. 

He cites two performances of Minna von Barnhelm, one in 
Charleston, S. C, in 1795, the other in New York the following 
year. But this was Johnstone's English version, no reprint of 
which was made here. 

Mr. Viereck, quoting from Learned,^ notes'*, as an evidence 
of the progressiveness of the Philadelphia German "Institute," 
that its students were acquainted with Nathan as early as 1785, 
although it had appeared only six years before. But no further 
trace of this drama has been found, either among the transla- 
tions, or in the magazines, until a much later date. 

The only reference I find to Lessing as a dramatist, and the 
only mention of any of his dramas, prior to 1800, is contained in 
a sketch on German tragedy, evidently of English origin, re- 
printed in the Massachusetts Magadne for 1795.^ Emilia Ga- 
lotti is here praised in the conventional manner of the time as 
joining "elegance and neatness of diction, beauty of cadence, cor- 
rectness, chastity and regularity" to "high strength and warmth 
of conception." 

Aside from this, Lessing was represented in the American 
magazines of the eighteenth century by two fables and two brief 
poems in translation.* 

But even the first quarter of the nineteenth century, when 
Germany's greatest writers begin to become more generally 
known here, shows surprisingly little acquaintance with the writ- 
ings of Lessing. According to Mr. Wilkens' investigation, only 
one of his dramas was reprinted in translation here during that 
time, Emilia Galotti, in 1810. The seven magazine references to 

' Cf. Learned's Inaugural at the University of Pennsylvania, 1896. 
(Opening of the Bcchstcin Germanic Library Addresses, p. 49.) 

* German Instruction in American Schools. In Report of the Commis- 
sioner of Education, for 1900-1901, p. 545. 

°VII, 9. On page 2^3 of the same volume Lessing is again mentioned. 
'Bulletin, p. 11, note 10. 

240 Lessing and Wieland 

Lessing prior to 1826 are exceedingly sporadic, and, with a single 
exception, of almost negligible importance. There are two brief 
poems in translation, a couple of anecdotes of his absent-minded- 
ness, and desultory mention of the Dramaturgy.'^ 

The exception noted is a peppery essay "On the State of 
Polite Literature in Germany," upon which I have commented 
in the bulletin.^ The writer, who takes a radical view of Ger- 
man literature in general, finding all its writers, except Gessner 
and Kotzebue, utterly deficient in the matter of taste, discusses 
Amelia Galotti (sic) more fully than any of the numerous works 
from the German which he mentions. This was the drama which 
had been reprinted here in 18 10, but whether the reviewer knew 
it in translation or in the original, we cannot say. He accords 
it much praise, but is unsparing in his censure of the "lame and 
impotent" conclusion, the "unnatural and monstrous catastro- 
phe." "All is pleasing, beautiful, and correct, till the last scene ; 
we are fascinated by the pencil of a master through the foregoing 
part, and are suddenly disgusted and pained by the awkward 
contrivance of the perverted poet." 

Up to 1826 there had not appeared a single biographical 
sketch of Lessing, and, with the one exception noted, no critical 
appreciation of his work. Even the Gottingen men, E. Everett, 
Ticknor, Bancroft, Hedge and Calvert, who were among the 
foremost exponents of the merits of Goethe and Schiller, seem 
to have paid little or no attention to Lessing. 

Not until 1828 do we find in the magazines an attempt at a 
summary of his life and literary career, based upon a study of 
his collected works. The essay of which this discussion forms a 
part, is one of the first intelligent attempts at a comprehensive 
survey of the history of German literature up to the close of the 
eighteenth century, presented to American magazine readers, and 
I have therefore utilized it, as a sort of milestone of progress in 
my study. ^ 

' Bulletin, Nos. 9, 34, 58, 127, 413, 667. 

• P. 39. The article is in the Portico, Baltimore. II, 17 ; for 1816. 

• Bulletin, p. 43, and Nos. 724, 751, 753. 

Lessing and Wieland 241 

About a page of it is devoted to a brief review of Lessing's 
life and character, and half a dozen more to an appreciation of 
his works. He is praised as a keen, intellectual and fair-minded 
critic and controversialist, and designated as the first epoch- 
making prose writer of the eighteenth century in Germany. His 
attitude toward Christianity is deplored, but not censured. The 
attempt is evidently to criticize with fairness. 

Of the works, the Dramaturgy comes in for the most praise, 
as having freed the Germans from the thraldom of French 
classic taste, and established Shakespeare. Of the Wolfenbiittel 
Fragments a brief account is given, but the writer makes no at- 
tempt to identify himself with either side in the controversy. He 
is somewhat chary of his praise of the dramas. The heroine of 
Minna von Barnhclm is criticised as quite too forward ; of 
Emilia Galotti it is said that "there is nothing but the moral 
beauty of the sacrifice to relieve the impression of horror." And 
Nathan is rather sharply censured as to its religious tendencies. 
The snmma summarnm is : 'Tn short, Lessing attacked admir- 
ably, he opposed triumphantly ; but, except through his influence, 
he has added little to the sum of human happiness and intelli- 

From the severely orthodox temper of the greater part of 
American criticism in the early nineteenth century, it is but nat- 
ural to infer that the free-thinker Lessing would not meet with 
much favor here, but the surprising thing is that so little was 
said about his skepticism, that he was not attacked, as Goethe 
was. As it stands, Americans could scarcely have learned from 
the magazines prior to 1828, — unless it were from purely theo- 
logical articles, of which I have taken little account, — that he 
was a skeptic. Only one essay, of the year 1830, entitled "Relig- 
ion in Germany; By a German Divine}^ is outspoken in con- 
demnation of this side of Lessing's activity, referring to him as 
having written "an outrageous book against religion," and quot- 

" Bulletin, No. 857. The article appears in Spirit of the Pilgrims, Boston, 
III, 57, for 1830. 

242 Lessing and Wicland 

ing his letters as expressing "the feehngs of an avowed enemy of 

From this time on there is nothing worthy of note on Les- 
sing for a period of ten years. There are a couple of fables, Les- 
sing is casually mentioned in a lengthy article on the European 
drama, and a British review, republished here, discusses his 
work for Shakespeare in an essay on SJiakcspcarc in Germany}^ 

One of the most important references, however, is that in 
the New York Review, for 1840. It is a forty-six page article 
on Lessing and his works, sketching his life quite fully, and 
dwelling particularly on Laocoon, Minna von Barnhclm and 
Nathan, the Wise, of which epitomes and numerous passages in 
translation are given. Three fables are also reproduced. The 
comment, both upon the writer and his works, is favorable 
throughout. Had a single article of this kind appeared in a lead- 
ing periodical fifteen years earlier, Lessing would have been as 
well known here, perhaps, as any of his compeers. 

During the remaining five years of our period, when the 
interest in German culture was at its height here, the references 
to Lessing occur somewhat more frequently, perhaps partially 
under the influence of the essay just described. A Southern trans- 
lator offers two more fables, we find two new poems, a quotation 
or two, and, finally, in 1844, an extended synopsis, with many 
translated extracts, of Emilia Galotti, the drama which seems 
to have been the most widely known of any of Lessing's works in 
America. ^- 

After the close of our period, 1848-49, the Democratic Re- 
view contains complete translations of Emilia Galotti and Minna 
von Barnheim, and an investigation of the magazines since that 
time^^ shows that Lessing afterward attained greater promi- 
nence here. 

" Bulletin, Nos. 915, 957, 999- 

"Bulletin, Nos. i337, i339. 1363, 1387, 1632. 

"By Dr. M. H. Hacrtcl, of the University of Wisconsin. His study, a 
continuation of my own, covering the period from 1846 to 1880, is now pub- 
lishing as a university bulletin. See the discussion of Lessing, p. 62 seq. 

Lessing and Wieland 243 

But on the whole, we can certainly claim for him no very 
great share in that influence which brought about the change of 
American sentiment toward things German in the first half of 
the last century. 

He seemed to have no appeal to the American literary pub- 
lic. Had his dramas been early made accessible in good stage 
adaptations, the result might have been different. As it was, 
they were known only through cavilling criticism. Lessing's 
anti-religious writings seemed to excite little jittention and to 
evoke little opposition here, it is true, but they doubtless deterred 
Americans to some extent from busying themselves with him, 
nevertheless. Writers who were interested in German literature, 
probably felt that Lessing could hardly prove popular here, and 
hence passed him by. 

And, finally, the inestimable services of his criticism to 
German literature, in renovating and remodeling it, could scarcely 
be expected to appeal strongly to a young nation not laboring 
under the same difficulties, but with entirely different battles of its 
own to fight. 

Thus the role played by Lessing here was entirely incom- 
mensurate, not only with his importance at home, but also with 
the influence exerted by his compeers, Goethe and Schiller. 

Wieland, like Lessing, was represented up to 1826 by only 
two works in translation, but Ohcron proved popular, and, if 
the magazines may be taken as evidence, Wieland was far more 
favorably introduced to the reading public than the great critic. 
True, his fondness for voluptuousness excites adverse comment, 
even in the early period, but since this feature is not so promi- 
nent in Ohcron, as in others of his works, and since Wieland 
himself was invariably represented as a venerable and pious man, 
it was not until reviews of his collected works began to appear, 
that he fell into disfavor, if not disrepute. 

The first work of which Mr. Wilkens has found an Amer- 
ican reprint, was Socrates Out of His Senses; or, Dialogues of 
Diogenes of Sinope. The first volume appeared at Newburgh, 

244 Lessing and Wieland 

in 1797. No trace has been found of a second. Mr. Wilkens 
supposes that, as the book had aroused no attention in England, 
it probably pro\ed unpopular here, too; a supposition which the 
magazines fully confirm, I, at least, having found no reference 
to it. The only mention I have discovered of the name of Wie- 
land in the magazines of the eighteenth century, is a foot-note to 
An Essay on Hnuiour, Translated from the German, appearing 
in the Columbian Magazine (old), for 1790,^^ in which he is 
mentioned among several forgotten and half forgotten names 
as one of "the principal humorous writers among the Germans." 

In 1805, there appears a five-page biographical sketch, ^^ 
probably of English origin, which is extremely laudatory. Wie- 
land is forthwith crowned "Prince of the German bards" by 
this enthusiastic admirer, who even essays such flights as the 
following: "As in the angelic picture of Raphael, there beams 
forth in his countenance the tranquil transfiguration of a per- 
fected spirit and a sainted heart." There is not a syllable con- 
cerning the erotic tendencies of his writings, and he is praised 
for having fired his genius on by persistent labor to rise above 
the religious zealotism of his youth. Oberon is highly praised, 
and we are congratulated that the English translation (Sothe- 
by's) is fully the equal of the original in poetical merit. 

Since this article appears in one of the best periodicals of 
its day, it is perhaps fair to assume that it gained a considerable 
circulation among literary people and paved the way for the 
reception of this excellent translation of Oberon. 

In 1807 a contributor to the Boston Emerald'^^ expresses 
surprise that this work is not more freely circulated in America, 
and appends an extract which he thinks is well worthy of atten- 

Oberon evidently excited no little interest when it was 
finally reprinted in two neat volumes in Newport and Boston as 

" IV, 30. 

" Bulletin, No. 80. The article appears in the Literary Magazine and 
American Register, Phila. 

"II, 149. Bulletin, No. 133. 

Lessing and Wieland 245 

the first American from the third London edition. The maga- 
zines contain numerous announcements, notices and formal re- 
views ;^^ but since Mr. Wilkens has treated the subject rather 
fully, citing, too, J. Q. Adams' unpublished translation of the 
poem, we may dismiss it briefly here. 

Suffice it to say that both favorable and unfavorable opin- 
ions were advanced, the former apparently predominating. One 
interesting twelve-page review, not heretofore mentioned in this 
connection, is in the Philadelphia Portfolio for 1810,^^ and, 
judging from its tone, may have been written by "Oliver Old- 
school" (Joseph Dennie), the editor. Oldschool was especially 
hostile toward Kotzebue,^'' and the German drama, and was not 
at all partial to German literature as a whole. This review 
opens with a tirade against the supernatural tendencies of the 
latter. Germany "seems the church-yard of letters, infested with 
ghosts, sprites, hobgoblins, fairies and monsters of all sizes." 
The Thames is tha Styx, over which Mr. (M. G.) Lewis, acting 
as Charon, is ferrying these wraiths in such numbers as greatly 
to endanger the purity of English taste. "The pages of this 
ghost-maker abound in such prodigies that he often makes the 
grave of his hero the punctum saliens, or starting point of his 
existence." Kotzebue is a disseminator of poisons. "He wore 
out the vigour of his days in the corruption of the human heart, 
and became at last the hoary pander in the service of Infidelity 
and Lust." 

But after this most unpromising beginning, the writer 
passes to a very favorable review of Oberon. He says he finds 
nothing to advance against the propriety of this book, derives a 
moral of heavenly forgiveness and reward for repentance and 
virtue, and welcomes the supernatural agents as not of Ger- 
many's "celestial monsters," but of a race rendered venerable by 
tradition. His chief stricture is on the slow-moving Spenserian 
stanza, chosen by the translator. 

" Bulletin, Nos. 133, 175. 182, 183, 186, 189, 203. 
"New Series, IV, 592; Bulletin, No. 189. 
" Bulletin, pp. 58-59- 

246 Lessing and Wieland 

For a decade and a half after the various notices called forth 
by Oheron, we hear comparatively little of Wieland. There are 
a number of references of minor importance,^" two brief bio- 
graphical sketches, a review of his published correspondence, 
reproduced from the Journal des Savans, Wieland's account of 
his interview with Napoleon, and a story, reprinted from an 
English source. The comment on both the writer and his works 
is laudatory throughout, but it is apparent that he is little known, 
except as the author of Oheron. 

The article which has been referred to above, and in the 
bulletin, as typical of the attitude of American criticism toward 
German literature prior to the vogue of German letters here in 
the thirties and forties,^^ is one of the first to come out squarely 
against Wieland. It is based in part upon a study of the com- 
plete works, and for practically the first time we hear an Amer- 
ican opinion of something else besides Sotheby's Oheron. And 
another essay in the same periodical, a few volumes later,^- a 
searching review of Wm. Taylor's Historic Survey of German 
Poetry, has the same ring, and is doubtless by the same writer. 
It is less thorough, and devotes less attention to Taylor, and more 
to German authors, than Carlyle's well-known review of the same 
work (in his Critical and Miscellaneous Essays), but the writer 
is fully as disinclined to accept Taylor's estimates as Carlyle. 

This critic refuses Wieland a place in the hierarchy of 
genius, and points out his weaknesses with unsparing severity. 
He grants him facility, but denies him all originality. He con- 
demns him as a pilferer and imitator, insipid and vain. "The 
study of his works has not taught us to respect him." The con- 
demnation of his immorality and frivolity is emphatic. He is 
contrasted with Klopstock; the latter is "an eagle, soaring 
through the clouds to the sun;" the former, "a starling that in- 
sults all passers-by." "We venerate the erudition and great 

'° Bulletin, Nos. 203, 227, 231, 336, 346, 388, 504, 518, 636, 742. 
" See note 9 above. 

** Bulletin, No. 830. Unfortunately I have not been able to identify this 

Lessing and Wieland 247 

variety and accuracy of knowledge of Wieland, but in respect 
to the moral of his writings, he seems to us like a snail, creeping 
over the best things in life, and leaving them odious by the filthy 
slime which marks his progress.'" The reviewer "cannot admire 
even the epic poem of Oheron." Agathon fares no better at his 
hands. "Strike from literature the entire works of Wieland, 
and nothing would be lost to the world." 

These two essays appeared in 1828 and 1830. The half 
dozen, or more, pages in them devoted to Wieland probably rep- 
resent the most influential contributions concerning him in the 
magazines of our period. A lengthy review of his works in a 
British magazine, republished here,^^ which takes a much more 
charitable view, deploring only his indifference to moral gran- 
deur, doubtless did little toward counteracting its effect. 

After this time Wieland is represented by only two stories, 
and extracts from the "Sympathies/' — in the hyper-emotional 
manner of his early writings — in translation.-^ In the animated 
discussion of German literature during the thirties and early 
forties, Wieland rarely finds mention and receives no extended 

Toward the end of our period, Mr. M. M. Backus begins 
an article on novels and novel-reading, — which he condemns as 
"earthy, downwards, grovelling," in tendency, — with a protest 
against Wieland as a venal panderer to the degenerate taste of 
"the callow debauchees who bought Agathon/' and rejoices that 
"Agathon has perished from the roll of readable novels."-^ 

Nor does Wieland seem to have gained further recog- 
nition here after this time.-'' Thanks to Sotheby's Oberon, his in- 
troduction had been far more favorable than Lessing's; but the 
latter possessed sterling merit that finally gained him a hearing 
among cultured people, if not general popularity, while Wieland 

" Bulletin, No. 767. 
=* Bulletin, Nos. 798, 1099, 1165, 1209. 
"Bulletin, No. 1627. 

*■ Mr. Haertel, (see note 13 above), has listed only one reference to him, 
a biog. crit. article of the year 1862. 

248 Lessing and Wieland 

had no message for a public whose tastes were offended by his 
sensuous gallantries. Our fathers were less ready to for- 
give these, it seems, than an honest and outspoken skepticism in 
religious matters. And the graces of literary form could not 
atone in their eyes for a lack of moral worth and dignity in the 

I desire to avail myself of the opportunity to publish the following table 
of errata, referring to the bulletin : 

P. 11, note 10, line 4, read: "Galotti". 

P. 20, note 28, read: "Treitschke". 

P. 27, line 1, read: "and in a". 

P. SO, note 46, read: "pp. 83-6". 

P. 56, note 1, line 6, read: "Leipzig". 

P. 66, line 27, read : "one or two". 

P. 74, note 50, line 3, read : "Goethe-Jahrbuch", 

P. 76, note 57, last line, read : "Deity". 

List A, Nos. 13, 14, 126, 134, 159, 211, 214, 295, 297, 542, 594, 595, 596, 
read : "Die Spanier". 

List A, No. 729, read: "Fraternal". 

List A, No. 1024, and p. 62, note 20, II 24-26. The poem is J. Kerner's 
(not Koerner's, as printed in the magazine), "Wohl auf noch getrunken", 
in translation. Insert 1024 under Kerner, List B. 

List A, No. 1667, read: "Mr. Quint", and "Miss W. Barrington". 

List B, p. 243, read: "Apenzellee {sic)". 

List B, p. 243, under Brentano, second date, read: "(1842)". Further, 
the entries under "Brentano" should have been made under "Arnim", and 
those under "Fallersleben," under "Hoffman". 

List B, p. 246, read: "Handel". 

List B, p. 250, strike out "Skleit". Evidently a magazine misspelling for 
"Kleist"; cf. List A, Nos. 1685 and 1803. Hence, "(1845) 1803" should be 
entered under "Kleist", p. 247. 

List B, p. 251, line 3, read: "(1818) 346". 

List B, p. 251, read: "Zacharia". 

List B, p. 251, read: "Zincgreff". 

List B, p. 251, under "Zschokke", read 1142 before 1166. 

S. H. Goodnight, 
Univ. of Wisconsin. 

(5erman Qmcrtcan Qnnals 




Historical. Literary, Linguistic, Educational and Commercial Relations 


Germany and America 


The German American Historical Socieiy 
The National Gertnan American Alliance 
The Utiion of Old Germajt Students in America 


University of Pennsylvania. 


H. C. G. Brandt, 

Hamilton College. 
W. H. Carpenter, 

Columbia University. 
W. H. Carruth, 

University of Kansas. 
Hermann Collitz, 

Johns Hopkins University. 
Starr W. Cutting, 

University of Chicago. 
Daniel K. Dodge. 

University of Illinois. 
A. B. Faust, 

Cornell University. 
KuNo Francke, 

Harvard University. 
Adolph Gerber, 

Late of Earlham College. 

Julius Goebel, 

University of Illinois. 
J. T. Hatfield, 

Northwestern University. 
W. T. Hewett, 

Cornell University. 
A. R. Hohlfeld, 

University of Wisconsin. 
Hugo K. Schilling, 

University of California. 
H. Schmidt-Wartenberg, 

University of Chicago. 
Hermann Schoenfeld, 

Columbian University. 
Calvin Thomas, 

Columbia University. 
H. S. White, 

Harvard University. 

Henry Wood, Johns Hopkins University. 

New .Series, Vol. 6. 


Old Series, Vol. 10. 

published by 


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Box 10, College Hall, University of Pennsylvania 


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lLeip3ig : 


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©crman Qmcrican Ctnnals 



New Series, September and October Old Series, 

Vol. VI. No. 5. 1908. Vol. X. No. 5- 


Mr. Sanford H. Cobb, Minister of the High Dutch Churches 
of Schoharie and Saugerties, as a tribute to the sturdy German 
stock from which his parishioners descended, published (Put- 
nams, N. Y., 1897), The Story of the Palatines, an Episode in 
Colonial History. He gives first a brief history of the region 
from which they came, carrying the name that has become syn- 
onymous with German sturdy loyalty to religion and to the coun- 
try that gave them refuge. 

Driven by the hardships inflicted by the French invading 
armies, and by the greater injustice shown them by their own 
petty sovereign, in his zeal for the Roman Catholic religion, 
which they refused to adopt, nearly three thousand Palatines 
landed in New York in June and July, 1710. They were but a 
part of the many thousands who found an outlet through Protes- 
tant Holland and a welcome in Protestant England, where Queen 
Anne and her Whig Ministers set an example of liberal help, fol- 
lowed by generous aid from all of her broad and catholic spirit. 
Some were sent to Ireland and there established useful indus- 
tries. The first band of Palatines to come to America found 
settlement in New Jersey, in 1707, and left a posterity that still 
flourishes near Schooley's Mountains, in Morris County. Their 


252 The Palatines in New York and Pennsylvania 

experiences are told in "The Story of an Old Farm" by Mellick, 
himself a descendant of this stock. Pastor Kocherthal, an Evan- 
gelical minister, led a little band, helped by royal bounty and 
with a grant of a glebe of 500 acres to Kocherthal — most of them 
were farmers, one a weaver, one a stocking maker, one a black- 
smith, one a carpenter — all trades that ought to have made them 
welcome as useful settlers. Their first experience was a hard 
and trying one, but in 1713, they received a grant of land known 
as the German Patent, on the lower Hudson, near Newburg. In 
1 710, Kocherthal brought a larger company and secured for them 
land in the same region, and exercised a paternal care over both 
parties. He died in 171 9, at West Camp, on the Hudson, his 
grave is marked with this quaint inscription in High German: 

"Know, wanderer, under this stone rests a right wanderer, 
the Joshua of the High Dutch in North America, the pure Lu- 
theran preacher of them on the East and West sides of the 
Hudson. His first arrival was with Lord Lovelace in 1707-8, 
the I St January. His second with Col. Hunter, 1710, the 14 June. 
His voyage back to England was prevented by the voyage of his 
soul to Heaven on St. John's Day, 1719. Do you wish to know 
more? Seek in Melanchthon's Fatherland, who was Kocherthal, 
who Herschias, who Winchenbach?" 

Twenty-three years after his death, in 1742, this memorial 
was put upon his grave, and in 1895 placed as a mural tablet in 
the church at West Camp. 

From the stony hillsides on the Hudson, the Palatines lis- 
tened to the tale of more fertile farms in Pennsylvania, whither 
many of the settlers at the Camps and Schoharie had migrated, 
and departed to join their compatriots in the valleys of the Swa- 
tara and Tulpehocken. A year after the departure of Kocher- 
thal and his first company from the Palatinate, as Conrad Weiser, 
then a boy of twelve, describes it in his autobiography, "a migrat- 
ing epidemic seized on the stricken people, and as a wave, thirty 
thousand Germans washed along the shores of England." The 
Queen set the example of generous provision for the I3,cx)0 

The Palatines in New York and Pennsylvania 253 

Palatines thus gathered in London, and £135,000 were raised and 
spent in caring for them. £24,000 were voted by ParHament to 
send 3,800 to Ireland, where they were settled in 1709, in Mun- 
ster, and in 1840, a German traveller. Kohl, wrote that "they 
had not lost their home character for probity and honor, and 
were much wealthier than their neighbors." A second large 
body was sent in 1709 to the Carolinas, under a native of Berne, 
de Graffenried, whose ambition to found a principality under his 
lordship, gave a great deal of trouble, and ended in his self exile 
to the settlement of Germans established in Northern Virginia, 
by Gov. Spottiswood, at Germanna, where fifty years later an- 
other Graffenried, probably the Baron Palatine's grandson, figured 
with no great credit. Spottswood himself at the end of his term 
of office, retired to Germanna and built a home of palatial pro- 
portions for the time and place, and it is still the subject of tradi- 
tion and the home of unrecorded romance. Ten or fifteen years 
later, a company of Germans from Pennsylvania, doubtless Pal- 
atines from Berks County, came to Virginia, took up 40,000 
acres in the lower Shenandoah Valley, founded Strasburg, just 
over the mountains from Germanna, and to this day their de- 
scendants are an element of value, represented among others by 
the Wirts, Conrads, Scheffers, Kempers, Koiners and Spreeces. 
The largest immigration in one body to America was that 
of the Palatines, about 3,000, in ten ships, and as the voyage 
lasted from January, 17 10, until June, with all the discomforts 
incidental to the sea then, naturally the deaths on shipboard and 
after landing were very numerous, reported at 470, by Gov. 
Hunter, the great advocate of this addition to the Province of 
which he was then made Governor. His faith in his scheme for 
making these industrious Palatines profitable to the Province 
and to the Mother Country, cost him dearly in reputation, and 
caused great suffering to the new comers. The most prominent 
man among them was John Conrad Weiser, father of Conrad, 
then a boy of twelve, who was to play a leading part in bring- 
ing his countrymen from the harsh treatment meted out in New 

254 ^/^^ Palatines in Nciv York and Pennsylvania 

York, to the gentle and hospitable welcome in Pennsylvania, 
where Conrad Weiser served his adopted country by zealous and 
useful dealing with the Indians, and helped them and the Pro- 
prietary government of Pennsylvania and indeed all the Col- 
onies, by his good reputation with Indians and Whites. 

Among the children apprenticed to earlier settlers, were two 
brothers of Conrad Weiser, who were lost to their family for- 
ever, and a lad of thirteen, John Peter Zenger, an orphan, whose 
father had died at sea, apprenticed to William Bradford, the 
early printer of New York. Zenger is made famous by his trial 
for libel, when his counsel, Andrew Hamilton, of Philadelphia, 
enforced the law that the jury were judges of what was a libel, 
and thus through Zenger, secured the vindication of the liberty 
of the press, fifty years before Erskine made his fame by doing 
it in England. Released at last from confinement on what is now 
Governor's Island, after another heavy loss of life, 250 dying 
in New York after months of misery on sea and shore, some 
1,200 Palatines settled three villages on the Hudson, and the 
names still mark the advance of the Palatines, from Newburg 
and Rhinebeck, Germantown on Livingston Manor, Blenheim, 
Oberweiserdorf, Weisersdorf, Middleburg, Hartmandorf, Brun- 
nendorf, to the Schoharie and Mohawk Rivers, where their ad- 
vance is easily traced in Kneiskerndorf, Stone Arabia, Newkirk, 
Ephrata, Palatine, Minden, Mannheim, Oppenheim, and German 
Flats, while their descendants still bear German patronymics, 
often sadly changed in lapse of years. The name of Herkimer 
perpetuates one of their number, the gallant leader at the battle 
of Oriskany, where his monument, erected by German Ameri- 
cans, is still the gathering place of those who delight to honor 
the gallant soldier who gave up his life in a battle that, while 
a defeat in one sense, was a victory, in that it broke the plan of 
the British and contributed to Burgoyne's surrender at Saratoga. 

The story of the sufferings of the Palatines between the 
harsh task masters, the Dutch Patroons and the government in- 
fluenced by them, on the one hand, and the invading French with 
their Indian allies on the other, is a sad one, Conrad Weiser 

The Palatines in New York and Pennsylvania 255 

led those who were bold enough to go out to the frontier lands 
on the Schoharie and Mohawk, but wearied by disputes over 
titles to the land, they sent Weiser with two companions to Lon- 
don to appeal to the King for justice and redress These agents 
suffered all sorts of hardships, capture by pirates, poverty and 
prison, and only on the failure of relief, did Weiser, after five 
years of fruitless trials in London, return in 1723. As early as 
1 71 7 three ships loaded with Palatine emigrants began that 
steady stream of Germans, over 30,000 names on record for 
thirty years, for the 363 first to arrive, were followed by an ever 
increasing body, thus responding to the hearty welcome prom- 
ised thirty years before by Penn. As early as 1685 a band of 
Mennonites settled in Germantown, and ten years later Kelpius 
led his company of Pietists to the Wissahickon, and in 1719 the 
Dunkers settled in Germantown, and later came the Newborn, 
the Disciples of Ephrata, the Schwenkf elders, in 1734, and in 
1735, the Moravians. Meeting Weiser at Albany, Governor 
Keith told him and the Palatines of Schoharie, that Pennsylva- 
nia would welcome them, and leaving many of the settlers there, 
only to suffer in 1757 in the raid of the French and their Indian 
allies, the bolder spirits to the number of 300, accepted Gover- 
nor Keith's invitation, and first in 1723 and later in 1728, came 
to the Tulpehocken and Swatara region. A whole village under 
Hartman Vinedecker led by Indian guides, crossed the moun- 
tains to the upper waters of the Susquehanna, built canoes and 
putting the women and children in them floated down the river 
to the mouth of the Swatara, while the men drove their horses 
and cattle by land, following the course of the Swatara and find- 
ing a new home at its head, and at the sources of the Tulpe- 
hocken, they made their first settlement, calling it Heidelberg. 
In 1728, Conrad Weiser, then twenty-six years old, led another 
body and settled with them at Womelsdorf. Commissioned Col- 
onel by the Governor of Pennsylvania, he served with credit in 
frequent Indian difficulties and through the old French War. 
His daughter married Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, and their 
three sons, Peter, Frederick and Henry, were by turns and with 

256 The Palatines in New York and Pennsylvania 

equal distinction, clergymen, soldiers and statesmen. Through 
the example and influence of Conrad Weiser, the stream of Ger- 
man emigrants flowed into the region now Berks, Lebanon and 
Lehigh Counties, and their names of towns and villages, and the 
names of the people, their speech, their churches, their homes, 
their customs, still show their German origin. What they have 
done for the Colony and the State and the country that thus 
gave them refuge from suffering in the Palatinate and hardship 
in New York, has often been told. In 1738, Lt. Gov. Thomas 
said in an address to the Pennsylvania Council : 

"This Province [Penna.] has been for some years the 
Asylum of the dispersed Protestants of the Palatinate and other 
parts of Germany, and I believe it may with truth be said that 
the present flourishing condition of it is in a part measure owing 
to the Industry of these People." 

In 1766, Franklin told a committee of the House of Com- 
mons that of the 160,000 whites in Pennsylvania, about one-third 
were Germans, "a people who brought with them the greatest 
of all wealth, industry, and integrity, and characters that had 
been superpoised and developed by years of suffering and perse- 
cution." Franklin and the Germans of Pennsylvania did not love 
one another, and he and others, inspired by political differences, 
mainly the sturdy loyalty of the Pennsylvania Germans to their 
first friends, the Penns and their successors in the proprietary 
government, said unkind things of one another, reproaches which 
are still re-echoed by those who like to find fault at long range. 
Even in our own days the Pennsylvania Germans are made 
targets of attack and ridicule, and the local novelist has of late 
made them the subject of exaggerated abuse for their want of 
taste and elegance, but on the other hand their descendants 
in books and historical addresses, in verse and prose, have praised 
their ancestors with perhaps too lavish eulogy. However, to- 
day the Pennsylvania German may gladly renew the study of 
the actual facts of the toilsome path travelled from the Palati- 
nate to Pennsylvania. 

J. G. R. 


The Growth of the German American Collection of the New York 
Public Library during 1906- 1907. 

Its Importance for Historical and Literary Studies. 

(A German version of this report, omitting the third paragraph of the 
introduction and with some changes toward the end, was published in 
"Deutsch-Amerikanische Geschichtsblatter," vol. 8, pp. 138-153, Chicago, Octo- 
ber, 1908.) 

Great libraries may properly be called literary quarries and 
workshops for scholars and authors. It is a matter of course, 
that such people will avail themselves of the opportunities for 
work on their particular subjects, if the materials for research 
are to be found fairly complete at some library of easy access. 
Librarians know from experience, that even historians of note 
and other specialists at times work only along the paths of least 
resistance. One may unhesitatingly blame the prevailing com- 
mercial spirit for this. The number of those, who do not stop 
at the question of expense and sacrifice of time without the 
prospect of tangible financial return, is small. This factor ex- 
plains the insufficient recognition, which the German American 
element has thus far received in works of American history 
and literature. The reproach of wilful neglect is unjustifiable. 

If the German Americans and their descendants had seen to 
it at all times, that the complete materials for the study of their 
history, viz., records, documents, printed matter, German Amer- 
ican newspaper files, etc., were gathered and preserved for fu- 
ture use in the large libraries and historical societies of this 
country, the field would have ere long been worked more thor- 
oughly by American historians. 

The growing German American collection in the "New York 


258 German American Researches 

Public Library" therefore meets a long felt want. Some account 
of the origin and idea underlying this collection may be in place 
here. The "Lenox Library" (founded in 1870, and since 1895. 
by an act of consolidation part of the "New York Public Library, 
Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations"), is famous for its valu- 
able collections of early printed and rare books, most of which 
relate to North and South America and the adjoining islands, 
also for its rich collections of manuscripts relating to American 
history. Mr. James Lenox, the noble founder (born in 1800, 
died in 1880), began gathering these treasures about 1840. Na- 
turally rare books in the German language relating to America 
were purchased by him also. Among them may be named here 
the German edition of the letter of Christopher Columbus, giv- 
ing the earliest information of his great discovery, printed at 
Strassburg, by Bartholomew Kuestler, in 1497. A reprint of 
this German edition, with an introduction by Prof. Konrad Haeb- 
ler, was published in 1900. The later German books of the six- 
teenth to the eighteenth centuries with reference to America, are 
too numerous to be noted here. 

George Bancroft's Library and Manuscript Collection. 

In 1893 the "Lenox Library" purchased the entire collection 
of 486 volumes of manuscripts and about 19,250 printed books 
and pamphlets of the famous historian and statesman, the Hon. 
George Bancroft, who died January 17, 1891. This acquisition 
is of the utmost importance, as it greatly supplements the col- 
lections of Americana. The Bancroft library included the 
greater part of the series of the "Deutsche Pionier," (of which 
eighteen volumes were issued in Cincinnati from 1869-1886), 
most of the works of Friedrich Kapp and other publications 
about the German element in the United States. 

The volumes of manuscripts, which Mr. Bancroft had gath- 
ered during the course of many years for his monumental work, 
"The History of the United States," contain among other things 

German American Researches 259 

many original documents and transcripts from the public and 
private archives of Germany and England, relating to the Amer- 
ican Revolution. There are 46 volumes made up of letters, 
documents and reports of officers of the Hessian, Anspach and 
of the Brunswick troops under General Riedesel, letters of Fred- 
erick the Great; included in this lot are 26 diaries, regimental 
histories and descriptions of the campaigns of the German aux- 
iliary troops in America, viz., Biel, Dinklage, Doehla, Doppel, 
Ewald, Lotheisen, Malsburg, Papet, Reuber, Rueffer von Mel- 
sungen, Schueler, Wiederhold, diary of the "Hessische Jager 
Battalion," the Waldeck Regiment, etc. Bancroft was Ameri- 
can Minister at Berlin from 1867- 1874. His influential position 
and intimate acquaintance with scholars and persons eminent in 
political and social circles, greatly facilitated the acquisition of 
original material and transcripts. M. A. de Wolfe Howe, in his 
"The Life and Letters of George Bancroft," published in two 
volumes some months ago by Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 
gives a chapter of 112 pages to these years, which cover one of 
the most eventful periods of the modern history of Germany. 

Many of these manuscripts were shown in the German 
American exhibition at the "Lenox Library Building," held from 
March t9 May, 1902. Time does not permit now to give a de- 
tailed account of these documents; an attempt will be made at 
a later date. It may be of general interest to German Ameri- 
cans, that the dark spot in the history of the Germans in Amer- 
ica, namely, the service of the German mercenary troops in the 
American Revolution, hired by Great Britain to help in subdu- 
ing the colonists fighting for independence, is considered without 
prejudice by American historians of to-day, as also by cultured 
Americans in other walks of life. It has now become common 
knowledge, that Great Britain often before hired foreign troops 
to serve in its wars in Europe and the colonies. The case of the 
German troops, as well as that of the American Loyalists, is 
now treated in the true historical sense. 

26o German American Researches 

Original Researches in England. 

Although it may be beyond the scope of "German Ameri- 
can Annals," I wish to call attention here to a significant service 
of the "New York Public Library" to further the study of the 
history of the American Loyalists, as a similar work may be 
undertaken in course of time in regard to the German element in 
the United States. About ten years ago the management of this 
library came to an understanding with the "Public Record 
Office" in London, to have copied at our expense unpublished 
documents relating to the Loyalists. This task was performed 
by experts. Their transcripts cover 75 folio volumes, which are 
now kept in the manuscript department at the "Lenox Library 
Building." This invaluable mine still awaits the exploitation of 
historians. At the outbreak of and during the American Revo- 
lution many families of quality and wealth were on the side of 
the Loyalists. Wherever the American patriots gained power, 
the Loyalists were relentlessly persecuted, driven away and their 
property confiscated. Many of them made their flight to Can- 
ada and Nova Scotia, where the British government indemnified 
the refugees for their losses by granting them land and advanc- 
ing money. Most of these transactions are accurately recorded 
in the 75 volumes of transcripts mentioned before. There were 
also Germans among the Loyalists. This fact cannot and must 
not be hushed up, above all not by those who demand "fair play" 
on the part of Americans. Strict historical science demands the 
naked truth, and besides, the present generation of German 
Americans has no good reason to be ashamed of the Germans 
among the Loyalists. My own time (outside of library hours), 
is too much absorbed with the work of the general upbuilding 
of our German American collection and the correspondence con- 
nected therewith, to allow me to dig out the German element 
from the 75 volumes of Loyalist papers. Here is an opportun- 
ity for some one else, who has the time to pursue the research 

German American Researches 261 

Planned Researches in Germany. 

Among those who manifest an intelhgent interest to fur- 
ther the study of the history of the German element in this coun- 
try and the history of the various reciprocal relations between 
Germany and the United States, the need has been felt long ago, 
to have a thorough examination of German archives, public and 
other libraries in Germany made for the purpose of locating and 
calendering unpublished material. In many cases it would be 
desirable to have the documents copied without delay. A strong 
plea for the necessity of this work was made by Dr. Joseph G. 
Rosengarten, Honorary President of the "German American 
Historical Society," in an address entitled "German Archives 
as Sources of German American History," delivered in October, 
1907, at the annual meeting of the "Pennsylvania-German Soci- 
ety" (not to be confounded with the "German Society of Penn- 
sylvania" in Philadelphia). This suggestive address has been 
published in "German American Annals," November-December 
No., 1907, pages 357-369. 

Whether or in how far the "New York Public Library" will 
participate in this work, cannot be said at this time. In view of 
the manuscripts about the German auxiliary troops in the Amer- 
ican Revolution and the large German American collection of 
printed books and pamphlets in the possession of the library, it is 
to be wished, that it could. 

Accomplished Facts, 1906- 1907. 
(Propaganda, Donations, Purchases, Use made of the Collection.) 

An enterprise like this German American collection, to the 
growth of which since October, 1903, about 500 persons, insti- 
tutions, organizations and societies (all of great diversity) in 
more than 160 cities in the United States, Canada and Europe 
have contributed, must be a matter of general interest. During 

262 German American Researches 

the vears 1906- 1907 there were sent out in connection with the 
work 1,357 letters, post cards and other mail matter. Acknowl- 
edgments for gifts are not included in this figure. I would cheer- 
fully inclose with these formal documents a personal apprecia- 
tion of each donation and write reviews of historical and liter- 
ary works, as I have been requested to do on various occasions. 
But many of the esteemed donors have not the least idea of the 
demands upon my time. During library hours many other du- 
ties devolve upon me, which have absolutely nothing to do with 
the German American collection. 

It is the purpose of the following paragraphs to win new 
friends and donors for the collection, and to give suggestions. 
On October 6, 1907, at the time of the biennial convention of 
the "National German American Alliance" in New York, an 
article was published in the "New Yorker Staats-Zeitung," 
wherein I gave an account of some phases of the origin and 
growth of the German American collection. I also made a plea 
for the official support of the "National German American Alli- 
ance." In response the convention passed and adopted unani- 
mously, at the recommendation of the Committee on Historical 
Research, the following resolutions : 

Resolved, That the public and the press be requested to sup- 
port the German American collection in the New York Public 
Library to the best of their ability and to send material to the 
address below. 

Resolved, That the State, local and other organizations be 
requested to gather printed and other documents in their re- 
spective districts and to send the same, if possible, collectively, 
to the "New York Public Library, care of Richard E. Helbig, 
5th Ave. and 70th St., New York." 

These resolutions, as also the article in the "New Yorker 
Staats-Zeitung" have been embodied into the proceedings of the 
convention, pages 86-87 and 1 17-120 respectively. They are of 
no avail if left dormant in that volume. Every intelligent Ger- 

German American Researches 263 

man American should lend a hand, even without direct solicitation 
on my part, to carry on the good work of gathering material for 
future research. In order to make clear the scope of the collec- 
tion to persons becoming newly interested, I will repeat what 
has been said about it in the press on former occasions. 

The scope of the collection embraces manuscript material, 
books, pamphlets and smaller printed documents, periodicals, 
newspapers, etc., bearing on the history, biography and geneal- 
ogy of the German element in America, literary and scientific 
works produced by German Americans (in English as well as 
in German), works about the United States in the German 
language and material about the various reciprocal relations be- 
tween Germany and this country. 

The foregoing indicates a fixed program. Its carrying 
out in the past has been to me an arduous and often thankless 
task. The further pursuit of the program means an increase 
of the work, for which I will gladly continue to sacrifice my own 
time. Enthusiasts and optimists have not died out yet. At 
times even such might become discouraged, when one gradu- 
ally finds out, that many of the "Hurrah-shouters" in the Ger- 
man American camp are unwilling to do anything, unless their 
personal vanity is satisfied thereby or that financial gain accrues 
to them. 

The German American collection is built up on a broad and 
solid basis, such as is possible only in a large public library. 
Apologetic explanations should really be needless. My efforts 
have been approved by the Director of the library and the prog- 
ress of the collection has been made known in his official annual 
reports for 1906 and 1907, published in the "Bulletin of the 
New York Public Library," October, 1906, page 507, and Feb- 
ruary, 1908, page 97. To offset the argument about the restric- 
tions to the use of the collection on the premises only, it must 
be stated that this rule is the best safeguard for its permanency 
and security. Moreover, every part of the collection can thus 

264 German American Researches 

be made available at once to the public during library hours 
(which will be extended in the new building, at least until 10 P. 
M.), without long winded application. This advantage cannot 
be overestimated. 

The Support of the Press. 

Every endeavor for the promotion of some public good 
needs for its progress the good will of the press. I have earn- 
estly striven to win the latter for our German American collec- 
tion. Now it is my pleasant duty to give some account of the 
ready assistance received. Newspapers are among other things, 
perhaps one may say in the first place, business undertakings. 
Therefore the gratuitous publication of articles of propaganda 
and appeals to send material for the collection is to be highly 

Of the greatest importance in this line has been the "New 
Yorker Staats-Zeitung," whose columns I have made most use 
of. Among the other New York papers must be named, above 
all, the "New Yorker Echo," then "Deutsch-Amerikanische 
Apotheker Zeitung," "Deutsche Vorkamper," "Evening Post," 
"Morgen Journal," "New Yorker Herold," "New Yorker Revue," 
all of which have published notices, etc., about the collection. 

The out of town papers have not in all instances sent in 
"marked" copies, so I can only mention those which did. A 
letter to the "Amerika," a St. Louis daily, from the pen of the 
generous and ever active friend of the collection, the Rev. John 
Rothensteiner, in St. Louis, Mo., urging support of the work, 
made the round through various Western papers, among them 
"Illinois Staats-Zeitung" in Chicago, "Columbia" in Milwau- 
kee, "Luxemburger Gazette" in Dubuque, Iowa. 

At the time when an abridgment of my report on the prog- 
ress of the collection during 1904-1905 appeared in the "New 
Yorker Staats-Zeitung" March 11, 1906 (published in full in 
"German American Annals," May, 1906, page 147-157), I pur- 

German American Researches 265 

chased a quantity of this paper. Copies were sent to news- 
papers and periodicals in other cities with the request to reprint 
the article in full or extracts therefrom, or at least to call atten- 
tion to the collection editorially. The following extended this 
courtesy (in sequence of time of publication) : "Illinois Staats- 
Zeitung," "Buffalo Demokrat," "Deutscher Correspondent," 
Baltimore; "Tagliche Demokrat," Davenport, Iowa; "Buffalo 
Volksfreund;" "Belletristisches Journal," New York; "Milwau- 
kee Sonntagspost ;" "Daytoner Volks-Zeitung;" "Portsmouth 
Correspondent;" "Sonntagsbote," Milwaukee; "Akron Ger- 
mania;" "Deutsch-Amerikanische Geschichtsblatter," Chicago; 
"Monatshefte fiir deutsche Sprache und Padagogik," Milwaukee; 
"Zeitschrift des Allgemeinen Deutschen Sprachvereins," Berlin; 
"The Nation," New York; "Library Journal," New York; "The 
Pennsylvania-German," East Greenville, Pa. ; "Iowa Journal of 
History and Politics," Iowa City; "American Historical Re- 
view;" "Catholic Fortnightly Review," Techny, 111. 

In order to arouse interest for German American research 
and history in New York State, I wrote an "appeal to all friends 
and promoters of German American history and literature" for 
the souvenir programme of the annual convention of the Ger- 
man American Alliance of the State of New York, held June 22 
and 23, 1907, in Troy. To this appeal I had joined a list of 
publications about the Germans in New York, including material 
about the settlement of the "Palatines" on the Hudson and in 
the Mohawk Valley, on General Nicholas Herkimer and his fam- 
ily, the battle of Oriskany, furthermore publications about the 
Germans of the 19th century to the present time in other locali- 
ties of the state, with the exception of New York City. The 
latter would have been too extensive for the souvenir programme. 
In all, yy titles were given. Both the appeal and the list were 
also published in extenso at the time in the "New Yorker Staats- 
Zeitung" and the "Buffalo Freie Presse," in part in "Utica 
Deutsche Zeitung," "Buffalo Demokrat," "Rochester Abendpost," 

266 German American Researches 

"Troy Record." The resolutions in favor of our German Amer- 
ican collection, passed by the convention in Troy, were published 
in the (morning, evening and Sunday issues) "New Yorker 
Staats-Zeitung," "Morgen Journal," "New Yorker Echo," "Troy 
Freie Presse," "Buffalo Demokrat" and even at Berlin, in the 
"Vossische Zeitung." 

On the occasion of the 35th annual meeting of the "National 
German American Teachers' Association," held June 30 to July 
3, 1907, in Cincinnati, I sent a letter entreating the teachers to 
aid us in the acquisition of publications relating to German 
American schools, the study of the German language in the 
United States, etc. A list of periodicals, books and pamphlets 
already in the library, also a list of desiderata belonging to the 
subject, were added to the letter. It was resolved to embody 
the letter and the lists into the proceedings of the meeting, which 
were published in Milwaukee, in "Monatshefte fiir deutsche 
Sprache und Padogogik," September-October, 1907 issue, pages 
200-203. The greater part of my letter and the list of desid- 
erata were published in the "New Yorker Staats-Zeitung," July 
3, in conjunction with the telegraphic report on the meeting in 

The interest of the German element in Ohio I endeavored 
to win by writing a letter to the annual convention of the Ger- 
man American State Alliance, held in Toledo, August 3-4, 1907. 
Typewritten copies of this letter were directed at about the same 
time to 32 German newspapers in Ohio, with the solicitation to 
publish it. To my knowledge only the following complied : 
"Akron Germania;" "Unsere Zeit," Chillicothe; "Cincinnati 
Freie Presse;" "Daytoner Volks-Zeitung ;" "Der Deutsch Amer- 
ikaner" (official organ of the State Alliance); "Lorain Post;" 
"Portsmouth Correspondent;" "Youngstown Rundschau." The 
"N. Y. Staats-Zeitung" published the letter on August 4. 

German American Researches 267 

Newspapers and Periodicals as Source Material. 

The English historian, Thomas Babington Macaulay, re- 
marked, "that the true history of a country is to be found in its 
newspapers." But they can only be made available for use 
through the agency of libraries. On account of the enormous 
space required for newspaper files of many years, American 
libraries have resorted to division of labor among themselves. 
It shall be left to each state and locality to gather and preserve 
in their libraries and historical societies, the files of newspapers 
published within their boundaries. By this method the demands 
upon the available shelf room are kept within reasonable limits. 
In the case of large institutions like the "New York Public Li- 
brary," "Library of Congress," "Boston Public Library," "State 
Historical Society of Wisconsin" and others of this type, a wider 
scope in the acquisition of newspaper files is possible. But even 
at these libraries various circumstances may bring on the need 
of restrictions. 

For some time past I have attempted to induce the pub- 
lishers of German American newspapers to place the address 
of our library upon their free lists. The management of 
this library aims to cover all fields of knowledge in making 
purchases. But the limits of the actual funds at hand for that 
purpose do not allow to keep up in all departments. So payment 
for the annual cost of all newspapers is out of the question. The 
binding of the volumes alone swallows a large sum each year. 
The publishers of German newspapers ought to consider the 
support of our collection as a patriotic duty and send us their 
papers gratis. The "New York Public Library" has on file 
in the periodical room at the "Astor Library Building" over 
6,000 current periodicals, of which over 1,000 are in the Ger- 
man language. Most of these periodicals are subscribed for, 
some are obtained in exchange for our "Bulletin" and a small 
number are received free of charge. But the labor of handling 
and binding them is also a continual expense to the library. 
Shall I call attention furthermore to the many thousands of 

268 German American Researches 

books in the German language in this Hbrary, of which about 
5,000 are in the music department alone? To the librarians this 
is an everyday affair. It is questionable whether the average 
German American is aware of this large amount of material in 
the library, which serves as a means to transmit German culture 
and science in this country. 

List of Nezvspapers and Periodicals Received Gratis. 

Little Rock: "Arkansas Staats-Zeitung." 

Chicago: "Neues Leben, socialistisches Wochenblatt ;" "Der 
Pfaffenspiegel ;" "Vorbote, Wochenblatt der Chicago 
Arbeiter-Zeitung. " 

Indianapolis : "Deutsch-Amerikanische Buchdrucker-Zeitung." 

Boston: "Der Herold der Christian Science." 
Lawrence: "Anzeiger und Post." 

Grand Rapids: "Germania;" "Sonntagsbote." 

St. Paul: "Volkszeitung." 

St. Louis: "Arbeiter-Zeitung;" "Brauer-Zeitung;" "Herold des 
Glaubens;" "Pastoral-Blatt." 

New Jersey. 
Newark: "Altenheims-Bote ;" "New Jersey Freie Zeitung." 

German American Researches 269 

New York. 

Buffalo: "Buffalo Volksfreund." 

New York: "Amerikanische Schweizer-Zeitung ;" "Badische 
Landes-Zeitung;" "Bahn Frei" (organ of the N. Y. 
Turnverein) ; "Belletristisches Journal;" "Deutsch- 
Amerikanische Apotheker-Zeitung ;" "Hessen-Darm- 
stadter Zeitung und Hessische Blatter ;" "Morgen-Jour- 
nal;" "New Yorker Echo;" "N. Y. Handels-Zeitung;" 
"N. Y. Herold;" "N. Y. Staats-Zeitung;" "N. Y. 
Volks-Zeitung ;" "Technologist, Organ des Deutsch- 
Amerikanischen Techniker- Verbandes. " 

Syracuse: "Syracuse Union." 

Troy: "Troy Freie Presse." 

Utica : "Utica Deutsche Zeitung." 

"Akron Germania." 
Canton: "Ohio Volks-Zeitung." 
Chillicothe: "Unsere Zeit." 

Cleveland: "Deutsch-Amerikansiche Krieger-Zeitung." 
Columbus: "Express und Westbote;" "Ohio Sonntagsgast ;" 

Hamilton: "Der Deutsch-Amerikaner, offizielles Organ des 

Deutsch-Amerikanischen Staats- Verbandes von Ohio." 
"Lorain Post." 

"Portsmouth Correspondent." 
"Youngstown Rundschau." 

"Hazleton Volks-Journal." 
"Johnstown Freie Presse." 
Pittsburg: "Alleghenier-Pittsburger Sonntagsbote ;" "Volksblatt 

und Freiheits-Freund." 
Reading: "Allgemeine Sanger-und Musik-Zeitung." 

Rhode Island. 
"Providencer Anzeiger." 

270 German American Researches 

Brenham : "Texas Volksbote." 
"Fredericksburger Wochenblatt." 
San Antonio: "Deutsch-Texanische Monatshefte." 

Milwaukee: "Amerikanische Turnzeitung ;" "Die Deutsche 

Hausfrau;" "Der Freidenker." 
West Bend : "Beobachter. ' ' 

(This Hst was closed in May, 1908.) 

Donations During 1906- 1907. 

During the two years 3,864 volumes and pamphlets have 
been received from 297 donors in 87 cities, distributed over 24 
states of the Union. A small number of the pieces are not Ger- 
man-Americana, but were shipped to the library with such by 
some German donors. Since I began in October, 1903, to solicit 
gifts for the collection, about 5,200 volumes and pamphlets were 
contributed until the end of 1907. A list of all donors, arranged 
by states and cities, has been compiled, covering 11 folio pages. 
It is consequently too long to be printed here. Space allows only 
short accounts of the principal benefactors. 

Rev. John Rothensteiner, in St. Louis, has continued his 
generous gifts, contributing during 1906-07 a total of 261 vol- 
umes and pamphlets. This lot includes many volumes of the 
"Pastoral-Blatt," a Catholic monthly published in St. Louis. It 
has been completed since from volume 1-42 (1866- 1908). Fur- 
thermore, we received 24 volumes of "Der Sendbote," also a 
Catholic monthly, published in Cincinnati. Some gaps in this set 
were filled without charge by the publishers, completing it from 
volume 4-35 (1877-1908). Mention must be made also of the 
proceedings of the "Deutscher Romisch-Katholischer Central- 
Verein," of which the library now has, 1878, 1880, 1881, 1883, 
1885, 1886, 1889-91, 1894, 1896, 1897, 1 900- 1 905, 1907. Other 

German American Researches 271 

noteworthy publications presented by Rev. Rothensteiner are the 
"Schematismus der deutschen und der deutsch-sprechenden 
Priester. . .in den Ver. Staaten. . .," St. Louis, Mo., 1882, com- 
piled by Rev. W. Bonenkamp and J. Jessing and J. B. Miiller; 
"Schematismus der katholischen Geistlichkeit deutscher Zunge in 
den Ver. Staaten Amerikas" by J. N. Enzlberger, Milwaukee, 
Wis., 1892. 

Mr. Herman Ridder, President of the "New Yorker Staats- 
Zeitung," made ^ surprisingly large donation, numbering 1,727 
volumes and 44 pamphlets, in November, 1907. The greater 
part consists of volumes of the "Staats-Zeitung," morning, 
evening, weekly and Sunday editions, completing our series from 
1863 to date. These volumes are of great value for research. 

Mr. Henry Metzner, New York, who gave already more 
than 200 pieces, chiefly relating to the "Turnvereine" (German 
gymnastic societies) some years ago, has added 48 volumes and 
pamphlets during 1906-07. 

Prof. Karl Knortz, North Tarrytown, N. Y., has turned 
over to the library 748 letters and post cards, being a selection 
from his literary correspondence. This example should be fol- 
lowed by all German-American literary people, when they make 
their will. Among the 116 pieces sent to the library by Prof. 
Knortz during 1906-07, is a large percentage of German Ameri- 

Dr. H. E. ^Schneider, Hoboken, N. J., presented in July, 
1906, forty volumes of the "Belletristisches Journal." By gifts 
of some early volumes from other persons and some purchases 
the file has been improved and added to. The library now has 
volumes 1-40, 42-48, 50, 51, 53 to date. This New York weekly 
was founded in 1852, by Rudolph Lexow, under the name "New 
Yorker Criminal-Zeitung." Of the later editors and collabora- 
tors may be named Friedrich Lexow, Udo Brachvogel, Prof. Dr. 
Julius Goebel, Alfred Philippi, Henry F. Urban and others. The 
earlier volumes contain contributions by many of the well known 
literary people in Germany and the United States. Before the 

2^2 German American Researches 

era of the competition of the great Sunday newspapers set in, 
the "Belletristisches Journal" had at one time about 40,000 sub- 
scribers, many of them in the Western states. The plentiful 
information therein about the German-Americans of the period 
make it useful for future research. 

At the instance of Dr. Friedrich Grosse, the New York 
branch of the "Alldeutscher Verband" donated to the library in 
July, 1906, most of the publications of this society. They in- 
clude the series "Der Kampf um das Deutschtum, Heft 1-19;" 
"Flugschriften des Alldeutschen Verbandes, Heft 1-25;" "All- 
deutsche Blatter," a weekly (the library only lacks volumes 1-3, 
1891-93); "Handbuch des Alldeutschen Verbandes." 

The "Schwabische Schillerverein" in Marbach, Germany, 
sent us in September, 1906, No. 2-10 (1898-1906) of its "Rech- 
enschaftsberichte." This action was occasioned by our under- 
taking in 1905 to collect all souvenir publications, programs 
and newspaper reports of the Schiller centenary in the United 

Mr. Maurice Reinhold von Stern in Linz, Upper Austria, 
who lived in the United States, chiefly in New York, from 1880- 
85, presented to the library in September, 1906, ten of his works, 
consisting of poetry, drama and fiction. 

Dr. Louis Weyland, New York, enriched the collection in 
September and December, 1906, by a gift of 31 volumes and 
pamphlets, mainly relating to German singing societies. 

Mr. Hermann Alexander, publisher and editor of the "New 
Yorker Echo," enabled us to acquire volume 1-7 (1902-08), vol. 
5 to date by gift, furthermore 12 volumes and pamphlets. 

Mr. Alexander Schlesinger, New York, contributed from 
November, 1906, to March, 1907, a miscellaneous lot of 26 
volumes, 263 pamphlets, 90 smaller printed documents, 46 period- 
icals, 26 newspapers and 24 photographs. 

Mr. Wilhelm Thiese, New York, gave 96 volumes and 
pamphlets in November, 1906. Among these are unbound num- 
bers of volume 1-12 (1883-94) of "Masonia, Organ fiir die In- 

German American Researches 273 

teressen der Freimaurerei in den Ver. Staaten," which was pub- 
lished monthly in New York. As the volumes on hand are in- 
complete and in places mutilated, it is to be wished that the Ger- 
man Freemasons will aid us in obtaining a complete and perfect 
file of the "Masonia." In addition to the foregoing Mr. Thiese's 
gift includes 67 publications of the ''United Ancient Order of 
Druids" and 12 volumes of "Der Erz-Druide," the monthly 
organ of this mutual benefit society. 

Mr. Henry Freudenthal, Albany, N. Y., the Supreme Sec- 
retary of the "United Ancient Order of Druids," has cheer- 
fully added about 140 publications and 4 volumes of "Der Erz- 
Druide." The latter was published from 1866-90, first in Quincy, 
111., later in Albany, N. Y. Our file lacks vols. 3, 7-13, and 
Nos. 4 and 8 of vol. 24, which we are anxious to obtain. 

Mrs. Woerishoffer, daughter of the late Oswald Ottendorfer 
and his noble wife, Anna Ottendorfer, offered 194 volumes as 
a gift to the library in November, 1906, which were gladly 
accepted. Many of these books have excellent bindings. There 
is only a small percentage of German Americana among them. 
But the gift deserves mention here, as it came from one of the 
foremost German American families. It includes an "edition 
de luxe," weighing about 16 pounds, of "Prince Henry of Prus- 
sia in America, historical review of His Royal Highness' Amer- 
ican travels," published 1903, in New York, by Heinrich Charles. 

Mr. E. W. Redeke, New York, for many years the diligent 
secretary of various German societies, brought a package in De- 
cember, 1906, with 6 volumes, 75 pamphlets and 54 pieces of 
smaller printed matter for the German American collection. 

Mr. Karl A. M. Scholtz, Baltimore, Md., who had sent 
some gifts in 1903 and 1905, forwarded again 21 pamphlets 
about the Germans in Baltimore, in August, 1907. He also in- 
duced the "German Publishing Co." to give to the library a copy 
of their tastefully prepared work "Das neue Baltimore, mit be- 
sonderer Beri'icksichtigung der Deutsch-Amerikaner im Ge- 
schaftsleben, 1905." 

274 German American Researches 

Prof. C. O. Schoenrich, also of Baltimore, is another active 
friend of the collection. We are indebted to him for i8 vol- 
umes, 60 pamphlets, besides smaller printed matter, received in 
February, 1907. At his instance the Hon. Alcaeus Hooper, ex- 
Mayor of Baltimore, sacrificed for our collection his copy of 
"Baltimore, seine Vergangenheit und Gegenwart, mit besonderer 
Beriicksichtigung des deutschen Elementes," published in 1887, 
by the "Deutsches Literarisches Bureau." During the great fire 
in Baltimore, February, 1904, many copies of this book were 
destroyed, which makes it something of a rarity. Even before 
the fire my efforts to get this work for our library were unsuc- 

The publishers of the "Daytoner Volks-Zeitung" in Dayton, 
Ohio, shipped a box in June, igo6, containing bound copies of 
"Gedenk-Blaetter" (a supplement to the Sunday issue of their 
newspaper), volumes 1-7, 9-12, 1894-1906. In May, 1907, a 
package arrived with 2 volumes and 40 pamphlets, nearly all 
issued from their press and chiefly relating to German societies 
in Dayton. 

Prof. Dr. Otto Heller of "Washington University" in St. 
Louis, expressed his warm interest for the collection in a letter 
received March, 1907. In the beginning of June he sent tangible 
proof of his interest in the shape of 2 volumes, 22 pamphlets 
and a number of periodicals. 

From the Rev. Dr. Pedro Ilgen, St. Louis, Mo., were re- 
ceived during 1906-07 by gift 9 volumes and 3 pamphlets, in- 
cluding 5 of his own collections of poetry and volume 1-6 of 
"Protestantisches Familienblatt." This periodical was published 
in St. Louis, from 1873-86, and edited by Rev. J. G. Eberhard, 
the predecessor of Rev. Ilgen. Who is in the position to supply 
to the library vol. 7-13 (1880-86) ? 

Mr. Georg F. Lehmann, editor of "Buffalo Freie Presse," 
presented in July, 1907, a lot of 31 publications of German 
societies and institutions of Buffalo. 

The "National German American Alliance" sent October, 

German American Researches 275 

1907, through its secretary, Mr. Adolph Timm, in Philadelphia, 
a gift of I volume, 39 pamphlets, 125 circulars and printed 
documents, nearly all of them issued by the Alliance. The state 
and local federations should follow this example now. It would 
be best to have secretaries and other members of societies, gather 
material on their own account and send it to our address. Long 
drawn debates and resolutions at meetings seem to be needless 
and useless in this matter. 

Mr. C. F. Huch, Philadelphia, member of the library com- 
mittee of the "German Society of Philadelphia," has contributed 
to our collection until the end of 1907, 4 volumes and 32 pam- 
phlets. In addition he sent us regularly the numbers of "Mit- 
teilungen des Deutchen Pionier-Vereins von Philadelphia." 

The executive committee of the "Allgemeiner Deutscher 
Sprachverein" in Berlin, gave to the library in October, 1907, in 
response to the solicitation of Dr. Georg Rodemann, chairman of 
the New York branch of the society, volumes 1-21 (1886-1906) 
of its "Zeitschrift . . .," and nos. 1-29 of its "Wissenschaftliche 
Beihefte," (issued since 1891). 

Mr. F. H. Lohmann, teacher at the German school in Com- 
fort, Comal County, Texas, furnished some publications I had 
long sought for in vain, namely, volume i (1888-89) of 
"Deutsch-Amerikanische Dichtung," edited by Konrad Nies and 
Hermann Rosenthal and published in New York, of which we 
had vol. 2 already. Mr. Lohmann presented furthermore the 
third edition (1870) of a collection of poetry by well-known 
German American authors of the time. It is entitled "Heimath- 
griisse aus Amerika" and was published by E. Steiger in New 
York. Noteworthy are also volumes 1-8 (1884-91 ) of the "Leh- 
rerpost, officielles Organ des Deutsch-Americanischen Lehrer- 
bundes." The following are lacking from our set: Jahrgang i. 
Heft i; Jahrg. 2, Heft 7-9; Jahrg. 3, Heft 5-7; Jahrg. 4, Heft 
1-3, 9; Jahrg. 5, Heft 10, 14, 15, 17, 18; Jahrg. 6, Heft 5, 6, 8, 
18, 20, 21. Who can help us to fill these gaps? 

276 German American Researches 

The "Frcidcnker Publishing Co.," Milwaukee, presented 
toward the close of December, 1907, vols. 1-18 (1885-1902) of 
the "Amerikanische Turnzeitung" and vols. 14-27 (1885-1898) 
of "Der Freidenker." The later volumes of these two had 
been received previously as current numbers. Now we still need 
vols. 1-13 of "Der Freidenker." The publishers have kindly 
offered to print an appeal to the readers of their two periodicals 
to supply the missing volumes of "Der Freidenker," as also publi- 
cations relating to the German Freethinkers, the German gym- 
nastic societies and German American schools. 

A Carl Schurz album, two large scrapbooks in black mo- 
rocco binding, containing eulogies, necrologies and character 
sketches from American, German and English newspapers, came 
into possession of the library on December 31, 1907. The diverse 
opinions expressed in these newspaper articles make the album 
valuable as source material for the future impartial biographer of 
Schurz. The collection was made by Otto Spengler, proprietor 
of the "Argus Press Clipping Bureau," by order and at the ex- 
pense of the "German Carl Schurz Memorial Committee," to be 
permanently deposited in the "New York Public Library." The 
committee was made up of representatives of 19 well-known 
German societies in New York City. 

F. A. Sorgc's Library. 

In connection with the accounts of the principal gifts for the 
German American collection, it may be appropriate to mention 
here the donation of F. A. Sorge's private library. It consisted 
of more than 700 volumes, 1425 pamphlets, about 1000 numbers 
of newspapers and 239 manuscript letters addressed to him by 
Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Johann Philip Becker, Joseph 
Dietzgen and others, during the years 1 867-1 895. These letters 
relate chiefly to the modern labor movement, the tactics and in- 
ternal affairs of the socialistic parties and their leaders, as also to 
political events in Europe and America. Most of the letters were 

German American Researches 277 

published in the summer of 1906, under the editorship of Sorge, 
by "J- H. W. Dietz Nachfolger" in Stuttgart. The greater part 
of the printed material from Sorge's library bears on the same 
subjects as treated in the letters. Mr. Sorge turned his material 
over to the "New York Public Library" in about 6 installments, 
all of which were delivered at the "Astor Library Building." 
The first shipment was received in 1899 and the last some time 
after Mr. Sorge's death, which occurred in October, 1906. It 
was beyond my control to determine the percentage of German 
Americana in the entire lot. The most noteworthy item is part 
of the series "Der Pionier," a radical weekly, founded and edited 
by Karl Heinzen in 1854 at Louisville, Ky. Shortly thereafter it 
was transferred to New York. In 1859 Heinzen moved to 
Boston, Mass., where he continued the publication until his death 
in 1880. The file in our library covers vols. 5-19 (1858-1872), 
but it lacks the following: Vol. 6 (1859), nos. 30 and 52; vol. 9 
(1862), no. 2; vol. 19 (1872), nos. 33, 45-52. We are very 
anxious to obtain these numbers, likewise the missing vols. 1-4, 


Gradually several hundreds of duplicates have accumulated. 
These are being used in exchange with other libraries, to obtain 
similar material. The following institutions are considered : 
"German Society of Pennsylvania" in Philadelphia; "Society for 
the History of the Germans in Maryland" (founded in 1886) in 
Baltimore; "German American Historical Society of Illinois" 
(founded in 1901) in Chicago; "Library of Congress" and the 
library of the "Bureau of Education" in Washington, D. C, and 


As the library has no special fund as yet for the purchase of 
everything in the line of German Americana, not all of my 267 
recommendations submitted during the years 1906-07 could be 
acted upon. Nevertheless, the number of works bought, about 

278 German American Researches 

175 titles, is gratifying. Only the more important ones can be 
noted here : 

"Amerikanische Schulzeitung, Organ des Deutsch-Ameri- 
kanischen Lehrerbtindes," since June, 1875, continued under the 
title "Erziehungs-Blatter fiir Schule und Haus," Jahrgang 1-12, 
15-29, nos. 1-9 (September, 1870 — June, 1899, publication 
ceased). Besides the missing volumes 13 and 14, our set lacks 
no. I of vol. 3 (September, 1872) ; no. 8 each of vol. 6 (May, 
1876), vol. 7 (May, 1877), vol. 9 (May, 1879), which are 
urgently wanted for completion. This monthly periodical was 
founded by W. N. Hailmann in Louisville, Ky. After a few 
years it was transferred to Milwaukee. Of the later editors may 
be named Carl H. Doerflinger, Dr. L. R. Klemm, Dr. H. H. Pick, 
Dr. M. P. E. Groosmann, etc. 

"Atlantis, eine Monatsschrift fiir Wissenschaft, Politik und 
Poesie," published and edited by Christian Essellen, 1853-59. At 
present the library has only the following : New series, vols. 2-6 
(January, 1855-December, 1857) ; vol. 8, nos, i, 2 and 6 (Janu- 
ary, February and June, 1858) ; vol. 9, nos. 1-4 (July-October, 
1858). Essellen established the "Atlantis" in Detroit, then 
moved it successively to Milwaukee, Chicago, Cleveland, back to 
Detroit, next to Buffalo and finally to New York, where he died 
in indigent circumstances at the hospital on Ward's Island, in 
May, 1859. Lack of support of his literary undertaking, above 
all the non-payment of his subscribers ruined him. It is to be 
hoped that the gaps in our file of the "Atlantis" may be filled in 
course of time. 

"Vorwarts. Eine Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftliche und re- 
ligiose Bildung," edited by Robert Clemen, Columbus, Ohio, 
Jahrgang 1-2, (1847-49, no more published). 

"Waechter am Ohio," Portsmouth, O., published by J. M. 
Broome, Jahrgang i, nos. 3-31, 33-39, 42-46, 48-52 (October 5, 
1860-August 29, 1 86 1, ceased publication). Broome then en- 
tered the military service of the United States as first lieutenant 

German American Researches 279 

of a German company, which joined the brigade under the com- 
mand of General August WilHch. 

Benjamin Franklin's "Memorial of the case of the German 
emigrants settled in the British colonies of Pensilvania and the 
back parts of Maryland, Virginia, etc.," London, 1754. 

"Nachrichten von den vereinigten deutschen evangelisch- 
lutherischen Gemeinen in Nord-America, absonderlich in Pen- 
sylvanien" (better known as "Halle'sche Nachrichten" ) , Halle, 
1787, 2 vols. ; also the new edition in 2 vols., edited with critical 
notes and furnished with an index, by W. J. Mann, B. M. 
Schmucker and W. Germann, Allentown, Pa., 1886, and Phila- 
delphia, 1895. An English translation by Dr. J. Oswald was 
published in 2 volumes in Philadelphia, 1880-81, of which we 
have only the second volume thus far. In 1882 another transla- 
tion by C. W. Schaeffer was issued in Reading, Pa., which is not 
yet in the library. The "Halle'sche Nachrichten" forms a rich 
mine for the history of the German element during the eighteenth 
century, particularly of the Lutherans. 

Gotthilf H. Miihlenberg's "Eine Rede gehalten den 6. Juni, 
1787, bey der Einweihung von der Deutschen Hohen Schule oder 
Franklin Collegium in Lancaster, Pa." (the present "Franklin and 
Marshall College"). 

Moritz von Fiirstenwarther's "Der Deutsche in Nord-Amer- 
ika," Stuttgart, 181 8. Fiirstenwarther came to this country to 
investigate about the prospects for German immigration. 

Emil Klauprecht's "Deutsche Chronik in der Geschichte des 
Ohio-Thales und seiner Haupstadt Cincinnati . . .," Cincin- 
nati, 1864. 

L. Stierlin's "Der Staat Kentucky und die Stadt Louisville, 
mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung des deutschen Elementes," 
Louisville, 1873. 

"Pennsylvania-German Society, proceedings," vol. i (1891), 
for which I had been on the lookout for years, and vols. 15-16. 

Rev. F. B. Bess' "Eine populare Geschichte der Stadt Peoria, 

28o German American Researches 

111.," 1906, being a general history of the city, with a detailed 
account of the German element. 

J. W. Wayland's "The German element of the Shenandoah 
Valley of Virginia," Charlottesville, Va., 1907. 

Adolf Falbisaner's "Aus Hermann's friiheren Tagen, his- 
torische Skizzen," about the German settlement of Hermann, Mo. 
This is a scrapbook containing 84 articles from the "Hermanner 
Wochenblatt," 1901-03. 

William G. Bek's "The German Settlement Society of Phila- 
delphia and its colony Hermann, Missouri," Philadelphia, 1907 
(Americana Germanica, new series, no. 5). 

Hermann Schliiter's "Die Anfange der deutschen Arbeiter- 
bewegung in Amerika," Stuttgart, 1907. 

All important German works, descriptive of the United 
States in general, issued during 1906-07, have been bought. 
Space does not permit to name here all separately. 

Subscriptions for the following periodicals have been con- 
tinued: "German American Annals," Philadelphia, Pa. (since 
1897) ; "The Pennsylvania-German," East Greenville, Pa. (since 
1900) ; "Deutsch-Amerikanische Geschichtsblatter," Chicago, 111. 
(since 1901); "Die Glocke," Chicago, 111. (since 1906); "Der 
Deutsche Vorkiimpfer," New York (since 1907). 

Use Made of tJie German American Collection. 

"Klappern gehort zum Handwerk," some one may fling out 
jocosely to the librarian, who ventures to speak of the book 
treasures of his institution and the use made of them. But the 
numerous donors and patrons of our collection, who are scattered 
all over this great land, have a good claim to be informed about 
the extent of the services rendered by the collection to authors, 
historians and the general public. It has been impossible to keep 
detailed statistics thereon. The work most called for is T. F. 
Chamber's "The early Germans of New Jersey, their history, 
churches and genealogies," 1895; secondly, the publications of 

German American Researches 281 

the "Pennsylvania-German Society;" next, the monthly period- 
ical, "The Pennsylvania-German." 

Thousands will probably remember the stirring article, "The 
Germans in America," by Herbert N. Casson, in "Munsey's Mag- 
azine," March, 1906. Many German American newspapers 
printed a translation of it ; others gave it editorial attention. The 
article has been prepared chiefly with the aid of our collection. 
My enthusiasm in the matter prompted me to give up hours of 
my own time to assist Mr. Casson to dig into the subject. 

The authors of several volumes of the monograph series, 
"Americana Germanica, new series," edited by Prof. M. D. 
Learned, have made exhaustive use of our library, notably Dr. E. 
Z. Davis for his "Translations of German poetry in American 
magazines, 1741-1810;" Dr. E. C. Parry for his "Schiller in 
America, a contribution to the literature of the poets' centenary, 
1905," and Prof. Learned for his edition of "Philipp Waldeck's 
diary of the American Revolution." 

At the suggestion of the late Prof. Edward Gaylord Bourne, 
of Yale University, New Haven, Conn., Messrs. Luther An- 
derson and Gilbert G. Benjamin came to New York to make use 
of our collection in the preparation of their dissertations for the 
degree "Doctor of Philosophy." Mr. Anderson took up the his- 
tory of the immigration and settlement of the Salzburger Luther- 
ans in Georgia during the eighteenth century. Our volumes of 
Samuel Urlsperger's "Ausfiihrliche Nachrichten von den Saltz- 
burgischen Emigranten . . .," Halle, 1 735-1 752, and his "Amer- 
icanisches Ackerwerk Gottes, oder zuverlassige Nachrichten den 
Zustand der americanisch englischen Pflanzstadt Ebenezer in 
Georgien betrefTend . . .," Augsburg, 1 754-1 757, have been the 
principal sources for his work. 

Mr. Benjamin selected for his subject the history of the 
German settlers in Texas. He has enlarged his dissertation for 
publication in "German American Annals." Eventually the re- 
sults of his continued. researches may be issued in book form. 

282 German American Researches 

Mr. Rudolf Cronau, New York, a well known German 
American author, has made diligent use of the library in the 
preparation of his work, "Das deutsche Element in den Vereinig- 
ten Staaten," for which the $2,000 prize of the "Conrad Seipp 
Memorial German Prizes" was recently awarded to him. 

One of the principal managers of this prize contest, the Ger- 
man Consul General in Chicago, Dr. Walther Wever, received 
written information, upon his request, about illustrations suitable 
for the prize winning books. In November, 1907, Dr. Wever 
visited the "Lenox Library Building" in the interest of the same 

Even to Paris, France, knowledge of our German American 
collection has spread. Prof. Camille Pitollet, of that city, a con- 
stant contributor to the "Revue Germanique" (published since 
1905), is writing a biography of Gottfried Kinkel. The recent 
publication of Carl Schurz's memoirs has anew made more widely 
known the remarkable rescue of Kinkel by Schurz from the 
prison at Spandau and Kinkel's sojourn in the United States. 
Prof. Pitollet wrote me, that he needs extracts for his Kinkel 
biography from the "Deutsche Schnellpost," published in New 
York from 1843-47, and from the "New Yorker Republikaner," 
published about 1852. Unfortunately I have been unable thus 
far to procure these newspapers for our library, or even to find 
out whether they have been preserved elsewhere. In the mean- 
time I have been able to comply with another request of Prof. 
Pitollet, namely, to hunt up data in old volumes of the "New 
Yorker Staats-Zeitung" and copy the same. Science is inter- 
national, therefore I have willingly sacrificed my own time to 
examine the old volumes at the "Staats-Zeitung Building." Who 
owns or knows the whereabouts of the "Deutsche Schnellpost" 
and the "New Yorker Republikaner" and allows me to use them, 
so that Prof. Pitollet may be assisted in the work on his merito- 
rious Kinkel biography ? 

Prof. Dr. Otto Heller, of "Washington University," St. 

German American Researches 283 

Louis, is editing a new critical edition of the works of Karl 
Postel (Charles Sealsfield). For this purpose he has made re- 
searches at our library in old New York newspapers, containing 
contributions by Postel. Prof. Heller took leave of absence for 
one year, in order to make further investigations in Europe. 
While there, data bearing on his work has been sent to him by 

Dr. Albert J. W. Kern, Jamaica, N. Y., is assiduously en- 
gaged upon an historical work, for which he has made diligent 
use of the resources of the library. Detailed information about 
his work will be given out later. 

Mr. Otto Lohr, who hails from the Swabian shore of the 
Lake of Constance (Bodensee), but is now settled in New York, 
has planned to write monographs upon the following subjects: 
I. The Germans in New Amsterdam and in the colony of New 
York during the seventeenth century. 2. The Immigration of 
the "Palatines." 3. John Conrad Weiser. 4. History of the 
Wiirttembergers in the United States. 5. Swabian American 
biographies. His careful and exhaustive studies at our library 
will assuredly produce valuable contributions to the history of the 
Germans in America. 

Suggestions for Future Work. 

Lack of space and time oblige me to omit from this report 
an enlarged list of German American authors of belles-lettres, 
whose works are now in the library. The first list of such authors 
appeared in my report for 1904-1905, in "German American 
Annals," 1906, page 150. Our collection of this literature has 
been considerably augmented since then, but is not quite com- 
plete yet. The time may be near, when it will be sufficiently 
built up, to begin the compilation of a list of authors and titles, 
with short annotations. The extent of this belles-lettres collection 
will surprise many, even some of those Germans who have been 
lecturing on the subject. It is to be hoped that some scholar with 
the necessary qualifications of an impartial critic and literary his- 

284 German American Researches 

torian will find it opportune to write a history of German Ameri- 
can literature. 

The library has a collection of over 200 German works, de- 
scriptive of the United States and its people. Only a hint can be 
given here that this material contains much data for investigators 
in various fields. Let me quote an opinion on this class of works 
expressed in 1864 by Henry T. Tuckerman in his book, "America 
and her commentators, with a critical sketch of travel in the 
United States," page 302 : "Some of the most just views and 
candid delineations have emanated from German writers. Their 
political sympathies, extensive information and patient tone of 
mind alike fit them for the task of investigating and reporting 
physical and social facts." The same may be claimed for most 
German writers on the United States, from the date of Tucker- 
man's appraisal up to the present time. To my knowledge no 
comprehensive survey of the literature of observation and travel 
in the United States since the Civil War has been issued in book 
form. In these days of specialization some American literary 
person, similarly equipped for the task as Tuckerman was, might 
take up the German literature of travel in our country, including 
all of the earlier publications discussed by Tuckerman. This 
"commentary" should by all means be written by a native Ameri- 
can, as a German American might be too easily suspected of 
"prejudice in favor of everything German." 

In years to come, writers on the economic and social devel- 
opment of the American people during the nineteenth century will 
want to examine critically the share and influence which the 
millions of German immigrants have had therein. In tlie chapter 
of this report on "newspapers and periodicals as source material," 
I have already referred to the importance of old German news- 
paper files. Here I wish to call attention to the value of proceed- 
ings, reports, constitutions and by-laws and all other printed 
matter of the various religious denominations, schools, mutual 
aid organizations, charitable institutions, societies for the cultiva- 
tion of literature, music and singing, physical education and sport, 

German American Researches 285 

etc. Although we have obtained a good quantity of such material, 
much more remains to be gathered. The indifference to my 
efforts of some of the officers of these organizations is indeed 
discouraging. It may be merely thoughtlessness on their part. 
Holding to this view, I shall approach these officers and societies 
again with requests and mention the result in a later report on the 
German American collection. But as fruitless labor represents 
also sacrifices of my time, I shall not hesitate to publish the names 
of such "Inaccessables" in the press. Perhaps some other people 
will stir them up then. 


It is customary with most organizers of German American 
undertakings, to appoint an "Honorary Committee." This for- 
mality has been ignored in the upbuilding of the German Ameri- 
can collection. In the first place, thanks for the furtherance of 
the work is due to the Director of the "New York Public Li- 
brary," Dr. John S. Billings, and to my immediate superior at the 
"Lenox Library Building," the Chief Librarian, Mr. Wilberforce 
Eames, who have permitted me to agitate in the name of the 
library in favor of the collection. My canvass for material and 
solicitations in the press have given the impression to some Ger- 
man American editors and other persons, that I must be the chief 
of a "German Department" of the library. In order to correct 
this wrong view, I wish to state that officially no such "Depart- 
ment" exists as yet. My position is "Assistant Librarian" at the 
"Lenox Library Building." 

The many donors and friends of the collection, especially 
newspaper publishers and editors, who have supported my efforts, 
are to be considered as an active "Honorary Committee." With- 
out this great help the growth of the collection would have been 

limited to the purchases. 

Richard E. Helbig, 

Lenox Library Building, 

5th Ave. and 70th St., New York. 

By Edwin M. Fogel, Ph. D. 

One of the many interesting features of German culture in 
Pennsylvania is the tenacity with which the Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans have retained the dialectal and cultural peculiarities of the 
period of their immigration to America. It is not necessary to 
restate here the close relationship between the dialects of the 
Palatinate and Swabia and that of the Pennsylvania Germans. 
More than three-fourths of a collection of Pennsylvania German 
superstitions which the writer is about to publish are of German 
origin. In like manner the Himmelshrief comes from Germany. 
It is the purpose of the present article to print a number of inter- 
esting, heretofore to my knowledge untreated specimens of the 

A comparison of these survivals in Pennsylvania with the 
several versions found in Bartsch^ 2.341 fT. and elsewhere, shows 
that in the German superstitions the cabalistic element is very 
pronounced, whereas in the Himmelshrief current among the 
Pennsylvania Germans no external cabalistic trace is left. The 
presence of these cabalistic letters, etc., shows clearly that there 
is a close connection between the Zaiiberspnich, Segensformel 
and the black art of the Middle Ages, on the one hand, while on 
the other hand, we have in reality in the Himmelshrief the old 
heathenism under the garb of Christianity : 

"Wenn nicht alle Anzeichen triigen, so fallt die Entstehung 
unserer meisten christlichen Sagen in die Zeit, wo mit der zweiten 
Halfte des XI jh. die geistliche Dichtung in der Volkssprache einen 

' Karl Bartsch, Sagen, M'drcheu iind Gebrduche aus Meklenburg. Wien 


The Himmelsbrief 287 

neuen Aufschwung nahm und dann bis gegen den Ausgang des XII 
jh. mit Eifer gepflegt wurde. Sie traten damals an die Stelle der 
alten, vielfach verkiimmerten und verwilderten, allitterierenden 
Spriiche, deren Ursprung grosstenteils ins Heidentum zuriickreicht. 
Hatten diese auch schon frijh,wie derWiener Hundsegen und auch 
der Weingartner Reisesegen lehren, christliche Zusatze und Umbil- 
dung erfahren, so liegt uns doch kein vollstandig durchgereimter 
Spruch vor jener Epoche vor. Von da an aber lasst sich neben der 
miindlichen auch eine schriftliche Tradition bis auf unsre Tage hinab 
verfolgen und mit leichter Miihe liesse sich mancher Spruch aus 
spaten Aufzeichnungen in das XII jh. zuriickfiihren." (Cf. Miillen- 
hoff-Scherer Denkmaler, p. 427.^) 

In each version of the Himmelsbrief the element of super- 
stition is so strong that we may suggest several points of con- 
tact between it and the ordinary pow-wowing formula. That the 
pow-wowing formula is of undeniably heathen origin is proved 
by the Mersehurger Zauberspriiche, the Lorscher Bienensegen, 
etc., and the Anglo-Saxon Spruch gegen Hexenstich und Hexen- 
schuss. (Cf. Kogel. i. i. 93. ^) 

The two-fold element in the German segensformel, to which 
the late lamented Elard Hugo Meyer has called attention, (cf. 
Wuttke, p. 168)^ is present in the Pennsylvania German pow- 
wowing formula, viz., the narrative and the imperative. The 
following taken direct from the mouth of the people may serve 
as examples, the first to illustrate the simple narrative, and the 
second the distinct command : 

1. Uf Grischtus graab waxe drei rose: 
Die erscht is rot, 

Die zwett is dot, • 

Un die dritt schtillt blut. 

2. Maerge laaft en Jungfraa iwwers lant, 
Hot en feiericher brand in der hant. 
Brand, brenn nix ! Brand, lesch. 

* Miillenhoflf-Scherer, Denkmaler deutscher Poesie und Prosa aus dent 
VIII-XII Jahrhundert. Berlin. 1864. 

^R. Kogel, Geschkhte der deutschen Litteratur bis zum Ausgange des 
Mittelalters. Strassburg. 1894. 

*A. Wuttke, Deutscher Aberglaube der Gegenzvart. Driite Bearbeitung 
von Hugo Elard Meyer. Berlin. 1900. 

288 The Himmelsbrief 

The essential differences between the pow-wowing formula, 
or charm, and the Himmelsbrief consist in this, that the former 
is occasional ; the latter, general ; the former is used in a specific 
case and for the healing of a specific disease ; the latter, to escape 
disease, disaster or the devil; the former is remedial; the latter, 
preventive ; the former is usually spoken only in a whisper or even 
inaudibly ; the latter is spread broadcast and is to be found in 
many families; it is even carried on one's person, particularly in 
times of great danger, difficulty or distress, and in this sense 
both the pow-wowing formula and the Hiuiinclsbricf partake of 
the nature of the charm. 

The following are extant among the Pennsylvania Germans : 

1. Der Himmelsbrief, welcher . . . zu sehen ist in der St. 
Michaelis Kirche zu St. Germain. No date. 

2. The Holstein Himmelsbrief, 1724. 

3. The Mechelburg Himmelsbrief in dem Lande Britania, 1725. 

4. Die sieben heiligen Himmelsriegel. 1750. 

5. The letter shown to Count Philip of Flanders. 

6. The Magdeburg Himmelsbrief, 1783. 


Of this there are three versions, which we shall designate 
as A, B and C, respectively. A is the reprint by G. Kiibn in New- 
Ruppin; B, that of Der Unabhdngige Republikancr, Allentown, 
Penna. ; C, that of the York Gazette, York, Penna. 

The content of all three is virtually the same, except that 
C contains some additional material not found in A and B. In 
C the letter is called Grodoria, whereas in A we find the name 
Credoria. Moreover, A differs completely from the version 
found in Bartsch,'^ although it is also reprinted by G. Kiihn. 

' Bartsch 2, 341-343- 

The Himmelsbrief 289 

Jesus Christus zii finden ist 

Im Wort, da man von Jesu lies't. 

Jesus gibt Heil und Seligkeit 

Dem, der ihm dienct allezeit. 

Wer sich des Namens Jesu trost't, 

Der wird durch Jesum Christ erlos't. 

Jesu, dem lieben Kindelein, 

Dem herzlieben Jesulein 

Sei Lob und Preis ! O Jesu mild, 

Schiitz' du uns stets durch deinen Schild. 

Gib uns, Herr Jesu, deine Gnad', 

Dass uns Welt, Teufel, Tod nicht schad'. 

Gewiss ist der Tod, ungewiss ist der Tag. 
Die Stund' auch niemand wissen mag, 
Drum trau' auf Gott und denk' dabei 
Dass jede Stund' die letzte sei. 
Im Leiden habe guten Mut, 
Und liebe den, der Leid dir tut. 

Freu' dich von Herzen in Schwachheit, 
Das ist die ganze Vollkommenheit, 
So geht es zu in aller Zeit, 
Tu' mir die Lieb', ich tu dir Leid, 
Hilf mir auf, ich stoss dich nieder, 
Ehr' mich gross, ich schand' dich wieder, 
Sage nicht alles, was du weisst, 
Glaube nicht alles, was du horst, — 
Richte nicht alles, was du siehst. 

Ach Gott, dies ganze Haus bewahr' 
Vor Feuer, Schaden und Gefahr. 
Mit Gnad' und Segen iiber uns wait, 
Und uns dein reines Wort erhalt'|. 
Herr Jesu ! durch den Namen dein 
Gib mir ein selig Stiindelein ; 
Stehe mir bei am letzten End', 
Nimm meine Seel' in deine Hand'. 


Also gebiete ich euch, dass ihr des Sonntags nicht arbeitet an 
euren Giitern, und sonst keine Arbeit tut, sondern sollt fleissig zur 
Kirche gehen und mit Andacht beten, cure Haare nicht krauseln, und 

290 The Himmelsbrief 

Hoffahrt in der Welt treiben, und von eurem Reichtum den Armen 
mitteilen vmd glauben, dass ich diesen Brief von meiner Hand, in 
JESU CHRISTO., ausgesandt, damit ihr nicht tut wie die unver- 
niinftigen Tiere. Ich gebe euch sechs Tage, eure Arbeit fortzusetzen, 
und am Sonntage friih in die Kirche zu gehen, die heilige Predigt 
und Gottes Wort zu horen ; werdet ihr das nicht tun, so will ich euch 
strafen mit Pestilenz, Krieg und teurer Zeit. Ich gebiete euch, dass 
ihr des Sonnabends nicht zu spat arbeitet, des Sonntags friih in der 
Kirche mit Jedermann, Jung und Alt, andachtig fiir eure Siinden 
betet, damit sie euch vergeben werden. Schworet nicht boshaftig 
bei meinem Namen, begehret nicht Silber oder Gold, und sehet nicht 
auf fleischliche Liiste und Begierden ; denn sobald ich euch erschafifen 
habe, solbald kann ich euch auch wieder vernichten. Einer soil den 
andern nicht todten mit der Zunge, und sollet nicht falsch gegen 
euren Nachsten hinter dem Riicken sein. Freuet euch eurer Giiter 
und cures Reichtums nicht. Ehret Vater und Mutter. Redet nicht 
falsch Zeugnis wider euren Nachsten, so gebe ich euch Gesundheit 
und Segen. Wer aber diesen Brief nicht glaubet und sich darnach 
nicht richtet, der wird kein Gliick und Segen haben. Diesen Brief 
soil einer dem andern geschrieben oder gedruckt zukommen lassen : 
und wenn ihr so viel Siinden getan hattet, als Sand am Meere, Laub 
auf den Baumen und Sterne am Himmel sind, sollen sie euch ver- 
geben werden, wenn ihr glaubet und tut, was dieser Brief euch lehret 
und saget; wer das aber nicht glaubet, der soil sterben. Bekehret 
euch, oder ihr werdet ewiglich gepeinigt werden, und ich werde euch 
fragen am jiingsten Tage, dann werdet ihr mir Antwort geben 
miissen wegen eurer vielen Siinden. Wer den Brief in seineni Hause 
hat oder bei sich tragt, dem wird kein Donnerwetter schaden, und 
ihr sollt vor Feuer und Wasser behiitet werden. Welche Frau den 
Brief bei sich tragt, und sich darnach richtet, die wird eine liebliche 
Frucht und frohlichen Anblick auf die Welt bringen. Haltet meine 
Gebote, die ich euch durch meinen Engel Michael gesandt habe. 

Ein schones christliches Gebet, alle Tage und Stunden zu beten. 

Gott bescheeret, Hoffnung ernahret. Ach Gott, ich bitte, verlass 
mich nicht. Wer Gott vertraut, hat wohl gebaut, den will er nicht 
verlassen; ob schon die Feinde dich verfolgen und hassen, so trau' 
auf Gott, er wird dich auch in keiner Not verlassen. Je grosser die 
Not, je naher ist Gott. Trink und iss, Gott und die Armen nicht 
vergiss. Gottes Giit' und Treu' ist alle Morgen neu. Was Gott tut 
erquicken, kann Niemand unterdriicken. Gott lasst die Seinen 
sinken aber nicht ertrinken. Ich trau' auf Gott allein, menschliche 

The Himmelsbrief 291 

Hilfe ist zu klein ; Gott weiss wohl Hilfe unci Rat, wenn Menschen- 
hilf ein Ende hat. Mitt Gott fang' deine Sachen an, so wird es 
guten Fortgang ha'n. Gott hab' vor Augen und sein Wort, dann 
geht dir's wohl so hier als dort. Wer willig gibt den Armen, dessen 
wird sich Gott erbarmen. Wer zum Himmel ist erkoren, stechen 
taglich Disteln und Donien. Jammer, Kreuz, Elend, Angst und Not, 
ist aller Christen taglich Brot. Im Ungliick hab' ein' Lowenmut, auf 
Gott trau', es wird werden gut, ja besser, als man hoffen tut. Zu dir, 
Herr Jesu, Gottes Sohn, steht meines Herzens Freud' und Wonn'. 
Mein Ruhm, mein Trost, mein hochstes Gut ist mir Herr Christ, 
dein teures Blut. Sorg' und sorge nicht zu viel, es geschieht doch, 
was Gott haben will. Der Christen Herz auf Rosen geht, wenn's 
mitten unterm Kreuze steht. Verzage nicht im Kreuze dein, nach 
Regen folget Sonnenschein. Herr Jesu, der siisse Name dein, 
erquicke mir die Seele mein. Herr Jesu Christ, mein Trost und 
Freud', ich trau' auf dich zu jeder Zeit. O frommer Christ, hier leid' 
und meid', bald kommt darauf die gute Zeit. Vielleicht kommt der 
wohl liber Nacht, der aller Not ein Ende macht. Kirchengehen 
versaumet nicht, Almosen geben armet nicht. Bete rein, und schatz' 
dich klein; arbeite fein, trau auf Gott allein, die Sorge lasz Gott 
befohlen sein ! Amen. 

Gott, der du deine Lust im Himmel hast zu wohnen, 
Im Wesen einig bist, dreieinig in Personen : 
Gott Vater, Sohn und Geist, all' die dich rufen an, 
Kein Gott mir ohne dich den Himmel geben kann. 

(Druck u. Verlag von Gustav Kiihn in Neu-Ruppin.) 


Welcher mit goldenen Buchstaben geschrieben, und zu sehen ist in 
der St. Michael's Kirche zu St. Germain, allwo er iiber dem 
Taufsteine schwebet. Wer ihn angreifen will, von dem weichet 
er, wer ihn aber abschreiben will, zu dem neiget er sich und 
thut sich selber auf; auf welche Art er in der Welt verbreitet 

Unterweise mich, dass ich bewahre dein Gesetz. Gib mir, mein 

Sohn, dein Herz. 

Also gebiete ich euch, dass ihr Sonntags nicht arbeitet an euren 
Giitern, auch sonst keine Arbeit thut, sondern fleissig zur Kirche 
gehen und mit Andacht beten soU't. Ihr soUt cure Haar nicht 

292 The Himmelshrief 

krausen noch lloffart in der Welt treiben unci von eurem Reichthum 
dftn Armen mittheilen und glauben, dass ich diesen Brief durch meine 
gottliche Hand, von Jesu Christo ausgesandt, auf dass ihr nicht thut 
wie die unverniinftigen Thiere; ich gebe euch sechs Tage um eure 
Arbeit fortzusetsen und am Sonntage sollt ihr friih in die Kirche 
gehen, die heilige Predigt und Gottes Wort zu horen. Werdet ihr 
das nicht thun, so will ich euch strafen mit Pestilenz, Krieg und 
theuren Zeit. Ich gebiete euch, dass ihr des Samstags nicht zu spat 
arbeitet, und des Sonntags zeitig in der Kirche mit Jedermann, Jung 
und Alt, in Andacht fiir eure Siinden bittet und betet, dass sie euch 
vergeben werden mochten. Schworet nicht boshaftig bei meinem 
Namen, begehret nicht Silber und Gold und sehet nicht auf fleisch- 
liche Liste und Begierden ; so schnell ich euch erschafifen habe, so bald 
kann ich euch wieder zerschmettern. Einer soil den Andern nicht 
todten, und mit der Zunge seit nicht falsch gegen euren Nachsten 
hinter dem Riicken. Freuet euch eurer Giiter und cures Reichthums 
nicht. Ehret Vater und Mutter, redet nicht falsche Zeugnisse wider 
euren Nachsten, so gebe ich euch Gesundheit und Frieden ; und wer 
dem Brief nicht glaubet, und sich nicht darnach richtet, der wird 
weder Gliick noch Segen haben. Diesen Brief soil Einer dem Andern 
abschreiben : und wenn ihr so thut, und ihr so viel Siinden gethan als 
Sand am Meer, so viel Laub auf den Baumen und Sterne am Himmel 
sind, so sollen sie euch vergeben werden. Glaubet ganzlich was die- 
ser Brief euch lehret und sagt ; wer das nicht glaubet, der soil sterben. 
Bekehret euch oder ihr werdet ewig gepeinigt werden, und ich werde 
euch fragen am jiingsten Tage, und ihr werdet miissen Antwort 
geben, von wegen eurer grossen Siinden. Wer den Brief im Hause 
hat oder bei sich tragt, dem wird kein Donnerwetter schaden, auch 
sollt ihr vor Feuer und Wasser behiitet werden. Welche Frau diesen 
Brief bei sich tragt, die wird eine lobliche Frucht und frohlichen 
Anblick auf die Welt bringen. Haltet meine Gebote die ich euch 
durch meinen Engel Michael gesandt habe. 

Ein schones, christliches Gchct, zu alien Stunden cu sprechen. 

Gott der Du deine Lust im Himmel hast zu wohnen, 
Im Wesen bist Du Eins, dreifaltig in Personen. 
Gott Vater, Sohn und Geist! allein Dich ruf ich an, 
Kein Gott mir ausser Dir den Himmel geben kann. 

Wer Gott vertraut, hat wohl gebaut. 

Den will er nicht verlassen. 

Obschon die Feinde dich verfolgen und hassen. 

So trau auf Gott, er wird dich in keiner Noth verlassen. 

The Himmelshrief 293 

Je grosser die Noth, je naher Gott! 

Trink und iss : Gott und die Armen nicht vergisss. 

Gottes Giit' und Treu' wird alle Morgen neu, 

Was Gott will erquicken, kann Niemand unterdrPcken : 

Gott lasst die Seinigen sinken aber nicht ertrinken. 

Ich trail auf Gott allein, Menschenhulf ist klein. 

Gott weiss wohl Hiilf und Rath, menschliche Hiilfe ein Ende hat. 

Mit Gott deine Sachen thu fangen an, 

So wird es guten Fortgang hab'n 

Hab' Gott vor Augen und sein Wort, 

So wird es dir wohlgehen hier und dort. 

Wer willig gibt den Armen, 

Desz wird sich Gott erbarmen. 

Wer zum Himmel ist erkoren 

Stechen taglich Disteln und Dornen. 

Jammer, Kreuz, Elend und Noth 

Ist aller Christen taglich Brod. 

Im Ungliick habe Lowenmuth, 

Vertraue Gott es wird noch werden gut, 

Ja besser als man hoffen thut! 

Zu dir Herr Jesu, Gottes Sohn, steht meines Herzens Freud, 

Und all mein Ruhm, mein Trost mein hochstes Gut 

Ist mir Herr Jesu Christ dein theures Blut. 

Sorg' und sorg' auch nicht zu viel, 

Es geschieht doch was Gott haben will. 

Des Christen Herz auf Rosen geht, 

Wenn's mitten unterm Kreuze steht. 

Verzage nicht im Kreuze dein, 

Nach Regen folget Sonnenschein. 

Herr Jesu, der siisse Name dein 

Erquicke mir die Seele mein. 

Herr Jesu Christ mein Trost und Freud, 

Ich trau auf dich zu jeder Zeit. 

O frommer Christ, hier leid und meid, 

Bald kommt darauf die gute Zeit. 

Vielleicht kommt der Tod iiber Nacht. 

Der jedem Ding ein Ende macht. 

Kirchen-gehen versaume nicht, 

Almosen geben armct nicht. 

Bete rein, schatze dich klein, 

Arbeite fein, traue Gott allein, 

Deine Sorge lass Gott befohlen sein. 

Jesus Christus zu finden ist, 

294 ^^^ Himmchbrief 

Im Wort da man von Jesu liest. 

Jesus gibt Heil und Seligkeit 

Dem, der dient ihm allezeit. 

Wer sich des Namens Jesu trost't 

Der wird durch Jesum Christum erl5st 

Jesum dem lieben Kindelein, 

Dem Herzen lieben Jesulein : 

Sei Lob und Preis o Jesu mild 

Schiitz uns Jesu durch deinen Schild, 

Gib uns Herr Jesu deine Gnad, 

Dass uns Welt, Teufel, Tod nicht schad'. 

Nicht Teufel, Welt und Tod, soil mich von Jesu wenden, 

Denn Jesus ist mein Schatz, ich bin in seinen Handen. 

Gewiss ist der Tod, ungewiss ist der Tag, 

Die Stund auch Niemand wissen mag. 

Drum traue Gott und denk dabei : 

Dass jede Stund die letzte sei. 

Im Leiden habe einen guten Muth, 

Und Hebe den der dir Leides thut. 

Freue dich von Herzen der Schwachheit, 

Das ist die ganze Vollkommenheit. 

So geht es zu, zu aller Zeit : — 

Thu' mir Lieb, ich thu' dir Leid ; 

Hilf mir auf, ich stoss dich nieder, 

Ehr' mich hoch, ich schand' dich v^ieder. 

Sag nicht Alles was du weist, 

Thu nicht Alles was man dich heisst. 

Erlaub nicht Alles was du horst, 

Richt nicht Alles was du siehst. 

Ach Gott, dies ganze Haus bewahr' 

Vor Feuer-Schaden und Gefahr! 

Mit Gnad' und Segen iiber uns wait', 

Und uns Dein reines Wort erhalt'. 

Herr Jesu ! durch den Namen Dein 

Gib mir ein seliges Stiindelein ; 

Steh' mir bei bis an's letzte Ende 

Und nimm mein' Seel' in Deine Hande. Amen. 

The Himmelshrief 295 

Unterweise mich, das ich bewahre dein Gesetz, und 
halte es von ganzem Herzen. 
Psalm 112, Vs. 34. 

Gieb mir mein Sohn dein Herz, und lass deinen 

Augen nieine Wege wohl gefallen. 

Spriiche Salomonis, 23, Vs. 26. 


Welcher mit goldencn Buchstahen gescJirichen, und zu sehen ist in 
der St. Michaelis Kirche su St. Germain, zvird gcnannt Grodoria, 
alhvo der Brief ilber die Taufe schwebet. Wer ihn angreifen 
will, von dem weichet er, wer ihn abschreiben will, zu dem neiget 
er sich, und thut sich selber auf. 

Also gebiete ich euch, class ihr des Sonntags nicht arbeitet an 
euren Giitern, auch sonst keine Arbeit thut, sollt fleissig zur Kirche 
gehen, und mit Andacht beten, und eure Haare nicht krauseln, noch 
Hoffart in der Welt treiben, und von euren Reichthum den Armen 
mittheilen, und glauben, dass ich diesen Brief mit meiner gottlichen 
Hand von Jesu Christo ausgesandt, dass ihr nicht thut, vvie die 
unverniinftigen Thiere : Ich gebe euch sechs Tage eure Arbeit fort- 
zusetzen, und am Sonntag friih in die Kirche zu gehen, die heilige 
Predigt und Gottes Wort zu horen; werdet ihr das nicht thun, so 
will ich euch strafen mit Pestilenz, Krieg und theure Zeit. Ich 
gebiete euch, dass ihr des Samstags nicht zu spat arbeitet, des Sonn- 
tags friihe in der Kirche mit Jedermanniglich, Jung und Alt, mit 
Andacht fiir eure Sitnden bittet und betet, dass sie euch vergeben 
werden ; schworet nicht boshaftig bei meinem Namen, begehret nicht 
Silber noch Gold, und sehet nicht auf fleischliche Liiste und Begier- 
den ; sobald ich euch geschaffen habe, sobald kann ich euch zer- 
schmettern ; einer soil den andern nicht todten mit der Zunge ; seid 
nicht falsch euren Nachsten hinter den Riicken, freuet euch eurer 
Giiter und Reichthums nicht; ehret Vater und Mutter, redet nicht 
falsches Zeugniss wider euren Nachsten^ so gebe ich euch Gesund- 
heit und Friede; und wer dem Brief nicht glaubet, und sich nicht 
darnach richtet, der wird weder Gliick noch Segen haben. Den Brief 
soil einer dem andern abschreiben ; und wenn ihr so viel Siinden 
gethan hattet, als Sand am Meer, und so vie'i Laub auf den Baumen 
und Sterne am Himmel sein, sollen sie euch vergeben werden : 
Glaubet ganzlich, was dieser Brief euch lehret und saget; wer das 
nicht glaubet, der soil sterben. Bekehret euch, oder ihr werdet 
ewiglich gepeinigt werden, und ich werde euch fragen am jiingsten 

296 The Himmelshrief 

Tage, und ihr werdet mir miissen Antwort geben von wegen eurer 
grossen Siinde. Wer den Brief in seinem Hause hat, oder bei sich 
tragt, dem wird kein Donnerwetter schaden, und sollet ihr vor 
Feuer und Wasser behiitet werden. Welche Frau diesen Brief bei 
sich tragt, die wird eine lobHche Frucht und frohlichen AnbHck auf 
die Welt bringen. Haltet meine Gebote, die ich euch durch meinen 
Engel Michael gesandt habe. 

Ein schon christliches Gebet, alle Stundcn zu sphcchen: 

Gott, der du deinc Lust im Himmel hast zu wohnen 
In Wesen einig, und dreifaltig in Personen, 
Gott Vater, Sohn und Geist, allein dich ruf ich an, 
Kein Gott mir ohne dich den Himmel geben kann. 

Gott bescheret, Hoffnung ernahret: ach Gott! ich bitt, verlass 
mich nicht. Wer Gott vertraut, hat wohl gebaut, den will er nicht 
verlassen, obschon die Feinde dich verfolgen und hassen; so trau 
auf Gott, er wird auch dich in keiner Noth verlassen. Je grossere 
Noth, je naher Gott. Trink und iss; Gott und der Armen nicht 
vergiss, Gottes Giit und Treu, wird alle Morgen neu. Was Gott will 
erquicken, kann Niemand unterdriicken. Gott lasst die Seinigen 
sinken, aber nicht ertrinken. Ich trau auf Gott allein, Menschen 
Hiilf ist klein. Gott weiss wohl Hiilf und Rath, menschliche Hiilf 
ein Ende hat. Mit Gott dein Sach du fangen an, so wird es guten 
Fortgang han. Hab Gott vor Augen und sein Wort, so geth es dir 
wohl hier und dort. Wer willig giebt den Armen, des wird sich 
Gott erbarmen. Wer zum Himmel ist erkohren, stechen taglich 
Disteln und Dorn. Jammer, Kreuz, Elend und Noth, ist aller 
Christen taglich Brod. Im Ungliick hab einen Lowen Muth ; trau 
Gott es wird noch werden gut, ja besser als man hoffen thut. Zu 
dir, Herr, Jesus, Gottes Sohn, steht meines Herzens Freud und 
Wonn. Mein Ruhm, mein Trost, mein hochstes Gut, ist mir Herr 
Christ ! dein theures Blut. Sorg und sorg auch nicht zu viel, es 
geschieht doch, was Gott haben will. Der Christen Herz auf Rosen 
geht, wenns mitten unterm Kreuze steht. Verzage nicht im Kreuze 
dein, nach dem Regen folget Sonnenschein. Herr Jesu ! der siisse 
Name dein, erquicke mir die Seele mein. Herr Jesu Christ; mein 
Trost und Freud, ich trau auf dich zu jeder Zeit. O frommer 
Christ! hie leid und meid, bald kommt darauf die gute Zeit. 
Vielleicht kommt der wohl iiber Nacht, der alien Dingen ein Ende 
macht. Kirchen gehen saumet nicht. Almoscn geben armet nicht. 
Bete rein, schatze dich klein, arbeite fein, traue Gott allein, die Sorge 
lass Gott befohlen sein. 

The Himmelsbrief 297 

Nicht Teufel, Welt und Tod soil mich Ton Jesu zvcnden, 
Denn Jesus ist mein Schatz, ich bin in seinen Hdnden. 

Jesus Christ zu finden ist Freu dich von Herzen in Schwachheit, 

Im Wort da man vom Jesu liest. Das ist die eanze Vollkommenheit : 

Jesus giebt Heil und Seligkeit, So gcht es zu, zu aller Zeit : 

Dem, der dient Jesu alle Zeit. Thu mir Lieb. ich thu dir Leid, 

Wer sich des Namens Jesu trost, Hilf mir auf, ich stoss dich niedcr, 

Der wird durch Jesum Christ erlost, Ehr mich hoch, ich schand dich wieber. 

Jesum, dem lieben Kindelein, Sag nicht alles, was du weisst, 

Dem Herzen lieben Jesulein, Thu nicht alles, was man dich heisst, 

Sei Lob und Preis, o Jesu mild. Glaube nicht alles, was du horst, 

Schiitz uns Jesu, durch deinen Schild, Richte nicht alles. was du siehst. 

Gieb uns Herr Jesu ! deine Gnad, Ach Gott ! dies ganze Haus bewahr 

Das uns Welt, Teufel, Tod nicht schad. Fiir Feucr. Schaden und Gefahr, 

Gewiss ist der Tod, ungewiss der Tag, Mit Gnad und Segen iiber uns wait, 

Die Stund auch Niemand wissen mag, Und uns dein reines Wort erhalt. 

Drum traue Gott und denk dabei Herr Jesu ! durch den Namen dcin. 

Das jede Stund die letzte sei. Gieb mir ein selios Stiindelein. 

Im Leiden hab einen euten Muth, Stch mir bei bis ans letzte End, 

Und liebe den der dich leid thut. Und nimm meine Seel in deine Hand. 



Bartsch^ gives four versions of the Holstein Himmelsbrief , 
and none of them Hke the one given below, which is, to say the 
least, a very poor and unsatisfactory translation of probably No. 
1629 of Bartsch: 

In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, as 
Christ stopped at the Mount, sword or guns, shall stop whoever 
carries this letter with him ! He shall not be damaged through the 
enemies guns or weapons, God will give strength ! that he may not 
fear robbers or murderers and guns, pistols, sword and musket 
shall not be hurt through by the cannon of angel Michael. In the 
name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. God be with 
you and whosoever carries this letter with him shall be protected 
against all danger, and who does not believe in it may copy it and 
tie it to the neck of a dog and shoot at him he will see this is true. 
Whosoever has this letter shall not be taken prisoner nor wounded 
by the enemy. Amen. As true as it is that Jesus Christ died and 
ascended to heaven and suffered on earth by the living God, the 
Father, the Son, the Holy Ghost, I pray in the name of Christ's 


298 The Himmelsbrief 

blood, that no ball shall hit me, be it of gold, silver, lead, or metal. 
God in Heaven may deliver me of all sins in the name of the Father, 
the Son, and the Holy Ghost. 

This letter was found in Holstine, 1724, where it fell from 
heaven ; it was written with Golden letters and moved the Baptism 
of Madaginery and when they tried to seize it, it disappeared until 
1 79 1. That everybody may copy it and communicate it to the world 
then it is further written, whoever works on Sunday he shall be 
condemned ; neither shall you not work on Sunday but go to church 
and give the poor of our wealth, for you shall not like the reasonless 
animal. I command you six days you shall work and on the seventh 
day you shall listen to the holy word of God, if you do not do so I 
will punish you with hard times, epidemics and war. I command 
you that you shall not work too late on Saturday. Let you be rich 
or poor you shall pray for your sins that they may be forgiven. Do 
not swear by His name, do not desire gold or silver, do not fear 
the intrigues of men and be sure as fast as I can crush you. Also 
be not false with your tongue, respect father and mother, do not bear 
false witness against your neighbor and I will give you good health 
and peace, but he who does not will not believe in it he shall not have 
happiness or blessing. If you do not convert yourself you certainly 
will be punished at the day of judgment when you cannot account 
for your sins. Whoever has this letter in his house no lightning 
shall strike it and whosoever carries this letter shall bring forward 
fruits, keep my commandments which I have sent you through my 
angels in the name of my son Jesus Christ. Amen. 


In many respects this is the most interesting, for its ascrip- 
tion of praise to Christ has a strong primitive Germanic flavor 
and reminds one of the Hcliand, whereas the ascriptions of praise 
to the Virgin show the great influence of the Mary cult. 

Das ist die Copey der griindlichen Abschrift des 
Heiligen Erz-Engels Sanct Michaels Brief. 

Ich wahres Jesus Gottes Sohn Amen. Hier hebet sich an das 
Gebeth, welches Gott selbst geschrieben hat und dem der heilige 
Engel St. Michael gesendet hat zu Mechelburg in dem Land Brit- 
tania. Dieser Brief hanget vor St. Michaels Bild, und niemand weisz 
woran er hanget, er ist mit Giildenen Buchstaben geschrieben, und 

The Himmelsbrief 299 

wer ihn angreifen will dem weichet er, wer ihn aber abschreiben 
will, zu dem neigt er sich und thut sich selber gegen ihn auf. 

Dieweil Gott die Welt also geliebl hat, dasz er seines einge- 
bohrnen Sohns nicht verschont hat, williglich dargeben in den bittern 
Todt, dardurch das menschliche Geschlecht zu erlosen. 

Titul iinsers einigen Erlosers und Seligmachers, der All- 
machtige Jesu Christi, allerweisester, allerweiseste, aller durchlauch- 
tigste und uniiberwindlichste Fiirst und Herr Jesus Christus, wahrer 
Gott von Ewigkeit, gekronter Kaiser der himmlischen Herrscharen, 
erwahlter Konig zu Sion und des ganzen Erdbodens, zu aller Zeit 
Mehrer der heiligen Christi. Kirchen, einiger Hoher Priester und 
Erzherzog der Ehren, Herzog des Leben. Margraf zu Jerusalem, 
Landgraf in Judaa, Burggraf in Galilaa, Fiirst des Friedens, Graf 
zu Bethlehem, Freyherr von Nazareth, Obrister Kriegsheld seiner 
streitenden Kirchen, Ritter der hoUischen Pforten, Triumphier-Herr, 
Sieg Herr, und Ueberwinder der Tods Siinden und des Teufels; 
Herr der Herrlichkeit und Gerechtigkeit, Pfleger der Wittwen und 
Waisen, Trost der Armen und Betriibten, Richter der Lebendigen 
und der Todten und des Himmels. Vaters geheimster und ver- 
trautester Rath. Unser allergnadigster Herr, Herzallerliebster und 
getreuter Gott und Herr. Titul und Namen der allerseligsten Jung- 
frau Maria und Mutter Gottes. Der allheiligsten groszmachtigsten 
und uniiberwindlichsten Fiirstin und Fran Jungfrau Maria. Eine 
gekronte Kaiserin des himmlischen Reiches, Groszherrscherin der 
Englischen Herrscharen, geborene Konigin in Jerusalem Israel, 
Churfiirstin des gelobten heil. Laudes, Herzogin aus Judaa, Grafin 
zu Loretto, 

Freyfrau zu Bethlehem, triumphirte Zerknirscherin der alten 
Schlangen, gewaltige Ueberwinderin der Heiden, siegreiche Ver- 
wiisterin der ganzen Welt. Jungfraulche Gespons und Mutter des 
Allerhochsten unser nach Gott allergradigste Kaiserin und Frau. 

(Gedruckt zu Kollen bei Heinrich Kapp, im Jahr Christi, 1725.) 

Merke an, das ist, das ist das Gebot, das Gott selbst gesagt und 
geofifenbaret hat. 

Wer am Sonntag arbeitet, der ist meinem Geboth ein Abtretter, 
ihr sollt zur Kirche gehen und mit Andacht bethen, auch sollt ihr 
verbringen gute Werke und was ihr die ganze Woche versaumt habt, 
sollt ihr am Sonntag biissen und Gott um Gnad bitten, ihr sollt am 
Sonntagg keine Hoffart der Welt treiben, am Sonntag sollt ihr arme 
Lent Wittwen und Waisen oder reisende Leute speisen und tranken 

300 The Himmelshrief 

und ihr sollt glauben, dasz ich Jesus Christus diesen Brief selber 
mit meiner eigenen Hand geschrieben und gesandt habe, dasz ihr 
nicht thun sollt wie die unverniinftg Thier. Ich hab euch in der 
Woche sechs Tag zu arbeiten und den Sabbath zu Feyern gegeben, 
auch sollt ihr am Sonntag zur Kirche gehen, Gottesdienst und 
Predigt zu horen, sonsten werd ich euch strafen. Ihr sollt am 
Samstag nach Bethzeit nimmer arbeiten wegen meiner Mutter 
Maria, ihr sollt am Sonntage friih zur Kirchen gehen, ihr seyd 
gleich jung oder alt und mit Andacht beten fiir eure Siinden, damit 
sie euch vergeben werden, schwore nicht bey meinem Namen oder 
meinem Blut, auch sollt ihr euern Nachsten nicht verachten und 
sonst keine falsche Kundschaft geben, ihr sollt nicht todten weder 
mit dem Schwert noch mit der Zungen, hinterrucks begehret nicht 
Silber oder Gold mit Ungerechtigkeit, freuet euch nicht iiber euer 
Giiter oder Reichthum, verachtet nie die armen Lent, liebet euern 
Nachsten als euch selbsten, Ehre Vater und Mutter, so giebt euch 
Gott die Gesundheit Frieden und langes Leben auf Erden und wer 
das nicht recht glaubt, der wird verlohren und verflucht und ich 
sage euch durch meinen Mund, dasz ich diesen Brief selber 
mit meinen eigenen Handen geschrieben hab und wer es nicht glau- 
ben will und widersprichts der wird von der Christlichen Kirchen 
verlassen und Nimmer keine Hiilf von mir haben. Dieser Brief soil 
auch von einem Haus zu dem anddern abgeschrieben werden und 
wenn der so viel Siinden gethan hatte, so viel als Sand am Meer 
liegt, so viel als Sterne am Himmel sind, so viel Laub und Gras auf 
Erden steht, beichtet er es und thut Busz, hat Reu und Leid iiber 
seine Siinden und Missethaten, so werden sie ihm vergeben, wer 
mein Geboth verachtet und das nicht glauben will, der wird eines 
bosen und jahen Todes sterben. Bekehret euch vor dem Bosen, 
sonst werdet ihr gepeinigt in der Hollen, ich werde euch fragen am 
jiingsten Gericht von wegen euren groszen Siinden und ihm werdet 
keine Antwort geben konnen, darum haltet mein Geboth, die ich 
euch gesagt hab durch meinen heiligen Engel St. Michael und wer 
diesen Brief in sein Haus hat, dem kann der bose Feind kein 
Schaden zufitgen, der ist versichert vom Blitz, Donner, Hagel 
Wasser und Feuers Nothe, vor alien bosen, sichtbaren und unsicht- 
baren Feinden. Der ist behiitet und bewahret vor allem Uebel des 
Leibes und der Seelen und wann eine schwangere Frau diesen Brief 
bey sich hat deren kann nicht mislingen in der Geburt, sie kann 
leicht gebahren und bringt eine liebliche Frucht auf der Welt, das 
Kind wird lieb gehalten von alien Leuten, darum gebiete ich euch, 
dasz ihr mein Gebot haltet, die ich wahrer Jesus Christus Gottes 
Sohn selber geschrieben hab. 

The Himmclsbrief 301 


The Himmelsriegel and the other material contained in this 
tract give us the most direct and convincing evidence that the 
Himmelsbrief, as it has come down to us, is a CathoHc substitute 
for the old heathen rites and practices. 

Im Namen Gottes des Vaters, Gottes des Sohnes, Gottes des 
Heil. Geistes, ein Einiger Gott, Amen. Unserer Heben Frauen 
Traum. Jesus Christus, Gottes Sohn und reiner Jungfrau Alaria. 
Als die heilige Jungfrau zu Bethlehem auf dem Berge eingeschlafen 
war, kam zu ihr der Sohn Gottes, ihr lieber Engel, und sprach zu ihr : 

"Meine allerliebste Mutter, schlafest du oder wachest Du ?" Sie 
sprach: "Ich habe geschlafen und Du hast i^h gewecket und hat 
mir schrecklich getraumet. Ich habe gesehen, als warest du im 
Garten gefangen mit Stricken gebunden von Kaiphas zu Pilato, von 
Pilato zu Herode gefiihret worden, dasz sie Dein heiliges Haupt 
geschlagen, mit Dornen gekronet, Dich aus dem Richthause 
gefiihret, Holz auf Deine heiligen Schultern geleget, aus der Stadt 
auf den hohen Berg gefiihret und an das Kreuz geschlagen haben, 
so hoch, dasz ich dich nicht habe erreichen konnen. Deine heilige 
Seite wurde durchstochen, daraus Blut und Wasser geflossen und 
auf Dich getropfet hat; darnach Dich vom Kreuze abgenommen, in 
der Erde Schosz wie einen Todten gelegt und begraben, dasz mir 
aus groszen Schmerzen das Herz hatte mogen zerspringen." 

Jesus sprach darauf zu ihr: "Meine alterliebste Mutter, es ist 
Dir ein wahrhafter Traunm vorgekommen. Wer an diesen Traum 
gedenket oder bei sich tragen wird, der wird von alien bosen Sachen 
befreit bleiben, und wird nicht jahlings sterben, audi nicht ohne 
Empfahung des heiligen Sacramentes aus dieser Welt verscheiden. 
Ich und Du, liebe Mutter, werden bei seinem lezten Ende sein und 
seine Seele in das Himmelreich einfiihren." 

Die Sieben heiligen Himmels-Riegel, welche ein frommer Ein- 
siedler von seinem Schutzengel bekommen hat. Mit Bewilligimg 
der hohen Geistlichkeit zu Koln zum Druck befordert im Jahre 


Ihr frommen und andachtigen Christen, ich bitte euch in Jesu 
Namen, ihr wollet anhoren die grosze Kraft und Wirkung von den 
sieben heiligen Himmelsriegeln, die ein frommer Einsiedler von 
seinem Schutzengel bekommen hat. Und als der fromme Einsiedler 
sterben wollte, so hat er die grosze Kraft und Wirkung von den 
sieben heiligen Himmelsriegeln offenbaret und gesprochen : 

Welcher Mensch die sieben heiligen Himmelsriegel bei sich 
tragt, von diesem Menschen miissen alle bosen Geister und Teufels- 

302 The Himmelshrief 

Gespenster abweichen by Tag unci Nacht, unci in welchcm Hause 
die sieben hciligen Himmelsriegel gedruckt liegen, \n dieses Haus 
wird kein Donnerwetter einschlagen und es wird auch in alien 
Feuersbriinsten befreit sein. Und wenn ein Weib Schmerzen vom 
Kinde hat, so nehmet sie die sieben heiligen Himmelsriegel und legt 
sie ihr auf die Brust oder auf den Leib, so wird sie ohne grosze 
Schmerzen gebaren und mit einer gesunden Leibesfrucht erfreut 
werden. Die sieben heiligen Himmelsriegel sind avich abprobirt 
worden bei einem Weibe, welches schon fiinf todte Kinder zur Welt 
geboren, als sie aber mit dem sechsten Kinde schwanger war und. 
Mutter werden sollte, so hat ihr die Hebamme die sieben heiligen 
Himmelsriegel auf das Haupt gelegt und sie ist nun mit einer leben- 
digen Leibes-frucht erfreut worden. Die sieben heiligen Himmels- 
riegel sind auch abprobirt worden bei einem Manne, welcher acht 
Jahre mit bosen Geistern besessen war ; da nahm ein Geistlicher die 
sieben heiligen Himmelsriegel, las sie iiber den Besessenen und legte 
sie auf dessen Haupt — horet Wunder! da sind die bosen Geister den 
Augenblick von ihm gewichen. Und welcher Mensch die sieben 
heiligen Himmelsriegel bei sich tragt, diesem Menschen will 
Christus gewisse Zeit vor seinem Ende offenbaren die Stunde, wann 
er sterben muss. Wenn aber einer die sieben heiligen Himmels- 
viegel sieben Freitage nacheinder betet, und in welchem Hause die 
sieben heiligen Himmelsriegel sind, in dieses Haus wird keine 
schlimme Krankheit kommen. Denn es soil kein Mensch sein, er soil 
die sieben heiligen Himmelsriegel bei sich tragen ; wer sie aber nicht 
lesen kann, der bete alle Freitage sieben Vater-Unser und den Glau- 
ben zur Ehre des bittern Leidens vmd Sterbens Jesu Christi. 

Christus Jesus, Gottes Lamm, 

Ich komme vor deine heiligen fiinf Wunden, 

Die Du am hohen Kreuzestamm 

Mit Schmerzen hast empfunden ; 

Erhore mein Bitten, erhor' mich doch, 

Ich weiss, mein Gott, Du lebest noch, 

Ach lasz mich Gnad' erlangen ! 

Nun fangen die sieben heiligen Himmelsriegel an : O Aller- 
heiligster Herr Jesu Christ ! ich ermahne dich deiner allerheiligster 
Menschheit, die mit Bewilligung Gottes des Vaters von dem heiligen 
Geiste in dem Leibe der heiligen Jungfrau Maria ist empfangen und 
geboren worden ; O Jesu ! du hast dein heiliges Blut ganz geduldig- 
lich fiir uns Sunder und Siinderinnen vergossen ; O Jesu ! du hast 
uns mit deinem heiligen bittern Leiden und Sterben die himmlicheu 
Pforten aufgeriegelt ; O Jesu! du hast die grosze Arm.uth und die 
Verfolgung deiner Feinde dreiundreiszig Jahre lang ganz geduldig- 

The Himmelsbrief 303 

lich fiir uns Sunder gelitten. O mein Heiland! ich betrachte deine 
schmerzliche Beurlaubung von deiner herzliebsten Mutter Maria. 
O mein Jesu ! ich gedenke an dein demiithiges Gebet am Oelberge, 
als dir vor Mattigkeit ganz blutige Schweisztrophen iiber dein 
heiliges Angesicht herabgeronnen sind. Ach, mein Jesu! ich 
betrachte, wie du bist gefangen worden, mit Stricken gebunden, von 
einem Richter zum andern gefiihret, und dein allerheiligster Leib mit 
Geiszeln zerfetzt, dasz dein heiliges Blut iiber deinen ganzen heihgen 
Leib herabgeronnen ist; darnach hat man eine Dornenkrone auf 
dein heiHges Haupt gedriickt, wodurch viele Dornenspitzen dasselbe 
schreckHch zerrissen und verlezt haben. Ach, mein Erloser! ich 
betrachte mit wehmiithigem Herzen, wie du mit einem schweren 
Kreuze bist beladen worden und dasselbe iiber den Berg Kalvari 
tragen musztest, dasz du davon eine tiefe Wunde auf deiner 
heiligen Schulter empfangen hast. Ach, mein Jesu ! ich betrachte, 
wie du an das heilige Kreuz nackend angenagelt worden bist. O 
mein Seligmacher! du bist drei Stunden an dem Kreuze lebendig 
geblieben und hast sieben kraflige Worte gesprochen, darnach bist 
du, o mein liebster Jesu! an dem heiligen Kreuz geschieden. Ach 
mein Jesu! mit deinem allterheiligsten bittern Leiden und Sterben 
und mit deinen sieben heiligen Worten am Kreuze will ich, N. N., in 
Gottes Namen meinen Leib und Seele auf ewig verriegeln. Amen. 

Die Sieben Worte, die Jesus am Kreuze gesprochen. 

I. Vater, vergieb ihnen, denn sie wissen nicht, was sie thun. 2. 
Weib, siehe, das ist dein Sohn. 3. Heute wirst du mit mir im 
Paradiese sein. 4. Mein Gott, warum hast du mich verlassen. 5. 
Mich diirstet! 6. Es ist vollbracht. 7. Vater, ich befehle meinen 
Geist in deine Hiinde. 


Ach du aller heiligster und gekreuzigter Herr Jesus Christus, 
ich bitte dich, bewahre dieses Haus und alle die darinnen wohnenden 
Seelen, welche du mit deinem Blute erloset hast, das Kreuz, Herr 
Jesus Christus, daran du um unsertwillen deinen Geist aufgeopfert 
hast! Bedecke dieses Haus der Segen des Allerhochsten ! Gebene- 
deie dieses Hauses der heiligen Dreifaltigkeit! Gott Vater, Sohn 
und heiliger Geist, erfiille dieses ganze Haus, Menschen und Vieh, 
mit reichem Segen ! Der alterheiligste Name Jesu segne und behiite 
all Menschen, die in diesem Hause aus- und eingehen, dasz kein 
Ungliick nimmermehr darein komme, vor Krankheit, Pestilenz und 
anderen gefahrlichen Zufallen! Ach, Jesus, behiite es vor Feuers- 
und Wassersnoth, vor Kreig und anderm Ungliick, vor unglijcklicher 
Nahrung und schmahlicher Armuth! Das Kreuz Jesu Christi sei 
dieses Hauses Dach, die drei Riegel Jesu seien dieses Hauses Thor- 

304 The Himmelsbrief 

ricgel,clie Krone JesuChristi sei dieses Hauses Schild und die heiligeii 
fiinf Wtinden Jcsn Cliristi seicn dieses Hauses Schloss und Mauer. 
O du hochgelobter Ehrenkonig bedecke mit deinen Gnadenfliigeln 
die Friichte auf dcm Felde, Garten und den Baumen, dasz alien kein 
Leid vviderfahre und wir unser Leben in Gesundheit selig beschlies- 
zen mogen. Amen. Das helfe uns Gott der Vater, Sohn und heiliger 
Geist. Amen. 


The range of this 'letter" is wider than that of any one of 
the preceding and might possibly be considered as an English 
elaboration of the German rubric : 

The following curious and remarkable letter, which saved the 
life of a person condemned to death, as no instrument of murder was 
able to kill him, has already, in many cases in our own land, shown 
itself, particularly during our Revolutionary War, of great effect, to 
such who had it in their possession, during their greatest danger, 
and while to their right and left victims of death fell dead. But let 
each one read the letter itself and learn of what wonderful service 
and efficacy it is and how desirable it must be to obtain a copy. The 
Letter [After the Original.] Count Philip of Flanders had a servant 
who had committed a crime for which he was condemned to die, but 
no sword would execute him, no sword would punish and execute 
him right, upon which the Count was greatly astonished and said: 
"How shall I understand this thing? tell me how it is, and I will 
grant you your life, and will also do you good." The servant showed 
him the letter, and the Count was pleased with it and had it tran- 
scribed and given to his servants. 

Must you appear before the magistrate, court or judge, then 
take this letter with you, and whatever you may ask of the officer it 
will not be denied you ; or have you an enemy who designs to quarrel 
with you, take this letter with you and keep it on the right side of 
your body, and he will not be able to overcome you. During the 
pains of child birth and if it cannot be born, hang the letter around 
the neck of the woman and the child will be born with but little 
difficulty. For bleeding of the nose, give the letter into the right 
hand of the person bleeding, and it will help immediately. Read or 
say: Lord Jesus Christ, thou who art the true man and son of God, 
protect thou me from the assaults of all kinds of weapons, spear, 
sword, sabre, cutlass, knife, tomahawk, rapier, helmet, burdon or 

The Himmelsbrief 305 

any other weapon that pierces or cuts the skm, or from any and 
everything prohibited by holy writ, that is from all kinds of weapons, 
artillery, cannon, musket, rifle, gim, or pistol. Lead keep thy rights 
and prove thyself, as did Mary in her virginity before and after 
the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ, and his holy raisen-colored blood 
which he spilt on the holy cross. Lord Jesus Christ, protect thou me. 
Against whoredom and breaking in, against murder and man- 
slaughter, against burning and any calamity by fire, against thieves, 
against ropes, fetters and chains to bind. Lord Jesus Christ protect 
thou me and'desert me not, and do not thou permit me to be damned, 
but be thou with me to the end and permit me not to die without 
receiving thy holy sacraments — to this help thou me God the Father, 
God the Son and God the Holy Ghost. The Holy Trinity be with 
me, on the land and on the water, in the wood, in fields, towns, 
cities, villages, groves and thickets. Lord Jesus Christ protect thou 
me against all enemies, seen and unseen, secret or open ; keep me 
safe from all harm through the bitter sufferings and death of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, and his holy raisin-colored blood, which he shed 
at the foot of the cross. Jesus Christ was conceived at Nazareth, 
born at Bethlehem, and crucified, murdered and died at Jerusalem. 
These are words of truth written in this letter, that I may not be 
caught and bound by men or murderers. They must flee from me 
all arms and guns, and not take hold on me and loose all their power 
over me. Rifle hold thy load. The cross of Christ and his holy five 
wounds not bound with power must conquer all arms, like as the 
man who laid his hands on the Lord Jesus Christ to bind him, even 
so hold they charge, like as the Son was obedient in the Father till 
death. Rifle or deadly weapon hold thy charge by and through the 
almighty hand, and so must all deadly weapons be brought to 
nought, in the name of God the Father, God the Son and God the 
Floly Ghost. Jesus crossed the red sea, he went into the holy land, 
thus must be broken all ropes and bands. Band break all power of 
canes and reeds, arms and weapons must cease their dazzling. Lord 
Jesus Christ protect thou me, that no rope may cause me to fall, 
no bow or gun may cause its fire to be cast at me, that no weapon 
may pierce or cut, be it of iron or steel, be it of metal or lead, 
that I may be blessed so much like as the cup and the wine, and the 
true bread of heaven which was given by the Lord Jesus Christ to 
his twelve disciples, in the name of God the Father, God the Son 
and God the Holy Ghost; the blessing which God gave to the first 
man he created, come and overshadow me. The blessing that God 
gave to Noah overshadow and protect me. The blessing that God 
gave to Mary and Joseph as they removed from their own country, 
go with and overshadow and protect me. The reed first in my right 

3o6 The Himmelshrief 

hand go through the enemy's land and hand, that no tree may fall 
upon mc, that no water may deluge me, that no snake, adder or 
poisonous creature may bite, nor that the wolf may be able to tear 
me, protect thou me. My blood may it flow forever, Jesus of Naza- 
reth King of the Jews. Amen. 

N D 

I Amen. 

6. THE "magdeburger himmelsbrief.^" 

This is probably the commonest in the Pennsylvania German 
territory and has no variants, I believe. It is the only one pub- 
lished in illuminated form. 

Ein Brief so von Gott selbsten geschrieben, und zu Magdeburg 
niedergelassen worden ist. Er war mit goldenen Buchstaben geschrie- 
ben, und von Gott durch einen Engel gesandt worden ; wer ihn 
abschreiben will, den soil man ihn geben, wer ihn verachtet, von dem 
weichet der Herr. 

Wer am Sonntag arbeitet, der ist verflucht. Demnach gebiete 
ich, dasz ihr am Sonntag nicht arbeitet, sondern andachtig in die 
Kirche gehet ; aber euer Angesicht nicht schmiicket ; ihr sollt nicht 
fremdes Haar tragen, und sollt nicht Hoffart treiben; von eurem 
Reichthum sollt ihr den Armen geben, reichlich mittheilen und glau- 
ben, dasz dieser Brief mit meiner eigenen Hand geschrieben und 
von Christo selbsten ausgesandt sey, und dasz ihr nicht thut wie das 
unverniinftige Vieh ; ihr habt sechs Tage in der Woche, darinnen 
sollt ihr cure Arbeit verrichten : aber den siebenten (namlich den 
Sonntag) sollt ihr heiligen; werdet ihr das nicht thun, so will ich 
Krieg, Hunger, Pestilenz und Theurung unter euch schicken und 
euch mit vielen Plagen strafen. Audi gebiete ich euch, einem jeden, 
er sey wer er wolle, Jung und Alt, Klein und Grosz, dasz ihr am 
Samstag nie spat arbeitet, sondern ihr sollt cure Siinden bereuen, 
auf dasz sie euch mogen vergeben werden. Begehret audi nicht Sil- 
ber und Gold, treibet nicht Fleischeslust und Begierden ; denket 
dasz ich euch gemacht babe und wieder zernichten kann. 

Freuet euch nicht, wenn euer Nachbar arm ist, habt vielmehr 
Mitleiden mit ihm, so wird es euch wohl gehen. 

Ihr Kinder ! ehret Vater und Mutter, so wird es euch wohl 
gehen auf Erden. Wer dies nicht glaubt und halt, der ist verdammt 
und verloren. Ich Jesus habe dieses selbsten mit meiner eigenen 
Hand geschrieben, wer es widerspricht und lastert, derselbe Mensch 
soil keine Hiilfe von mir zu erwarten haben, wer den Brief hat 

The Himmelsbrief 307 

unci ihn nicht offenbaret, der ist verflucht von der christlichen 
Kirche, und wenn cure Siinden noch so grosz, waren sollen sie euch, 
wo ihr herzlich Reue und Leid habt, doch vergeben werden. 

Wer es nicht glaubet, der soil sterben und in der HoUe gepeinigt 
werden, auch ich werde am jiingsten Tage fragen um eurer Si^in- 
den willen, da ihr mir antworten mvisset. 

Und derjenige Mensch, so diesen Brief bei sich tragt, oder in 
seinem Hause hat, dem wird kein Donnerwetter Schaden zufiigen, 
er wird fiir Feuer und Wasser sicher sein, und wer ihn offenbaret 
vor den Menschenkindern, der wird seinen Lohn haben, und froh- 
liches Abscheiden aus dieser Welt empfangen. 

Haltet meinen Befehl, den ich euch durch meinen Engel 
gesandt habe. Ich wahrer Gott vom Himmelsthron, Gottes und 
Maria Sohn. Amen. 

Dies ish geschehen zu Magdeburg im Jahre 1783. 

The "Endless Chain of Prayer" is the most modern form of 
this rubric. There are two versions, a longer and a shorter, which 
differ materially as to content. In the longer form, the prayer 
is longer, more elaborate and rather rhetorical, and it also con- 
tains a curse on all those who refuse to obey the directions indi- 
cated in the "Prayer." 

The Bishop, to whom reference is made, was one of the 
Bishops of the Methodist Church, if I mistake not, who however 
refused to countenance or sanction the sending out of such a 
letter. The shorter form follows : 

Oh! Lord Jesus Christ, the eternal God, have mercy upon all 
mankind. Keep us from all sin and take us to be with Thee eternally. 
This prayer was sent to Bishop Lawrence, recommending that it 
be sent to nine other persons ; it must not be signed ; he who will 
write it for nine days, commencing the day received, distributing 
it to nine different persons, and sending one each day, will on and 
after the ninth day experience a great joy. 

Oh, Jerusalem, at the feast it was said : he who will write this 
prayer will be delivered of every calamity. Please do not break the 
chain and please copy as received, trusting that the blessing of God 
may rest upon you and on whom sent to by you." 

The "Brief" given below has no date or name by which to 
distinguish it, the original being in the library of the Pennsyl- 

3o8 The Himmelsbrief 

vania Historical Society. It is the only one of the entire number 
in which superstition does not play a prominent part, and is 
therefore a late development, though less modern than the "End- 
less Chain Letter." 

"Himmelsbrief, welchem sich jeder kluge Hausvater mit seiner 
Familie genau richten soil, um einst an den Ort zu kommen, von 
woher dieser Brief an alle Menschen, wes Standes sie sind gesendet 
ist, namlich in den Himmel. 

Also gebietet der Herr des Himmels und der Erde : Wer von 
meinen lieben Geschopfen auf Erden, die ich mit Vernunft begabt 
habe, zu mir kommen und die Freuden des Himmels genieszen will, 
musz sich piinktlich nach diesen Regeln richten. Ihr sollt mich als 
euren Schopfer und Vater anerkennen und verehren und mich lieben, 
wie meine guten folgsamen Kinder; ihr sollt cure Ehrfurcht fiir 
mich auf die Art thatig an den Tag legen, dasz ihr mit wahrer 
Andacht des Sonntags in meinem Tempel erscheint, daselbst zu eurer 
Erbauung singet und betet und au[f] diese Art andern euren Kin- 
zum guten Geispiele dienet. Wenn ihr in der Kirche, die keiner 
versaumen musz, versammelt seyd, miiszt ihr blosz an das denken, 
was zu eurer Andacht zu eurem Frieden dienet, alle eure hauslichen 
Geschafte sind in der Zeit aus euren Gedanken verbannt. Ihr 
miiszt aber nicht blosz Horer des Worts seyn, sondeni auch Thater. 
Die iibrige Zeit auszer der Kiche sollt ihr nicht mit Spielen und 
anderm unni^itzen Zeitvertreib zubringen, sondern diesen von mir 
eingefiihrten Ruhetag zur Erholung eurer korperlichen Krafte 
benutzen und bios auf Nahrung und Erquickung eurer Geisteskrafte 
bedacht seyn. Die iibrigen Tage in der Woche soil ein Hausvater 
fiir seine Familie arbeiten, seine Geschafte getreu und sorgfaltig 
verrichten, sparsam leben, und fiir das Wohl seiner Familie gewis- 
senhaft sorgen, sich einer guten und ehrbaren Lebensarbeit befleiszen 
und iiberhaupt sich so betragen, dasz seine Kinder, die ich ihm zur 
Erziehung anvertraute, durch sein Beispiel gute und brauchbare 
Alenschen werden. Jede Hausmutter soil ihrer Wirtschaft ordent- 
lich und wie es sich geziemt vorstehen und ihren Tochtern die beste 
Anleitung dazu geben ; ihr Gesinde zur Arbeit anhalten, und dahin 
sehen, dasz dasjenige, was der Hausvater im Schweisz seines Ange- 
sichtes erwirbt, zu Rathe gehalten und wohl verwendet werde. Was 
die Kinder selbst betrifft, so befehle ich euch, dasz ihr euren Eltem 
in alien billigen Stiicken folget und gehorsam seyd, damit ihr lange 
lebet auf Erden, und es euch wohl gehe. Auch das Gesinde und 
jeder Untergebene soil die Befehle seines Herrn gewissenhaft und 
treu befolgen, seine Arbeit nach Ordnung verrichten, und jede An- 

The Himmelshrief 309 

weisung dankbar annehmen und bedenken : wer nicht gehorchen 
lernt, kann auch einst nicht befehlen. Alle iibrige Lebensregel, die 
ich euch durch meine Gesandten habe kund thun lassen, sind in dem 
Hauptregel begriffen ; liebet mich iiber alles und euren Nebenmens- 
chen als euch selbst. Wer dieses thun wird, der wird sich keinem 
Laster, deren es unter meinen Geschopfen schon so viele giebt, erge- 
ben. Geiz ist eine Wurzel alles Ubels. Zank verkiirzt euch euer 
Leben ; Hoffarth und Stolz ist der erste. Schritt zur Schande. Liigen 
ist ein schandliches Laster; Neid und Miszgunst sey euch weit ent- 
fernt. Vertraglichkeit bringst Freundschaft und Segen. Wollust 
verdirbt alle gute Sinne fiir jedes angenehme in der Natur. Suchet 
nichts auf eine unrechtmaszige Art zu ervverben, sondern betet und 
arbeitet, so will ich euch segiien und Wohlstand verleihen. Wer dies 
alles befolgt, dem wirds Zeit seines Lebens wohlgehen, ihm wird es 
an nichts mangeln; er wird froh und gliicklich seyn, und einst den 
Himmel ererben, wo alle gute Seelen versammelt sind. Wer dies 
aber auch befolgt, und die Lehre, die ich durch meinen Sohn Jesus 
Christus habe ertheilen lassen, mit Fiiszen tritt, der wird zeitlich und 
ewig ungliicklich seyn. 

Ein Schon Gcbct, taglich cu betcn. 

O Herr, der du im Himmel wohnest, du bist der Urheber 
meines Wesens und hast mich zu einer lebendigen Hoffnung wieder- 
geboren. Du tragst gegen mich die zartlichste Liebe eines Vaters. 
Lehre mich dich als meinen Gott fiirchten und als meinen Vater 
verehren. Und damit ich dir immer ahnlicher werden moge, so 
errege in mir einen Abscheu gegen alles Bose und richte mein Herz 
zu dir gen Himmel, wo mein Biirgerrecht ist. Pflanze eine solche 
Furcht in meine Seele, dasz ich deinen Namen, der grosz, wunderbar 
und heilig ist, in Demuth verehre, und in alien meinen Handlungen 
denselben auszudriicken suche. Dein Name sey der Grund meines 
Lebens, meines Wohlseyns und meiner Hoffnung. Richte deinen 
Thron in meiner Seele auf und herrsche bestandig darinnen. Unter- 
driicke durch die Kraft deiner Gnade alle aufriihrerische Liiste 
welche sich gegen dich crheben. Schenke mir dein Wort und deine 
Gnadensmittel. Durch dieselben bereite mein Herz und mache es 
zu deiner heiligen Wohnung. Mache mich durch deine Gnade 
machtig, mich deinem Willen in allem Triibsal mit Freuden zu 
unterwerfen und denselben in alien Gebotcn zu vollbringen. Gieb 
mir einen Theil von demjenigen himmlischen Eifer zu deinem Dienst, 
womit die En gel, deine Diener. aufgeflammt werden und mache mich 
ihnen immcr ahnlicher. — Vor alien Dingen, gniidiger Vater, gieb mir 
ein solches Maas der Gnade, wodurch meine Seele zum ewigen 

310 The Hiininclsbricf 

Leben erhalten werden kann. Und weil ich noch auf der Welt bin, 
so lasz es Dir zugleich gefallen, so viel wie mir zum Unterhalt 
meines Lebeiis zu geben, als du es fiir gut befindest. Gieb deinen 
Segen zu meinem Brod, dasz es mir gedeihlich und nicht schadlich 
werde. Vergieb mir aber auch alle Uebertretungen. Lehr mich auch 
meinem Nachsten eben so gut vergeben, als icb will, dasz mir um des 
Verdienstes Jesu vergeben werde. Lass nicht, wenn es dir gefallt, 
mich heimsuchen, nicht iiber mein Vermogen versucht werden. 
Befreie mich, Herr mein Erretter, von Allen Uebeln, die mich jetzt 
driicken und mir noch bevorstehen. Endlich aber erfiille an mir 
deine Verheiszung. Nimm mich auf in dein ewiges himmlisches 
Reich und in die stillen Hiitten des Friedens, wo kein Uebel meine 
Ruhe unterbrechen wird. Erhore mich, denn du bist der Herrscher 
iiber zeit und Ewigkeit. 

Mein Gott und Vater, gieb du mir 

So lang ich leb auf Erden, 

Dasz ich mag christlich fiir und fiir 

Durch dich erneuet werden ; 

Und dasz dein Geist mir Beistand leist, 

Damit zu alien Zeiten 

So Zung als Mund, von Herzengrund 

Dein hohes Lob ausbreiten. 

Ach Vater aller Giitigkeit, 

Lasz mich die Lieb erweisen, 

Dem Nachsten, wie dein Wort gebeut, 

Dasz er dich moge preisen. 

Lasz mich alle Zeit Barmherzigkeit 

In meinem Leben iiben, 

Auch die mir Feind ohn Ursach sind 

Von Herzensgrunde lieben. 

Gieb, dasz ich ja weder Hand noch Mund 

Den armen Nachsten Kranke : 

Ach lenk mein Herz zu deinem Bund, 

Damit ich stets bedenke, 

Dasz jedem hier auch wird von dir 

Mit gleichem Maasz gemessen, 

Wie er gethan an jedermann. 

Dies lass mich nie vergessen. 

The Himmelsbrief 311 

Gieb auch, dasz ich Barmherzigkeit 

Von dir in mir empfinde 

Weil mir dein Wort selbst Gnad anbeut, 

Zur Tilgung meiner Siinde ; 

So wird kein Leid in Ewigkeit 

Von dir mich konnen treiben, 

Und deine Treu wird immer neu, 

Ja ewig bei mir bleiben. 

[Note. — In all of the foregoing, special pains have been taken 
to reproduce accurately the text of the originals. This is particularly 
the case in the Holstein translation on pages 297fif.] 

"Dr. J. C. Hexamer, "June 5, 1908. 

"Philadelphia, Pa. 
"My Dear Sir:— 

"Enclosed I send yon clipping of an editorial from the 'Evening 
Wisconsin,' a leading daily, published at Milwaukee. I have fre- 
quently talked with the editor concerning the subject of school 
histories, and you will notice that he takes a sensible stand on that 
question. The editorial was brought about by a discussion in Mil- 
waukee now going on relative to the school histories in use in the 
public schools of that city, and which omits all mention of Kosciusko. 
There are a large number of Polish residents in that city, and they 
kicked. I send the clipping to you for the reason that I thought you 
might get it inserted in some of the Eastern papers or magazines. 
Probably in the 'German American Annals.' These expressions in 
the English press should be made as much of as possible. With best 
regards, "Yours respectfully, 


"Manitowoc, Wis." 
The Truth of History. 

"A fault common to early histories of the United States was 
that they were written from a point of view east of the Alleghanies 
and not broad enough to recognize the full significance of men and 
events outside of the narrow confines of New England. Even now 
it would be difficult to name a work which gives due importance 
to the parts borne by representatives of all the different races in the 
composite population of the United States in contributing to the 
nation's development and progress. Yet such a setting forth is 
essential to 'the truth of history.' 

"There is utility in teaching the children in the public schools 
the fact that an Italian discovered the American continent and that 
the Dutch and Swedes and the French as well as the English were 
early settlers in territory now within the borders of the United 
States, and that Lafayette, the Frenchman ; Steuben, the German, 
and Pulaski and Kosciusko, brave and generous sons of Poland, 
voluntarily rendered valuable services to the American cause during 
the struggle for independence. The narrative of Haym Salomen, the 
Jew, who relieved the poverty of James Madison, afterwards Presi- 
dent of the United States, who assisted Robert Morris in procuring 
the money which financed Washington's army, and who advanced 
thousands of dollars of his own to the government, which never 
repaid him, might also be included in school histories with good 

"Knowledge of such facts tends to bind the children of foreign 
parents closer to their adopted country and tends to prevent the 
children of American parents from growing up little bigots with 
supercilious and cruel prejudice against aliens which finds no justifi- 
cation in 'the truth of history.' " 

©erman Clmertcan Qnnals 




Historical, Literary, Linguistic, Educational and Commercial Relations 


Germany and America 


The German American Historical Society 
The National German American Alliance 
The Union of Old German Students in America 


University of Pennsylvania. 


H. C. G. Brandt, 

Hamilton College. 
W. H. Carpenter, 

Columbia University. 
W. H. Carruth, 

University of Kansas. 
Hermann Collitz, 

Johns Hopkins University. 
Starr W. Cutting, 

University of Chicago. 
Daniel K. Dodge. 

University of Illinois. 
A. B. Faust, 

Cornell University. 
Kuno Francke, 

Harvard University. 
Adolph Gerber, 

Late of Earlham College. 

Henry Wood, Johns Hopkins University. 

Julius Goebel, 

University of Illinois. 
J. T. Hatfield, 

Northwestern University. 
W. T. Hevvett, 

Cornell University. 
A. R. Hohlfeld, 

University of Wisconsin. 
Hugo K. Schilling, 

University of California. 
H. Schmidt-Wartenberg, 

University of Chicago. 
Hermann Schoenfeld, 

Columbian University. 
Calvin Thomas, 

Columbia University. 
H. S. White, 

Harvard University. 

New Series, Vol. 6. 


Old Series, Vol. 10. 

published by 

E. M. Fogel, Business Manager, 
Box 10, College Hall, University of Pennsylvania 


JScrlln : IRew JJorft : 


XonDon : 

Hcfpsfg : 


Paris : 


©crman Qmcrican Ctnnals 



New Series, November and December Old Series, 

Vol. VI. No. 6. 1908. Vol. X. No. 6. 

By Gilbert G. Benjamin, Ph.D. 
German Immigration From 18 15 to 1848. 

In a recent work^ Gonnard states that "considered in its 
entirety, during the fifty years from 1840- 1890, the German im- 
migration is an epoch. From year to year with the regularity 
of a physical phenomenon, a regularity greater than the majority 
of physical phenomena, there scattered over the new World and 
certain parts of the Old, without speaking of the countries 
adjacent to Europe, some hundred millions of men". Although 
this is not true for the preceding half century, the immigration 
was amazingly great in comparison with earlier periods. To quote 
the same author further: ''There was a moment in the history of 
the 19th century when it could be asked, whether the United 
States would be Anglo-Saxon or German, at least in certain of the 
parts. The Teutonic immigration has indeed fallen upon tin's 
country with a force and continuity almost incomparable."- A 
further investigation will show that this statement is not an ex- 
aggeration during the period under discussion. From 1832 to 

* Gonnard, L' Emigration Europeene au XIX Siecle, Paris, 1906 p no 
Ibid, p. 14s flf. 


3i6 Germans in Texas 

1846, from Bremen, a hundred thousand Germans, to put it in 
round numbers, immigrated to America, or on the average 11,000 
yearly. From 1841 to 1846, the yearly average of German immi- 
grants amounted to 19,000, According to statistics made by 
Franz Loher in 1847, the following is the exact yearly number of 
immigrants from 1841 to 1846: — ^ 

1841— 9,501 
1842 — 13,627 

1843— 9.910 
1844 — 19,641 
1846 — 31,607 

Total — 115,644 

In fifteen years, a grand total of 216,201 Germans immi- 
grated to this country from Bremen alone. The following is a 
table for the same years of the number of emigrants departing 
from Bremen and landing at the ports named : — ■* 

To New York, 33,683 and in the year 1846 alone 10,469 

" Baltimore, 30,123 " 
" New Orleans, 30,448 " 
" Philadelphia, 3,580 " 
" Charleston, 728 
" Galveston, 7,161 " 

" Quebec, 426 " 




For the year 1847 ^be same authority shows the following 
numbers : — 

'Loher, Franz, Geschichte und Ziistande der Dciitschcn in America. Cin- 
cinnati and Leipzig, 1847, p. 271. 
* Ibid, p. 272. 

Germans in Texas 317 

New York — 52,300 

New Orleans — 20,000 

Baltimore — 10,000 

Galveston — 8,000. Landed here, in the last three 

months (previous to July, 1847) 4)020 Germans. 
Philadelphia — 5,000. 
Quebec — 1,000. 
Boston — 500. (15,504 emigrants landed here up to 

Dec. I, 1846.) 
Mobile, Savannah and other harbors — 1,000. 

Some 600,000 Germans landed in America in the fifteen 
years previous to 1847 from the various ports of departure, or on 
the average, about 40,000 Germans annually. The chief point of 
departure for the Southern Germans was Havre. Bremen was 
the principal port taken by the Eastern and Northern Germans.^ 

That this great stream of immigration did not remain un- 
recognized in the United States is shown by the following: 

"The emigration from Europe in the present season appears 
much greater than ever it was before. It already much exceeds 
100,000 persons, say 50,000 or more via Quebec and the remainder 
by way of New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, etc. At the last 
named places, and especially Baltimore, very many Germans have 
arrived." ® 

"We learn that the increasing prospect of internal commotion 
in the German Empire is the main cause of this immigration. * * * 
We are further informed by some of the most intelligent that it is 
calculated not less than 80,000 are now moving and preparing to 
depart for this country." ^ 

We may well ask ourselves the question how came this 
tremendous mass of immigrants and what was its character. 

" Loher, Franz, Geschichte und Zustande der Deutschen in America. Cin- 
cinnati and Leipzig, 1847, p. 271. 

•Cf. Niles Weekly Register, Sept., 1832; March, 1833. Vol. XLIII or 
Vol. VII, Fourth Series, p. 40. 

'Cf. The York, [Pa.] Republican quoted in Niles Register, Vol. VII, 
Fourth Series, p. 68. 

3i8 Germans in Texas 

The causes which impelled this tide of immigration are 
many and complex. The Napoleonic wars as a matter of course 
devasted a great portion of the land, and drove many from 
employment. The business depression from 1815 on caused great 
distress.^ The reactionary movement of Metternich and his con- 
freres resulted in almost universal dissatisfaction. The "Deutsche 
Burschenschaft" was the chief means of arousing a spirit of dis- 
content in Germany.^ Its declared objects were the fostering of 
high moral ideals, of patriotism and a truly scientific spirit. Some 
of its members had definite political ideas. Some believed in a 
German republic; others wanted to restore the empire. The 
Kotzebue incident brought affairs to a crisis. At a conference 
of the representatives of the two great powers, Austria and Prus- 
sia, held in Carlsbad, a reactionary movement was agreed upon. 
A severe censorship of the press was established and a special 
commission was appointed to investigate "demagogical intri- 
gues." For ten years, this commission persecuted everyone sus- 
pected of liberal ideas. 

The revolution of July, 1830, in Paris was followed by re- 
volts in the Rhenish Palatinate in May, 1832, and in Frankfurt 
and in Oberhessen in 1833. The immediate cause of these up- 
risings was the so-called "Bundestags Ordonnanzen" of the year 


The time was ripe for emigration. America had always ap- 
peared to the oppressed and discontented as the home of liberty, 
of freedom of speech and of the press. The use of the word 
"Europamiide" at this time shows the feeling then prevalent, and 
implies that there was a land free from oppression. Many of the 
discontented left home. Some settled in nearby countries, but the 
younger spirits sought the United States as a place where their 
political ideas might take root and thrive. Those who left sent let- 

' Cf. Deutsche Pionkr, Vol. I, p. 243ff. "The Three Periods of German 

* See Bruncken, German Political Refugees from 1815-1860, Ch. 3, 1904. 

Germans in Texas 319 

ters home. These were passed from hand to hand. The newspapers 
were filled with accounts either by immigrants or regarding immi- 
gration. At this time many books of travel were published. 
Those of Arends, Eggerling, Brauns, Bromme, Gerke and Duden 
were the most important. The work^" of Duden had a far-reach- 
ing influence. It first appeared in 1829, and went through several 

Duden visited this country in 1824. He landed at Baltimore 
and went to Missouri. At that time few Europeans had ever 

" Its title reads : Bericht iiber eine Reise nach den westlichen Staaten 
Nord Amerika's und einen mehrj'dhrigen Aufenthalt am Missouri (in den 
Jahren, 1824, 1825, 1826 und iS2y) in Bezug auf Auswanderung und Ueber- 
volkcrung oder Das Lcben im Innern der Vereinigten Staaten und dessen 
Bedeutung fUr die h'dusliche und politische Lage der Europder, dargestcllt: 
a, in einer Sammlung von Briefen; b, in einer Abhandlung iiber den politi- 
schen Zustand der Nord Amerikaner; c, in einem Nachtrage fiir auswan- 
dcrnde Deutsche Ackerwirthe und diejenigen welche auf Handelsunterneh- 
mungen denken von Gottfried Duden, St. Gallen, 1832. 

The preface of the 1832 edition reads as follows : 

"Von Tag zu Tag gewinnt das Land des Colombo, Amerika, an Bedeu- 
tung, auch fiir uns. Die Uebervolkerung Europas wird endlich obwohl 
spat, auch von unsern Statistikern als dessen Ruin angesehen, dem es, 
starken Laufes, zueilt. Die Armuth, der Druck jeglicher Art, die volksaus- 
dorrenden Finanzsysteme, die Bemauthung bilden bei uns, unsichtbar und um 
desto gefahrlicher, eine Art Leibeigenschaft fiir die gemeinen Volksklassen 
der gewerbtreibenden Staaten, welche die eigentliche gesetzliche Sklaverei 
unlaugbar in Vielen iiberbietet. Dazu kommt dass sich dem Kennen von 
Geschichte und Politik immer umwiderleglicher aufdringt : die Sonnen 
Europas haben ihren Mittagskreis langst iiberschritten, und dessen Ges- 
chichte, dessen Volker — ihre Rolle ausgespieldt. Wie das Licht, das der 
Sonne, wie das der Bildung und Kultur, im Osten, in Asien, fiir uns anbrach, 
und bei uns untergeht, um fiir die westliche Halbkugel Morgen zu schaffen, 
so beginnt in Amerika seit einem halben Jahrhundert eine neue Weltges- 
chichte, und wir konnen es nicht laugnen, die der Freifieit, der grossen Ideen. 
Amerika ist fiir den Forscher eine Briicke vom Nord-zum Siidpol, auf der 
sich die letzten Triimmer morgenlandischer Bildung zu einem neuen, grossen 
Baue retten und sammeln werden. Die politischen Ereignisse in Deutschland, 
und die Wendung, die das Streben der Volker nach Emanzipation letzter 
Tage genommen zu haben scheint, werden diese, wenn auch des Europiiers 
Seele mit Wehmuth belastende Ansicht, kaum zu widerlegen im Stande sein. 
Die kindische Idee hat aufgehort, dass man in Amerika sogleich am Strande 
die Taschen mit Gold fiillen konne ; aber Fines verheisst es dem besonnen 
Auswanderer umstreitig ; hohe Freiheit und Sicherung leiblichen Wohlstandes 
in einem Grade, von dem Europa keine Ahnung hat. Millionen finden in den 
herrlichen Ebenen und ThJilern des Missouri und Mississippi Raum vollauf, 
und eine Natur die langst des Bewohners, des Bearbeiters harret." 


320 Germans in Texas 

heard of that river. After a stay of three years in this country, 
he returned and pubHshed his book in the form of letters. His 
book was written in a Hvely style and gave a very rosy picture of 
life in the Western World. It resulted in thousands of men dream- 
ing of western adventure and settlement.^^ He^^ gives wonderful 
descriptions of the fertility of the soil, the personal liberty of the 
settler, and the great abundance of game of all kinds. He de- 
clares that one can live with hardly any labor of his hands. His 
influence was particularly strong in Southwest Germany and 
along the Rhine. It is very noticeable that most of the immi- 
grants of political tendencies came from these regions. 

Now an entirely different kind of emigration to America set 
in. The former emigration was mainly incited by economic 
reasons, the new emigration was influenced by political and ro- 
mantic ideas. Duden's radical tendencies were entirely in accord 
with these views. The stream of emigration was made up of 
educated men and those of the better class. This political emi- 
gration came in more or less organized groups. They had more 
or less definite ideas of establishing States in the United States. 
These States might or might not be members of the Union.^^ 
These States were to be predominantly German in character. Ger- 
man was to be the language of business, school and government. 
German culture should flourish unhindered. Some of the bolder 
spirits even went further in their ideas. "They would have the 
Government of the United States itself bi-lingual, and if the 
Americans would not grant this — why, then the German States 
would secede and set up a national government of their own"^^ 
Societies were formed to bring these plans to maturity. The 
most important was the "Giessener Auswanderungs-Gesell- 

" For Duden's influence cf. Duetsche Pionier, Vol. i, p. i8. 

" See Bruncken, Gcr. Pol. Refugees, p. i6, and Baker, Young Germany 
in America, p. 50. (Reprint from Americana Germanica.) 

" For fuller accounts regarding these ideas cf. Baker, Young Germany, 
p. 6iff. ; also Bruncken, Ch. 2. 

" Bruncken, Ch. 3. 

Germans in Texas 321 

schaft."^^ It was organized originally by a number of university 
men, among whom Paul Follen was the leading spirit. Its aims 
as stated in a pamphlet issued in 1833^® were: "The founding 
of a German state, which would, of course, have to be a member 
of the United States, but with maintenance of a form of govern- 
ment which will assure the continuance of German custom, Ger- 
man language, and create genuine, free and popular life." The 
intention was to occupy an unsettled and unorganized territory 
"in order that a German republic, a rejuvenated Germany may 
arise in North America." The members were men of means. 
Some held high official and professional positions. They sailed 
from Bremen to New Orleans in 1834 in two vessels. After their 
arrival in this country, dissensions arose and the company was 
broken up. Paul Follen settled in Missouri on Duden's farm 
and lived there several years. An account of such an undertak- 
ing is given in Niles' Register and shows clearly what vague ideas 
were prevalent at this time.*^ 

Many similar societies were formed with this plan in view. 
The idea was not only taken up in Germany, but found followers 

"Cf. Bruncken, Ch. 3; Baker, p. 6ifif. ; Koerner, Das Deutsche Element, 
p. 30off. 

" Cf. Aufforderimg und ErkVdrung in Betreff einer Auswanderung im 
Grossen atis Deutschland in die N ordamerikanischen Freistaaten. Giessen, 
1883. See Der Duetsche Pionier, Vol. I, p. 18. 

"Vol. VII, Fourth Series, p. 148. "Wholesale Emigration." The Stutt- 
gart Uniz'ersal Gazette of September 2d announces that a plan is in progress 
in the southwest of Germany, to make up a state and ship it over to the 
United States to become a twenty-fifth member of the Confederacy. The 
following notice of the project appears in that publication : "According to 
accounts from the South-West of Germany a society of liberal men are 
organizing a grand plan for emigrating to North America. 

"The emigration has hitherto been precarious because it did not rest 
on any solid foundation and because the means were not concentrated. But 
now it is different, as the object is to form a Nezv Germany beyond the 
ocean, which is to receive all those whose hopes and claims to liberty and 
right are disappointed in old Germany. In order to be admitted into the 
confederation of the United States, the law requires the number of free 
inhabitants above 25 years of age to be 60,000, and this number is to be 
assembled before any further measures can be taken. Many of the Germans 
established in North America will join their countrymen and the plan is so 
popular, that scarcely any doubts are entertained of its being successful." 

322 Germans in Texas 

among the Germans in this country. In Philadelphia in 1836, 
a society was formed with the purposes of founding a German 
State in the United States. Its object was announced as "The uni- 
fication of the Germans in North America and by this means the 
founding of a new German Fatherland." 

In New York, in 1839, a society for the purpose of coloniz- 
ing Texas was formed. This was the "Germania Gesellschaft." 
It sent out on the 2d of November, of that year 130 persons to 
form a German State in the "Lone Star Republic." The emi- 
grants departed on the brig "North" which was owned by the 
society. The members had pledged themselves to cultivate for a 
period of three years a piece of land in common. After this 
period, it was to be divided among the members. The members 
consisted of men of all classes and stations in life. Provisions 
for a period of six or eight months had been provided, together 
with all kinds of implements for the construction of houses. At 
Galveston, a station was to be erected, to which the arrivals of 
the second division might resort. The first Colonists reached 
Texas without any misfortunes and landed at Houston. The 
president and those who had any money left returned to New 
York. The majority of the others came to want.^^ 

In the year 1841, the Teutonia Order was formed in Texas. 
Its existence was brief. Fritz Ernst, who settled in Texas in the 
early thirties, published an account of the order. He says: 

"It remains for them (the Germans) either to become entirely 
changed, so as to come to be called Americans * * * or to make the 
attempt in a social way among the few Germans living here to form 
a New Germany. * * * The former appears to us, as certainly to 
all feeling Germans, as entirely impossible and must remain com- 
mitted to our successors; and the latter can only be practicable, if 
all countrymen be united collectively through a bond; if concord, 
which only too easily disappears in a foreign land, be established 
among them, and their feeling for German individuality be renewed, 
and their consciousness of their German worth be incited. 

"Buttner, Brief e, Vol. II, p. 209; also Eickhoff, In dcr neuen Heimath, 
pp. 324-325. 

Germans in Texas 323 

"Since the population of Texas consists of immigrants from 
different countries, who must all consider themselves here as for- 
eigners, this plan appears in Texas more easily to be carried out, than 
in the North American free states where a generation born there 
has been formed as the leading race." 

"Many men and women gathered together as a result of the 
attempt to carry out this national work, who took up the idea with 
enthusiasm, and after mature consideration formed a Teutonic order 
which was established on the evening of Whitsuntide, 1841, by 
twelve persons of both races, and whose personnel through later 
admissions of members amounted in the course of a month to fifty- 
three, and increased with each meeting. The order was made up of 
many degrees, so that less educated Germans might take part. Ad- 
mission to the second and third degrees was conditioned on talent 
and ability ; all the Germans living away from home must be received 
into membership, because it guarantees intellectual entertainment, 
profit and pleasure to compensate in some measure for the lost joys 
of the Fatherland, and because it embraces in itself the elements of 
various secret and knightly orders, and thereby breathes pure Ger- 
man nationality. Among its manifold aims the most important are: 
philanthropy and the preservation of German individual traits of 
character." ^^ Korner ^^ gives the purpose of the order as : 'The 
preservation of German national individuality, the furtherance of 
German immigration and the facilitation of correspondence between 
Texas and Germany.' " 

In this connection, brief mention must be made of the so- 
called "Adelsverein", as its aims were undoubtedly the same as 
the others noted. Von Behr says : "It is said the Union wished 
to found a feudal state, which would lend money to its settlers 
and they would be treated in a way 'as its own property."-^ We 
shall treat this society more fully in a later chapter. 

What was the character of the immigration of this period? 
Grund, in his work published in 1837, says: 

" Cf. Deutsche-Amerikanische GeschichtsbVdtter, Jan., 1906, pp. 21-22. 

" "Erhaltung der Deutschen National-Eigenthiimlichkeit. Beforderung 
der Deutschen Einwanderung und Erleichterung der Korrespondenz zwichen 
Texas und Deutschlands." Korner, p. 359. 

*' Von Behr, Ottomar, Leipzig, 1847. 

324 Germans in Texas 

"Until recently the emigrants from Germany were chiefly com- 
posed of agriculturists, with an occasional admixture of operatives, 
but the late unfortunate struggle for liberty in Germany has, within 
the last five or six years, caused the expatriation of a more intelli- 
gent class ; and, accordingly, settlements have been made in the 
valley of the Mississippi and in the State of Illinois, by a body of 
Germans whose edcuation fitted them rather for the drawing-room 
and the closet than for the hardships of cultivating the soil; yet they 
have cheerfully embraced their new vocation; and the physicians, 
lawyers, theological and other students who arrived about three 
years ago in the United States have become active husbandmen; 
though they were obliged to resign the romantic idea of founding a 
new Germany in the western territory of the United States,"^- and 
Niles Register says that "the mania for emigration to America, as 
it is called, increases — and many persons of wealth were preparing 
to leave different parts of Germany." ^^ 

These quotations will sufifice to show that the emigration 
during this period was made up of a class different from that of 
the earlier period. Men of wealth, position and education emi- 
grated to America in great numbers. Many among them had held 
high official or professional positions at home. The "Forty- 
eighters" swelled the ranks of this class of immigrants. 

*■ Cf. Grund, F. J. : The Americans. London, 1837. Vol. II, pp. 24-25. 
" Cf. Niles Weekly Register, Vol. XLIII, p. 149. 

Germans in Texas 325 



It is an interesting commentary that no history yet written 
of Texas contains any extended mention of the Germans in that 
State. It is interesting from several viewpoints. In that State 
an attempt was made to further on a large scale, immigration 
such as probably no other State has known. The Germans have 
formed a most important part of its population from the very 
beginning; Germans took part in the Texan War of Independ- 
ence, and one of the most interesting accounts of that war was 
written by a German who was a participant personally in many 
of its engagements; the Germans as a class were educated and 
cultured, many of them belonging to high rank in their own 
country and many were possessed of means ; under their auspices 
the first public school supported by taxation was established; 
many of the officials of the State have been Germans; and one, 
Gustave Schleicher, had already gained a national reputation 
before his death and was destined to still higher honors had he 
lived, according to James A. Garfield and former Secretary of 
State Bayard. 

In 1846 the laws of Texas were ordered to be translated 
into German.^ That they had early gained an important influence 
is shown by the fact that as early as 1843 the Texan Congress 
granted the right of incorporating a university to certain Ger- 
mans who were residents of the "Lone Star Republic." For this 
purpose a league of land was donated by the Congress.^ 

The accounts regarding these Germans, as far as Texas is 

^ Fest Ausgabe sum funfsigjahrigcn Jubildnm, 1906. Foot note, p. 86. 
Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, 1848, p. 224. AUgemeine Zeitung, No. 62, 
Mar. 3, 1847. 

^ Cf. Laws of Eighth Congress of Texas, p. 948ff. 

326 Germans in Texas 

concerned, are meagre, and are to be found only in brief articles 
in journals or in books dealing with memoirs of pioneers. It is 
strange that no account has yet been written of a people, who, as 
early as 1847, formed one-fifth of the white population. Their 
attitude toward slavery and their competition with slave labor 
would seem to have deserved some mention. Perhaps the future 
historian of the State will give them their due regard. 

Even before Texas had gained its independence, many Ger- 
man families were found in that territory. The reasons why they 
came there and their experiences are most romantic. 

In 1 8 18- 1 9, a German traveller visited Texas. Texas, at that 
time, still belonged to Spain. He published a work on his travels 
in the United States, in which he makes special mention of Texas. 
It is interesting to speculate what might have happened had his 
ideas been carried out. The Monroe Doctrine had not yet been 
promulgated. A German nation on this side of the water might 
have been no impossibility, as it was certain to have been at a 
later period. His book must certainly have had readers, and 
doubtless it may have fallen into the hands of some of the early 
German settlers in this territory. He describes the country as 
extraordinarily fruitful in wheat, maize, cotton and indigo; the 
climate in the interior, on account of the many mountains, is 
healthful and temperate; only on the coast are there any swamps.^ 
He was a lieutenant in the Prussian army, and suggested the 
colonization of Texas by Prussia. He says that there are lead 
mines'* in the province at present being worked. Says that the 
country produces not only tropical, but all European vegetables; 
that grapes are grown and wine is being produced; that 800 
pounds of cotton can be grown to the acre; that the voyage to 
Texas can be made in eight or nine weeks with favorable winds. 
He describes the condition of Spanish agriculture as extremely 

' Hecke, J. V., Reise durch die Vereinigten Staaten, 1818-1819. Berlin, 
1821. Vol. I, p. IQSff. 

Ubid. Vol. II, pp. 170-189. 

Germans in Texas 327 

poor. San Antonio was the chief city, with about 2,000 inhabi- 
tants, most of them living in a wretched condition. The cities 
of the province of Texas number about 12,000 persons. He 
advises Prussian colonization^ in the following words : 

"If there is a piece of land on the transatlantic continent favor- 
able to a colonial possession for Prussia, it is the province of Texas 
whose acquisition by purchase from Spain, to whom it has neither 
use nor political advantage, might be very easily made. Certainly 
very important results in agricultural, political and mercantile 
respects, would accrue from the possession of a stretch of land which 
is greater than Germany. Although at present there is no, or very 
little, civilized population ; in a short time it would become a flourish- 
ing colony, if Prussia would make use of the emigrants from Ger- 
many, who, having become beggars through the voyage, suffer 
wretchedly in the United States; furnish them free transportation 
on Prussian ships; give them the land either gratuitously or grant 
them support, if only by advanced payments ; then they would have 
cultivated after five, or at the most, ten years, fifty acres (Morgen) 
of fertile land. If one reckons only a frugal revenue from the soil 
as thirty grain, then the colonist, after reserving a third part of his 
ground for the cultivation of fodder and vegetables, receiving from 
the remaining thirty-two acres nine hundred and sixty bushels of 
wheat, reckoning this at one and a half Thaler per bushel, will 
receive a pure revenue of 1,440 Thaler yearly and be able to pay 
back all sums advanced to him with good interest." 

He continued by stating that the mountains in the interior 
of the country have never been investigated; that rich metallur- 
gical finds may be expected. He would use criminals to work 
these mines and would transport for that purpose all that have in 
any way broken the law. 

To quote further : 

"The advantages in a commercial respect would be not less im- 
portant for the mother country, in that (a) all commerce with the 
Indians as far as the Pacific Ocean would come into the hands of 
the Prussians; (b) for Prussian manufacturing, Galveston Bay 
would be a very suitable emporium, in order that from there trade 

' Ibid. Vol. I, p. iQsflf. 

328 Germans in Texas 

might be carried on along the Rio del Norte into Mexico, and on the 
Mississippi, the Missouri, Ohio, Sabine and Red Rivers into the 
United States. 

"Through such commercial canals, Prussia would receive the 
tropical products at first hand, or it could raise cotton, indigo and 
sugar itself, and this circumstance would have a very important 
influence on the condition of manufacturing. 

"The sum for which this acquisition could be obtained would 
not be very heavy, and in case the government would not desire to 
furnish or to spare the necessary amount, the merchants, who would 
receive most of the advantage from this colonial possession, might 
without difficulty, advance payments to the State, but, as soon as 
Spain has shown itself ready to grant the cession, a commercial 
company might be formed like the East India Company, which should 
defray all expenses, but also should derive all profits, and the State 
must only furnish the requisite troops for the protection of the 
colony. Prussian trade would receive through such a possession, 
a wholly different expansion, life and spirit within ten years, and per- 
haps after this time, in case the colony, as already agreed upon, 
should form a suitable constitution, it would number a million inhab- 
itants. And by no means the least to be reckoned are the advantages 
which would result immediately to Prussia from the possession of 
such a piece of land." 

He continues by saying that Prussia could send over 10,000 
invalid soldiers in order to protect the colony. These could be 
given possession of land as a gift. With these, the colonists could 
form a militia to prevent the danger of any invasion. 

Prussia's navy would be built up through this colonial pos- 
session. "Only through navigation and sea trade can an indus- 
trious nation gain wealth." Only by means of its navy has Eng- 
land reached its present position. ''Only through its navy has 
colossal Russia risen so high in commercial industries, in wealth, 
and in culture of the spirit that it is the marvel and wonder of 
the age." 

"This colony would furnish with grain, salt flesh, butter and 
other products, not only the archipelago of the Antilles, but also 
the entire northern and eastern coast of the South American conti- 
nent with the exception of Brazil." 

Whether the publication of this work had any influence or 

Germans in Texas 329 

not, many settlements of Germans were located in Texas in the 
early thirties. Before these settlers had appeared, a company of 
fifty-three adventurers landed on the Texan coast. They came 
from New Orleans in October, 1821. They marched to Goliad 
(La Bohia) and took possession of it. They were made prisoners 
by Mexican soldiers. In the State archives there is a report 
which gives their names and nationalities. Among those men- 
tioned, the following Germans are found: Eduard Hanstein, 
Joseph Dirksen, Ernst von Rosenberg, Wilhelm Miller, Carl 
Cuans, and Gasper Porton.® Ernst von Rosenberg joined the 
Mexican army in whose service he rose to the rank of colonel 
of artillery. He took the side of Iturbide and was shot upon the 
downfall of the latter. It has been stated that the so-called 
"Baron de Bastrop," who aided Austin in his colonization 
schemes, without whose intervention Anglo-American coloni- 
zation would have utterly failed, was a German.'^ It has been 
shown from official documents that he had a Spanish name.^ 
Much has been written about his colonizing of Germans in Texas. 
Roemer,^ in his work, states in discussing a visit he made to the 
town of Bastrop that the "city is called after a certain Baron v. 
Bastrop, who had in view an important German colonization 
undertaking, and had already obtained an important piece of 
land." His plans were later prevented on account of his death. 
Koerner^" states that the colony of Bastrop was settled by Olden- 
burgians from the Duchy of Delmenhorst. Mr. H. A. Ratterman, 
the editor of the Deutsche Pionier, says that in 1823 Bastrop 

•Rosenberg, Kritik, p. 6. Brown, Indian Wars and Pioneers of Texas, 
p. 283. 

' Cf. Rather: DeWitt Colony, Texas Historical Association Quarterly, 
1904-S, p. 98. 

•Letter from E. W. Winkler, Department of Agriculture, Insurance 
Statistics and History, Austin, Texas, of this year (1907). 

* Roemer, F., Texas, p. 208. 

" Koerner, Das Deutsche Element, p. 359. 

330 Germans in Texas 

brought a number of Oldenburgian peasants and founded the city 
of Bastrop. ^^ 

Whatever the truth may be regarding Bastrop's having 
settled Germans in Texas in the twenties, ah'eady in the early 
thirties several flourishing settlements are found. 

Two Germans are mentioned among the early Mexican 
impressarios to receive grants under the colonization law of 
Mexico. These were Joseph Vehlein and Robert Lestwich. The 
former held a half of the original Hay den Edward grant between 
the Sabine and the Navasoto ; the latter had a contract to bring 
in two hundred families.^- Among the first real German settlers, 
however, was a Friedrich Ernst. He was a bookkeepers^ and emi- 
grated from Barel, Duchy of Oldenburg.^^ In 1829, Ernst 
decided to go to America. He came to New York and bought a 
hotel. s^ Duden's book came into his hands and he determined to 
settle in Missouri. This was in the year 1831. While in New 
York he met Charles Fordtran. They set sail for New Orleans. 
W^hile in that city, they learned that every settler with his family 
would receive a league and labor^*^ of land from the Mexican 
Government, s' so they decided upon immigrating to Texas. They 
set sail in the Mexican schooner "Saltillo," and landed at Harris- 

" Deutsche Pionier, Vol. 16, No. 9, p. ^72. The same author in Deutsch- 
Ainerikanisches Magazin, 1886. p. 402, says under the heading, "Die Ansied- 
lungs-Projekte des Barons Bastrop," that Bastrop had many colonization 
plans ; that the City of Bastrop was laid out in 1823, and that he bases his 
statement on Ehrenberg. 

'" Schem, Conversations Lexicon, pp. 69iff. 

" Biography of Fordtran says that Ernst was a gardner. Cf. Brown, 
Indian Wars and Pioneers, p. 424ff. 

^*"Life of German Pioneers in Early Texas." Cf. Te.xas Historical Quar- 
terly, Vol. II, p. 227ff. Article by Caroline von Hinueber, daughter of Ernst. 

^'^ Deutsche Pionier, Vol. 16, No. 9, p. 3ff. 

"League was 4428.4 acres; a labor was 177, or onc-twenty-fifth of a 
league or sitio. 

"According to account of Mrs. Hinueber quoted above. In F'ordtran's 
biography, it is stated that they met an American on their way to New 
Orleans while on board the steamer, and he influenced them to go to Texas. 
See Brown, p. 424!?. 

Germans in Texas 331 

burgh, in April, 1831. They remained in that place some five 
weeks, while Fordtran went ahead and entered a league of land 
where the town of Industry now stands. They travelled on ox- 
carts to San Felipe de Austin which had some three to four hun- 
dred inhabitants. Ernst is evidently the first German to bring 
his family into Texas. At that time there were a few unmarried 
Germans in Texas. ^^ They had no neighbors as far north as 
the White River, in Arkansas, and east to the Sabine River, and 
south to the settlement at San Felipe. They had only one neighbor 
to the west. It was twenty-eight miles to San Felipe. It is 
interesting to note the hardships endured by those early settlers. 
The house was a hut covered with straw, and having six sides 
made of moss.^*^ Mrs. Ernst slept on a deer skin without a 
pillow, on the floor. They had only corn bread at first to eat, 
and later only cow peas. The nearest mill was thirty miles distant. 
Ernst wrote to his former neighbors. This letter was pub- 
lished in the local newspaper. Through this means a number of 
Oldenburgers and Miinsterlanders with their families were 
brought to Texas in 1834.-*^ Among them were the families of 
Bartels, Zimmerschreib, lurgens, Ainsler, Walters, Kleberg, von 
Roedel, Siebel and Grasmeyer. Robert Kleberg, Sr., in his 
memoir mentions the names R. D. Stolje (probably Stoelke) and 
wife, Reinerman and wife, Bartels, Damke, William Vrels, John 
Hemike and George Herder. Ernst became an influential man 
in the republic. He took part in the Texan Revolution, and was 
one of the members of "the Teutonia Order," and one of the 
incorporators of Hermann University. Fordtran received a 
contract to bring in eight hundred families. 

" Mrs. Hineuber mentions a Hertzner, a tailor, and a Grossmeyer — 
Deutsche Pionier calls the name Wertzner. 

" The Civilian and Galveston Gazette, Dec. 2, 1843, mentions a settler 
who came in the thirties, evidently Ernst. It says that he built a camp 
interwoven between the angles with moss. 

" Der Deutsche Pionier, article by Mrs. Ernst, says that through Ford- 
tran's efforts some German immigrants were brought to Texas. Cf. above. 


Germans in Texas 

Through a letter sent by Ernst to his home in the Duchy 
of Oldenburg, a number of Germans were brought to Texas. 
Among these were the families von Roecler and Kleberg. It 
does not seem fitting in an account of the early Germans in 
Texas to omit some mention of Robert Justus Kleberg, Sr. He 
was born in Herstelle, Westphalia, and graduated doctor juris 
from Goetingen. In 1834, he determined to emigrate. In an 
account-^ written about him, he is said to have said : 

*T wished to live under a republican form of government, with 
unbounded personal, religious and political liberty, free from the 
petty tyrannies, the many disadvantages and evils of old countries. 
I was an enthusiastic lover of liberty, and I expected to find in Texas, 
above all countries, the blessed land of my most fervent hopes." 

How he happened to choose Texas for his home is told in 
a memoir which he kept. He says : 

"We had accidentally got hold of a letter written by a gentle- 
man, who had emigrated some time before us from the Duchy of 
Oldenburg and who lived near where now is Industry, Texas, Fritz 
Ernst by name. In this letter he had described Texas, then a prov- 
ince of Mexico, in very glowing colors, mentioning also, the advan- 
tages oft'ered by the Mexican government, namely, a league and a 
labor for every man with a family and one-half league for every 
single man. This letter caused us to change our first intentions to 
go to one of the northern States and to choose Texas for our future 
home. At the time we left, hardly anything was known of Texas, 
except that my ideas and those of my party were formed by the 
above mentioned letter, in which Texas was described as a beautiful 
country, with enchanting scenery and delightful climate, similar to 
that of Italy, the most fruitful soil and republican government with 
unbounded personal and political liberty, free from so many dis- 
advantages and evils of old countries. Prussia, our former home, 
smarted at the time we left, under a military despotism. We were 
enthusiastic lovers of republican institutions, full of romantic 
notions, and believed to find in Texas, before all other countries, the 
blessed land of our hope."" 

" Brown, Indian Wars and Pioneers of Texas, p. 289. 
" Texas Historical Quarterly, Vol. II, p. 228, foot note. This is taken 
from notes written by Kleberg in 1876. 

Germans in Texas 333 

This memoir shows what induced men of his stamp to leave 
the Fatherland, and is incidentally interesting, as it gives an idea 
how the immigrants to the new land influenced others to follow. 
The company of which Kleberg was a member was made up of 
himself and wife (he had married Rosalia von Roeder, daughter 
of Lieutenant Ludwig A. S. von Roeder), Lieutenant L. A. S. 
von Roeder,23 Louis Kleberg, Mrs. Otto von Roeder. Three 
sons of von Roeder and a daughter, together with a servant had 
preceded the party to Texas. The other passengers were mainly 
from the Duchy of Oldenburg. It took then sixty days to land 
in New Orleans. They finally landed at Galveston, December 22, 
1834. During the War of Independence, Kleberg and his com- 
patriots took part in the bloody storming of San Antonio. They 
later settled near Cat Spring, in Austin County. Kleberg held 
many offices in the State, and became a Confederate at the out- 
break of the Civil War, but was unable to serve on account of 
his advanced age. Kleberg was a man of especial culture. Be- 
sides a knowledge of the classics, he was a master of three modern 
languages and read their literature in the original. He kept up 
his interest in literature to the very end. No country could help 
but be aided by the addition of settlers of such a character. ^^ 

There is an interesting letter by one of these early settlers. 
He gives a good picture of the voyage and of the settlement. 
On account of its early date, and from the fact that it has, to my 
knowledge, never been quoted, it is given in full; it is dated, 
"Settlement on Mill Creek, in Austin's Colony, State of Texas, 
New Mexico, February i, 1832." 

"Ji^^^^^^^^y of the previous year we embarked on a brig to 
New Orleans. It was still winter on our departure from New York, 
then mild spring breezes blew upon us four days after our departure.' 

"'He is styled Baron von Roeder in a letter from M. E. Klebere. of 
Galveston, dated Nov. 5, 1904. 

^For an account of the life of these settlers see Texas Historical 
Quarterly, Vols. I and II. 

334 Germans in Texas 

Between Cuba and Florida, we had later real summer, and the whole 
sea voyage of a thousand miles over that part of the ocean, through 
the Bahama Islands, into the Gulf of Mexico, up to the mouth of the 
Mississippi, we lay constantly against the wind and came somewhat 
back. On the Mississippi up to New Orleans, a hundred and twenty 
miles (five make a German mile) we received favorable news of 
Austin's colony in Texas ; we embarked again in the schooner of 
thirty-seven tons and landed after an eight-day voyage at Harris- 
burgh in this colony. Each immigrant who wishes to engage in farm- 
ing receives a league of land; a single person, a one-quarter of a 
league.^^ A league is a league long and the same distance in width. 
He has in fees for surveying, cost of introduction, etc., to pay $i6o 
in installments; he must take the oath of citizenship and is after a 
period of a year a citizen of the free United States of Mexico ; also 
as Europeans, who are especially welcome, we received a peculiarly 
good league of land, and built upon it. 

"The State of Texas in which our colony makes nearly the 
sixth part, lies in the south on the Gulf of Mexico between the 27 
degree and 31 degree north latitude, in which also Napoleon's fol- 
lowers have settled. The rivers Trinidad, Rio Brassos (Brazos) 
and Rio Colorado flow through Austin's colony. It contains the chief 
city, San Felippe de Austin and the settlements of Harrisburgh, 
Bassoria (Brazoria), and Matagardo (Matagorda). One sails in 
three or four days to Tampico and Vera Cruz. The ground is hilly 
and alternates with forest and natural grass plains. Various kinds 
of trees. Climate like that of Sicily. The soil needs no fertilizer. 
Almost constant east wind. No winter, almost like March in Ger- 
many. Bees, birds and butterflies the whole winter through. A cow 
with a calf costs ten dollars. For ploughing, oxen are used. Planters 
who have seven hundred head of cattle are common. Principal 
products: Tobacco, rice, indigo (grows wild), sweet potatoes, 
melons of an especial goodness, watermelons, wheat, rye, vegetables 
of all kinds; peaches in great quantity grow wild in the woods; mul- 
berries, many kinds of walnuts, wild plums, persimmons, sweet as 
honey ; wine in great quantity, but not of a particular taste ; honey is 
found chiefly in hollow trees. Birds of all kinds, from pelicans to 
humming birds. Wild prey such as : Deer, bears, raccoons, wild tur- 
keys, geese, partridges (the latter as large as domestic fowls), etc., in 
quantity. Free hunting and fishing. Wild horses and buffalo in 
hordes ; wolves, but of a feeble kind ; also panthers and leopards, of 
which there is no danger; rich game, delicious roasts. Meadows 

This is evidently a mistake and should be one-half a league. 

Germans in Texas 335 

with the most charming flowers. Many snakes, also rattlesnakes ; 
each planter knows safe means against them. A league of land con- 
tains four thousand four hundred and forty acres of land, moun- 
tain and valley, woods and meadows, cut through by brooks. 
Through many settlers at one point, the value of it rises so high in 
price, that it has already come to be sold at a dollar per acre. 
English the ruling speech. Slavery forbidden, but silently allowed. 
Day labor three-quarters to a dollar, with board. Clothing and 
shoes very dear. Each settler builds himself a block-house. The 
more children, the better for easy field labor. The same manner of 
life as in North America. Mosquitoes and knats only common on 
the coast. Formerly no, and later on only community taxes. Yearly 
scarcely three months work. No need for money, free exercise of 
religion, and the best markets for all products at the Mexican har- 
bors ; up the river there is much silver, but there are still Indian 
races there. We men satisfy ourselves with hunting and horse- 
races. On account of the better markets, many people have come 
here from Missouri. One should go from Bremen to New Orleans ; 
from here to Harrisburgh, the cost is ten dollars per person ; goods 
must be paid extra ; children only cost half price ; living utensils 
are bought in New Orleans ; with favorable winds the journey lasts 
only four days. On account of the yellow fever, one should arrive 
in New Orleans some weeks before the month of July, or after the 
first of October. Arrived in Harrisburgh, wagons with oxen are 
rented to San Felippe where one reports to the land office; it is a 
good thing if one can speak English; only enough money is needed 
as is necessary to purchase a league of land. A father of a family 
must remember that he receives on his arrival, through the land 
granted to him, a county (Grafschaft), which will come to be worth 
in a short time, from seven to eight hundred (dollars), for which 
it is often sold here. The expenses for the land need not be paid 
immediately. Many raise the money from their cattle. For my 
acquaintences and former countrymen I have on my estate a stopping 
place until they have selected a league of land, which is not done 
so quickly. Col. Austin, however, promised recently to take care 
that German arrivals should be settled immediately. Who is un- 
married, will bring a good sensible companion for life with him. 
He who is married knows that many children belong to wealth. 
Arrived at San Felippe, ask after Friedrich Ernst at Mill Creek. It 
is thirty miles from there and you will find me. In New Orleans are 
purchased good axes for cutting wood of merchant Martinstein, 
Rue de Chartres. He is a German, and he will take especial care 
that you have everything necessary, on the journey from San Felippe 
you must camp in the open air. You must not lack meal and meat, 
a pair of good boots and rifle, as well as a saddle are essential needs. 

336 Germans in Texas 

The chief city of Texas is San Antonio on the Rio del Norte. Your 
friend, Fritz Dirks. 

N. B. Passports are not necessary. Sons over seventeen have 
like part in the settlement of the land."-® 

When the above was written I had not seen an article by 
Mr. L. F. La Frentz, of San Antonio, Texas, in Deutsch-Te.v- 
anische Monatshefte, vol. 11, no. 4. This article contains a 
resume of the letter which Fritz Ernst sent to his compatriots 
in Germany and which was published in a newspaper in the 
Duchy of Oldenburg. The similarity of the Ernst letter to that 
quoted above leads me to believe that either the author of the 
work in which the letter signed Fritz Dirks is quoted either mis- 
understood the name or that the name Dirks is a misprint and 
should read Ernst. In many paragraphs the words of the two 
letters are identical. The letter of Ernst as stated above had 
a great influence on German immigration. 

Many Germans were participants in the Texan War of In- 
dependence. The idea of battling against political tyranny and 
for religious freedom appealed to their revolutionary feelings. 1 
Undoubtedly this war with its romantic history later drew many 
Germans to Texas. It was, doubtless, aided by the publication 
by a German in that language of the history of the war. This 
history was a narrative of the personal experiences of the author 
in many of its engagements. It appeared^"^ under different 
titles, and evidently had a large circulation in Germany as many 
copies are still extant. The author was born at Marienwerder. 
He was the son of the royal Prussian counsellor to the govern- 
ment, Wilhelm von Ehrenberg. As a member of "the Burchen- 
schaft," at Jena, he was forced to come to America. At the out- 

^Achenbach, Hermann: Tagehuch meiner Reise in d. Nord amerikan- 
ischen Freistaaten oder das neue Kanaan. Diisseldorf, 1835, pp. 132-135. 

" Ehrenberg, Hermann : Texas und die Revolution, von Hermann Ehren- 
berg, Burger der Republik; Leipzig, 1843; Der Freiheitskampf in Texas, 1844; 
Fahrten und Schicksale eines Deutschen in Texas, 1845. 

Germans in Texas 337 

break of the Texan war he was in New Orleans and enlisted in 
the first company of the "New Orleans Grays," of which com- 
pany many Germans were members. He was active in the storm- 
ing of San Antonio and "the Alamo." After various adventures, 
he came with "the Grays" under the command of the unfortunate 
Colonel Fannin, and took part in the Goliad disaster and was 
one of the few to escape from that bloody encounter. He 
describes his experiences in a very dramatic manner, and must 
have had a strong influence over his German compatriots in the 
Fatherland ; how much this one story led the romantic German, 
who was seeking adventure and was without doubt charmed by 
the life described in Ehrenberg's works to thoughts of immigra- 
tion, it would be difficult to say. Bracht, in his work^^ mentions 
Ehrenberg as one of the authors to be read about Texas. Later 
Ehrenberg became a topographical surveyor in the surveying 
corps of the United States. He published his reports and letters 
about southern Arizona (1855-1860).^^ Among others who were 
participants in the Texan Revolution, were Dr. Gustav Busen,^*^ 
Peter Mattern, George Curtmann, George Voss, Ed. Harkort, 
who was chief engineer on the staff of Houston, and held the rank 
of colonel; Franz Dieterich, who was one of the survivors of 
the Fannin disaster, March, 1836; George B. Erath, after whom 
"Erath County" is named, and who was a member of the legis- 
lature; Joseph Biegel, who founded Biegel's settlement ;^^ Dr. 
Wilhelm Langenheim and Ferdinand Lindheimer. Of these, Voss 
and Curtmann, who had been Jena students, lost their lives at 
Goliad, March 2y, 1836.^^ The two latter deserve separate men- 
tion. The former, Wilhelm Langenheim, came to America in 
1830, and had been some years previous a lawyer in his native 

^ Bracht, Viktor : Texas im Jahre, 1848, p. 308. 
** Cf. Koerner, pp. 362-363. 

^For a sketch of his life cf. ibid, p. 252. His Hfe was most dramatic, 
good illustration of the German revolutionist of the thirties. 
^ For a list of these Germans cf. Rosenberg, Kritik, p. 7. 
"^For a list of Germans in Texan Revolution cf. Appendix A. 

338 Germans in Texas 

city of Braunschweig. He came to New York and joined a 
colony of Irish and Germans who intended to form a settlement 
on Aransas Bay, Texas. When the Texan War with Mexico 
broke out, he enlisted and showed skill in the storming of San 
Antonio. He shot the only cannon which the Texans possessed. 
He fell into the hands of the Mexicans during the expedition 
of Colonel Grant at San Patricio. Langenheim was one of the 
two who escaped to Matamoras. He was there taken prisoner 
and languished ten months in a Mexican prison. He was saved 
from being killed by the influence of a Spanish woman. In 
1837, he took part in the war against the Seminoles, fighting a 
year and a half in all engagements. Later he settled in Philadel- 
phia, and in 1846^^ returned to Texas. He later returned to 

Ferdinand Jakob Lindheimer is one of the most notable fig- 
ures among the early Germans in Texas. He was born in Frank- 
furt am Main in 1801.^^ He was seventy-eight years old at his 
death. He had studied at Jena, and perfected himself in peda- 
gogy at Berlin. He was a teacher in many schools in Germany 
and was a personal friend of Goethe's Zuleika, Marianne Wille- 
mer, with whom he corresponded. He came to America in 1834 
and was a member of the Latin settlement in St. Clair County; 
Illinois. He later joined the colony of Sartorius in Mexico. In 
1835 he went to Texas to take part in its War of Independence. 
He took part in all its engagements up to the battle of San 
Jacinto. After the war he settled in Texas and was made use 
of by Prince Solms-Braunfels and later by von Meusebach in 
the "Adelscolonie," at New Braunfels. He lived in this city until 

'^ Roemer met Langenheim during his stay in Texas. The account given 
by Roemer is probably from an account furnished him by Langenheim. Cf. 
Roemer, p. 205 ; also Koerner, p. 361. Koerner's account is either based upon 
Roemer, or a similar account given by Langenheim. 

" Koerner says he was born in 1802. Dr. Siemering, who was a personal 
friend, says the date was 1801. Cf. Koerner, p. 362; Deutsche Pionier, Vol. 
II, No. 10, p. 381, article by Dr. A. Siemering. 

Germans in Texas 339 

his death. He wah the editor of the New Braunfels Zeitiing from 
1853 until 1869. During his Hfe in Texas, he became known 
in Europe as a botanist. He collected a great number of speci- 
mens and sent them to Germany. He was one of the best known 
naturalists of his day. Many botanical specimens were named 
after him "Lindheimeriana."^^ He was aided in his work by 
a queer character of the name of Friedrich.^^ The latter was 
peculiar in his dress and lived as a hermit. He and Lindheimer 
went to Mexico after the Texan War. Friedrich was a student 
of law in Germany and came to Texas in 1834. For forty years 
he studied in Texas with the greatest assiduity. The University 
of Leipzig offered a prize for the best monograph on, and 
newest discoveries in, entomology. Friedrich sent a complete 
work in Latin with a rich collection of beetles, butterflies and 
insects of all kinds and received the prize. Later, he and Lind- 
heimer returned to Texas and devoted themselves to their chosen 

Among the settlements between the Brazos and Colorado, 
founded from 1 833-1 836 are those of Shelby, founded by the 
von Roeder family; Frelsburg, family of Frels, Oldenburger; 
Industry, founded by Ernst and Fordtran.^'^ 

That there were many Germans settled in the State before 
the great stream of immigration in the forties is shown by the 
mention of German arrivals in the newspapers of the State. The 
Houston Telegraph, December 11, 1839, mentions the arrival of 
forty families of German immigrants, and states that four 
hundred families of that nation may be expected before January 
first of the following year. The same paper, under date of 
September 14, 1842, announces the arrival of Counts Joseph de 
Boos-Waldeck and Victor de Leiningen. They had come to 

" Cf. Roemer, p. 425ff; Texas Historical Quarterly, II, pp. 172-173; 
Deutsche Pionicr, Vol. II, No. 10, p. 381 ; Koerner, p. 364. 

^^ Cf. Deutsche Pionier as supra; also, Vol. 12, No. 10, pp. 394-5. 
" Mgebroff, p. 2, 

340 Germans in Texas 

arrange for the later immigration made by the "Adelsverein." 
The Civilian and Galveston Gazette, January 7, 1843, announces 
the arrival from Havre on the ship "Ebro" of one hundred and 
seventeen immigrants. The Telegraph^^ reports that some sixty 
families had arrived at Galveston ; that they were all farmers and 
intended to settle in the interior. The influence of Ernst is seen 
in that many of these immigrants are bound for the interior and 
intended to settle on Mill Creek. The same paper under date of 
December 27, 1843, ^^rid January 17, 1844, notes the arrival 
of fifty-two and a hundred and twenty-nine immigrants, respec- 
tively. Like those noted above, they were intending settling on 
Mill Creek. 

What the condition of these early German immigrants rose 
to be is shown by statements of the arrivals in the thirties and 
their success within five or ten years. Several had come without 
any means of support and were worth from $3,000 to $5,000 in 
cash, besides owning a league of land, have hogs, cattle and 
horses and good houses. Their skill, industry and energy are 
especially marked. ^^ These illustrations are sufficient to show 
the character of the early German inhabitant in this State. That 
he must have exerted a strong influence in developing the Texan 
Republic is shown by his loyalty and patriotism during its War of 
Independence. That many were men of culture and refinement is 
indicated clearly by the examples of such men as Kleberg, the 
von Roeders, Langenheim, Ehrenberg and Lindheimer. That 
their love of music was not given up with their leaving the 
Fatherland is shown by the fact that some had pianos.^" 

West of the Colorado River there were no noteworthy Ger- 
man settlements before 1844.^^ 

* Houston Telegraph, Feb. i, 1843. 

" Civilian and Galveston Gazette, Dec. 2, 1843. 

*• Texas Quarterly, Vol. I, p. 298. 

" Rosenberg, Kritik, p. 7. 

1683 — October 6 — 1908. 


Two Hundred and Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the 
Arrival of the First German Settlers of Germantown. 

Laying of the Cornerstone of a Monument to Francis 
Daniel Pastorius, Their Leader. 

Under the Auspices of the National German American Alliance 
and the German Society of Pennsylvania. 

Next Tuesday, October 6, will be observed as "German 
Day" by Germans throughout the country to celebrate the anni- 
versary of the arrival on these shores of the first permanent 
colony of German settlers, 225 years ago. Their guiding spirit 
was Pastorius, one of the most remarkable men of Colonial times, 
who spoke and wrote seven languages and wrote the first school- 
books said to have been published in America. The descendants 
of his followers point proudly to the fact that the Bible was 
printed three times in German and the New Testament seven 
times before an edition appeared in any other European language, 
and they hold in great respect the name of the printer, Christopher 

German Americans from many other States will be here to 
join in the celebration. The State presidents of forty-two 
branches of the National German American Alliance — an organi- 


342 German Day of Founders' Week 

zation with 2,600,000 members — have accepted invitations. On 
the morning of October 6 a parade will be formed at Broad 
street and Erie avenue, with at least 15,000 men in line. These 
will include the German societies of Philadelphia and representa- 
tives of German societies from other States. From Maryland 
will come a "Flag Division," carrying more than 300 flags of all 
the German societies of Maryland. There will also be delegations 
from Camden, Riverside, Wilmington, Reading, Lancaster, Tren- 
ton, Elizabeth and other cities. 

Forty bands of music have been engaged for the parade. 
The citizens of Germantown will join in the celebration, and it is 
estimated that they will have 2,500 men in line, composed of 
fraternal and other bodies, and a historical division, consisting 
of fourteen sections, with numerous floats depicting important 
events in German American history, beginning with the first set- 
tlement of Germantown. 

Colonel James B. Coryell will be grand marshal of the 
Germantown procession, and Magistrate A. H. Ladner will be 
grand marshal of the Philadelphia parade. 

The entire parade will march out Germantown avenue as 
far as Carpenter street. Triumphal arches will be erected at 
Wayne Junction — the beginning of old Germantown proper — 
and at the entrance to Vernon Park, where the cornerstone cere- 
monial of the Pastorius monument will be held. 

A large stand, beautifully decorated, will be erected in 
Vernon Park, from which the parade will be reviewed by the 
distinguished guests, including Governor Stuart, Mayor Reyburn, 
the German Emperor's special ambassador, the mayors of all the 
important cities who have been invited to attend the Founders' 
Week celebrations, the consuls of all the nations represented at 
this port, invited by the German American Alliance, and the 
officers of the two German men-of-war which will be sent here 
especially for this occasion. 

German Day of Founders' Week 343 

The Cornerstone. 

The cornerstone to be unveiled consists of a huge block of 
granite, eight feet high, with bronze tablets, designed by the 
German sculptor, Otto Schweitzer, of this city, and costing 
$2,000. At the left hand on the tablet are Pastorius and his 
followers. Above them are the genii of science, industry and 
art. The sculptural work has been outlined by J. Otto Schweit- 
zer. The cornerstone will be eight feet high, and is to have the 
following inscription: "To mark the site of the monument to be 
erected in honor of the founders of the first permanent German 
settlement in our land, who arrived at Philadelphia, October 6, 
1683." Then will follow the names of the first German settlers, 
and also the seal of Germantown, with the motto, "Vinum, linum 
et textrinum." 

The cornerstone will be part of a monument to be ultimately 
erected to commemorate the deeds of Germans or those of 
German extraction in upbuilding this country. The proposed 
monument, when finished, will cost $60,000, of which, it is 
expected, $30,000 will be appropriated by Congress. A bill for 
this purpose has been introduced, and provides also that the final 
design shall be selected by the Secretary of War, the Governor 
of Pennsylvania and the president of the National German Amer- 
ican Alliance. 

The unveiling of the cornerstone will be performed by Dr. 
C. J. Hexamer, president of the National German American 
Alliance, who will formally present it as a gift to the city of 
Philadelphia. The speech of acceptance will be made by Mayor 
Reyburn. An oration in German will be delivered by the Rev. 
George von Bosse, and A. J. Barchfeld, member of Congress 
from Pittsburgh, will deliver the oration in English. The pro- 
gramme will include singing by a grand chorus of 1,000 voices, 
made up of the United Singers of Philadelphia, and a children's 
chorus of 800 voices, selected from the various German Sunday 

344 German Day of Founders' Week 

The Programme. 
Following is the programme: 

Morning — 9 O'Clock. 
Parade to Germantown. 

10 O'clock. 
Celebration in Vernon Park, Germantown. 

Selection Orchestra 

Song, "Der Tag des Herrn" Kreutzer 

The United Singers of Philadelphia (over 800 voices). 
Herman G. Kumme, leader. 

Opening Address Henry Schwemmer 

German Oration Rev. George von Bosse 

Unveiling of the Cornerstone of the Pastorius Monument by 

Dr. C. J. Hexamer and presentation to the city. 

Acceptance for the city by Mayor Reyburn. 

Presentation of a subscription to the Monument Fund raised by 

school children. 

Children's Chorus "Unser Vaterland" 

Specially composed for this occasion by J. Stumpf. Sung by the 
children's choruses of the various German Sunday schools 
of Philadelphia. Mr. J. Stumpf, leader. 

English Oration A. J. Barchfeld, M. C. 

Grand Chorus, "Dankgebet" Kremser 

The United Singers of Philadelphia. 
"America" Sung by all present. 

The visiting ladies will be entertained jointly by the local 
ladies' committee of the National German American Alliance, 
of which Mrs. A. Ehrlich is chairman, and the ladies' committee 
of Germantown. A luncheon will be served by these in the 
museum building in Vernon Park, which will be specially set 
apart for that purpose. The Germantown committee has arranged 
that the historic spots will be shown to parties of one hundred 
visitors. Sight-seeing in automobiles is also arranged. 

German Day of Founders' Week 345 

The children participating in the exercises will be given a 
luncheon in the Town Hall. Each child will be presented with a 
handsome souvenir medal. The obverse side will show the ship 
Concord, in which the first German settlers arrived. On the 
reverse side will be an inscription giving the date and occasion of 
the celebration. 

Each child will be given, also, a box of candy in a souvenir 
box, the lid of which will be decorated with a finely executed 
print, which has been made by Max Zeitler, engraver of the 
United States seal. This shows the house built in Germantown 
by Francis Daniel Pastorius, and afterwards owned by his son 
Samuel; the house built in 1748 by Daniel Pastorius, a grandson 
of Francis Daniel, and the house built in 1796 by Daniel Pasto- 
rius, a great-grandson of Francis Daniel Pastorius. The first 
two houses stood on the site of the present Methodist Church at 
the corner of High street. 

Above the picture of the three houses are inscribed the dates 
"1683" and "1908" and the words "Commemorating the 225th 
Anniversary of the Founding of Germantown." In the middle 
of this inscription is an old seal of Germantown, bearing the 
date "1691." On the lower part of the print is seen a fac-simile 
of the seal of Pastorius, stamped with his arms ; the coat-of-arms 
of Penn, the German arms and an old court seal of the borough 
of Germantown. On one side of the print is engraved a map of 
old Philadelphia and on another an old map of Germantown. 
The whole design has been adopted for the official souvenir post 
card of the National German American Alliance. 

An artistic medal for German Day has been designed by 
Frank Sima. 

The guests of honor— about 100 — who will attend the un- 
veiling are to be met at the Bellevue-Stratford and escorted to 
Vernon Park in automobiles by a reception committee of citizens 
of Germantown. After the ceremonies, they will be taken to the 
Manheim Cricket Club, where an elaborate luncheon will be 

346 German Day of Founders' Week 

Evening Exercises at Academy. 

In the evening a demonstration will be held in the Academy 
of Music. The exercises will begin at 7.30 o'clock. Dr. Hexamer 
will deHver the opening address and will be followed by Governor 
Stuart, the representative of the German Emperor, Professor 
Adolph Spaeth, D. D., who will deliver the German oration, and 
Herman Ridder, president of the New York Staats-Zeitung, who 
will deliver the oration in English. An elaborate musical pro- 
gramme, with chorus singing, has been arranged for the occasion. 

Celebration at the Academy of Music. 

Overture, "Der Freischuetz" Weber 

Orchestra, Louis Koemmenich, leader. 

"Das Deutschenlied," specially composed for this occasion by 

Louis Koemmenich. The United Singers of Philadelphia. 

Herman G. Kumme, leader. 

Opening Address by the President of the National German 

American Alliance, Dr. C. J. Hexamer. 

Address by Governor Stuart. 

Address by the Representative of his Majesty, the German 


German Oration Prof. Dr. Adolph Spaeth 

Songs — 

"Die Auswanderer" Gevaert 

Junger Maennerchor, Louis Koemmenich, leader. 

"Waldweben" Weber 

Harmonic, Eugen Klee, leader. 

"Hoch Empor" Curti 

Philadelphia Quartet Club, Emil F. Ulrich, leader. 
Introduction to the third act, dance of the apprentices, entrance 
of the Meistersingers and welcome to Hans Sachs, from the 

"Meistersingers of Nuremberg" Wagner 

Orchestra, Louis Koemmenich, leader. 
English Oration, Herman Ridder, President of the New York 


German Day of Founders' Week 347 

Gothenzug Kriegeskotten 

Orchestration by Koemmenich. 
Mixed chorus, 800 voices, and orchestra. Various mixed 
choruses of the city. Eugen Klee, leader. 
"The Star-Spangled Banner" Sung by all present. 

Tickets for the concert are now for sale at Heppe's, 11 15 
Chestnut street, and will be sold on the night of the concert at the 
box office at the Academy of Music. 

The Germantown Committee in charge of the celebration is 
composed of more than 100 of the most prominent citizens of 
Germantown, with Charles F. Jenkins as chairman of the Execu- 
tive Committee; Mahlon N. Kline, vice-chairman; Walter Will- 
iams, treasurer, and William H. Emhardt, Jr., secretary. Mar- 
shall T. Farra is chairman of the Committee on Stands ; Richard 
L. Austin, Finance ; J. Levering Jones, Reception ; Jacob J. Seeds, 
Entertainment, and James B. Coryell, Parade. 

The Executive Committee representing the National German 
American Alliance and the German Society of Pennsylvania is 
headed by Dr. C. J. Hexamer, president; Herman Heyl, secre- 
tary, and Hans Weniger, treasurer. 

The following are chairmen of committees: Designs and 
Plans of a Memorial Stone, Carl P. Berger; Oration, Henry 
Schwemmer; Police, Albert H. Ladner; General Invitation and 
Souvenir Book, Henry Lierz; Quarters and Transportation, 
J. B. Mayer; Music, Arno Leonhardt; Reception, Dr. Joseph 
Krauskopf ; Historical, Professor Dr. Marion D. Learned; Sing- 
ers, Henry Detreux; Turners, Albert L. Weise; Medical, Dr. 
Victor Leser ; Press, Adolph Timm ; Ladies, Mrs. Antoine Ehr- 
lich, Jr.; Decoration and Badge, Frank Sima; Printing, Max 
Zeitler; Finance, M. Richards Muckle; German Citizens of Ger- 
mantown, J. F. Otterstetter; Tickets and Boxes, E. W. Siegmann; 
German Department of the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. 
Edwin M. Fogel ; Historical Map of Germantown, Dr. Naaman 
W. Keyser; German Churches, the Rev. G. von Bosse; German 

348 German Day of Founders' Week 

Schools, Dr. W. A. Haussmann; Invitation of Honorary Guests, 
John C. Oeters; Germantown Committee on Sites and ReHcs, 
Ciiarles F. Jenkins; Germantown Committee for Germantown 
Souvenir Book, Horace F. McCann ; Committee for New Jersey, 
WiUiam A. Sangtinette ; Legislative, P. A. Wildermuth ; Com- 
mittee for Delaware, Christopher Bauer; Beneficial Societies, 
John E. Schoenherr; Trades Unions, August Lange; Uniformed 
Companies, Anton Rapp; Volksfest-Verein, Gott. Hammer; 
Finance and Subscription, Gen. Louis Wagner ; School Societies, 
George Fischer. 

Oration delivered on German Day, October 6, 1908, in commem- 
oration of the landing of the thirteen families, who, in A. D. 
1683, under the leadership of Francis Daniel Pastoriiis, 
founded the first German settlement in America, and on the 
occasion of the unveiling of the Pastorius Memorial Stone 
in Germantoivn, Philadelphia, Pa., by 

Rev. Georg von Bosse. 

Esteemed Friends : It is a solemn day we celebrate, the 
German Day, the day that is to bear witness concerning the share 
that the Germans have contributed to the development of this 
vast country, so abundantly blessed by God, and in the forma- 
tion of this youthful nation that striveth onward puissantly and 

It is a blessed hour that hath united us to lay the corner- 
stone of a monument in honor of that man who himself hath 
laid the foundation stone of German culture in America. 

It is a site, hallowed in history, where we now stand. Here 
the £rst German settlers toiled in the sweat of their brow ; here 
rose the first German tozvn in America; here the first German 
anthem ascended heavenward ; here the first protest against 
abomniable slavery was fulminated; here stood the first German 
printing press; here the first Bible was printed in America, and, 

German Day of Founders' Week 349 

that too, in the German language; here, too, the first religious 
periodicals and the first newspaper were edited, and each, also, 
in the German language. Here it was, where German characters 
first promulgated to the marveling nations of earth the birth of 
this great Republic. Here it was, where German hearts jubilantly 
throbbed, when the glorius Declaration of Independence was 
promulgated, — and, as in many other localities — the ground here, 
too, — hath been besprent with the precious life-blood of Germans 
who, in the Battle of Germantown, fought for liberty's sacred 


It is a solemn day we celebrate, the German Day. For, a 
quarter of a century ago, in October, 1883, on the 200th anni- 
versary of the landing of Francis Daniel Pastorius and the 
thirteen families from Krefeld, the first German Day was inaugu- 
rated principally through the efforts of those men whose mem- 
ory we cherish. Dr. Gottlieb Theodore Kellner and Prof. Oswald 
Seidensticker. The idea of the celebration of a German Day 
had its opponents, and not a few, but owing to the energy of 
the National German American Alliance, under the able leader- 
ship of Dr. C. J. Hexamer, the institution of the German Day 
bids fair to become permanent. And to-day after twenty-£ve 
years have rolled by like some wild melody? 'Tis not a handful 
of Germans that celebrate this day in some remote corner — nay, 
by tens of thousands they have flocked together to the birthplace 
of the German Day; they have come as representatives from all 
the states of our vast country; the eyes of millions are this day 
fixed upon us ; the absent are with us in spirit there in the ancient 
city of Krefeld, whence came the first German settlers, and in 
distant Sommerhausen, the birthplace of Pastorius, yea even 
throughout the German Empire, at whose head the German Em- 
peror, who hath sent a representative to this celebration of ours, 
in his capacity as promoter of amicable relations between the two 
countries. Nor do we stand alone in this celebration. Verily, 
Americans, not of German kith and kin, Americans, not biased 
by blind prejudices, not hampered by nativism, but, rather, true 

350 German Day of Founders' Week 

and genuine Americans, worthy sons of this land of liberty, and 
those who could not come, they are with us in spirit, and fore- 
most among these the President of the United States, Mr. 
Theodore Roosevelt, who is intimately conversant with German 
thought and culture. 

But what is the purport of the German Day? It has been 
instituted to bear witness concerning that which Germans have 
wrought in behalf of our country. 

We hear so much of what the Pilgrim Fathers and their 
descendants have done for our country, but that which Germans 
have done is passed over oftentimes in silence or belittled. Names 
of German men, worthy of fame, have been buried in oblivion. 
A Senator from one of the New England States informs us, that 
among 14,000 names, 10.376 English, 1439 Scotch and only 659 
German names (mirabile dictu) are found worthy of admittance 
in a biographical dictionary! In the face of such statistics it is 
high time that we German Americans awake and snatch from 
oblivion the names of our ancestors who have left footprints in 
the sands of time. The National German American Alliance 
has, I am happy to say, auspiciously inaugurated this work. 
Time there was, when I fondly cherished the specious delusion, 
that all the culture we have, is the work of the descendants of 
the Pilgrim Fathers, but inspired by the labors of Doctor Hexa- 
mer, an American of German descent, and of Professor Learned, 
an American of English descent, I have taken up the study of 
German culture in America, and a new light burst upon my 
vision. I blushed because of the consciousness of my ignorance. 
I was filled with indignation on hearing the work of our ances- 
tors spoken of lightly, yet was my heart filled with joy on notic- 
ing how, now, justice is gradually being done to the merits of 
German Americans. 

This glorius day is to strengthen us in all the endeavors we 
hold necessary for the welfare of our country. We would give 
to our nation the best traits of German character. Our Turners' 
and Singers' Societies strive to educate body and soul. The 

German Day of Founders' Week 351 

National German American Alliance strives to popularize the 
study of the German language, the language of a great people and 
of so many great men, the language of all the learned of modern 
times, the language of our heart and soul. We would, more- 
over, preserve the purity of our government. We would educate 
our children in such a manner, that they have within themselves 
the necessary moral fortitude to disdain a coercive yoke, which, as 
Bishop Warburton correctly remarks, can only influence us to 
outward practice. We would introduce innocent recreation into 
our hurried and worried business life. And, again, we would 
advocate amicable relations between our nation and other nations, 
and especially with Germany. It is my fervent wish, that this 
German Day may, in the near future, become a day of fraterniza- 
tion of all the various nationalities represented in this glorious 
Republic ! 

It is a hallowed hour that uniteth us. A memorial stone, that 
is to be the foundation stone of a monument in honor of Francis 
Daniel Pastorius and of the thirteen families from Krefeld, is to 
be unveiled. Let us briefly review the life of this remarkable 
man. Born at Sommerhausen in Franconia on September 26, 
1 65 1, he, as a youth, devoted himself to the study of jurispru- 
dence, and on October 6, 1683, he arrived here in the good ship 
"Concord," and was welcomed by his friend, William Penn, who 
ceded to him the ground whereon Germantown now standeth. 
There remaineth unto us no portrait of this first German pioneer, 
but what of that? His picture is mirrored forth from out his 
works, an ever attractive likeness; be he an adviser and mar- 
shaller amidst the group that confided in his guidance, or an 
humble believer in the Crucified Nazarene, expounding Sunday 
after Sunday to his devout congregation the exemplary life of the 
Theanthrope and imploring strength from on high, or as burgo- 
master, governing with a firm hand his youthful commonwealth, 
or as a judge, censuring and admonishing, or as a teacher, edu- 
cating and ennobling his disciples, or as a writer in various 
tongues, or as a husbandman nursing with tender care the young 

352 German Day of Founders' Week 

scions of his field, or behold we him in his full strength, hurling 
with flaming eye the first protest against slavery into the world ; 
everywhere his image is an attractive one, and his example, 
worthy of imitation. Verily, as saith the poet Schiller, "he was 
the creator of his own merit." To erect a monument in honor 
of Francis Daniel Pastorius is naught but a work of gratitude, 
incumbent not only upon German Americans, but upon all Ameri- 

It is a landmark of culture wc are now standing on. Pas- 
torius' commonwealth hath survived two and a quarter centuries 
and bids fair to continue in vigor. Here is the fountain-head 
of the multitudinously ramifying stream of German culture. 
The coat-of-arms of Germantown, a three-leafed clover, a grape 
and a flax plant and weaver's bobbin, surrounded by the legend : 
"Vinum, linum et textrinum," hath become the coat-of-arms, 
wherever German culture hath gained a hold in this land. 

Wherever Germans have settled, we find from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific, from the Gulf to the Great Lakes, blooming com- 
munities, imbued with deep and true religious feeling, devoid of 
zealotism and fanaticism, the breath of true liberty permeateth 
them, and German men stand ready to vindicate the fair goddess, 
and German housewives educating their offspring to become use- 
ful citizens and unrepiningly immolating their sons on liberty's 

A noble-hearted German woman, several years ago, 
offered valuable prizes to stimulate the study of German culture 
in America. The day is not distant, when the fruits of this work 
shall become the delectation of all. 

Permit me, dear friends, to close with the words of Pas- 
torius : "A blessing upon thee, German posterity ; a blessing on 
thee, fraternal German nation, a blessing for evermore." 

German Day of Founders' Week 353 


German Day of Founders' Week, October 6, 1908. 

Governor Edwin H. Stuart, and staff. 

Mayor John E. Reyburn, and cabinet. 

Count Hatzfeld-Wildenburg, representative of the 

German Emperor. 
Captain Retzmann. 
Von Prittwitz und GafTron. 
Hon. Samuel W. Pennypacker. 
Werner Hagen. 
Gustav A. Walther. 
Theodor von Thodorowich. 
Arnold Katz. 

Congressman A. J. Barchfeld, of Pittsburg. 
Hermann Ridder, of New York City. 
Rev. Dr. Adolph Spaeth. 
Rev. Georg von Bosse. 
Mrs. Mary A. Wallace, Washington, D. C. 
Daniel B. Pastorius. 
Mrs. Daniel B. Pastorius. 
Mr. and Mrs. A. C. Pastorius Ridley. 
Mr. and Mrs. Conrad B. Slater, Sr. 
C. B. Slater, Jr. 
Joseph Keller, of Indianapolis. 
John Tjarks, of Baltimore. 
Col. E. C. Stahl, of Trenton. 
H. C. Bloedel, of Pittsburg. 
Theodore Sutro, of New York City. 
Rudolf Cronan, of New York City. 
Karl A. M. Scholtz, of Baltimore. 
Kurt Voelckner, of Washington, D. C. 
George Grimme, of Newark. 
Hon. Adolph Lankering, of Hoboken. 
Julius Moersch, of St. Paul, Minn. 
Carl Eberhard, of Boston. 
Prof. Leo Stern, Milwaukee. 
Hon. John Schwaab, Cincinnati. 
A. F. Trappe, Baltimore. 
Carl Illig, Richmond, Va. 
Charles Toussaint, Savannah, Ga. 

254 German Day of Founders' Week 

Henry M. Freeh, Pawtucket, R. I. 

Carl Lichtenberg, Providence, R. I. 

W. J. Gentsch, Detroit, Mich. 

Hermann Pistorius, Saginaw, Mich. 

Martin Meyerdirck, of Baltimore. 

Rev. Dr. Julius Hoffman, Baltimore. 

Henry Arnold, Pittsburg. 

Paul Heine, Lancaster. 

Adam Schueler, Altoona. 

Albert Friedmann, Reading. 

William J. Goeckel, Wilkes-Barre. 

Fritz Wagner, Sr., Scranton. 

H. C. Boenish, New Castle. 

A. P. Leatherman, Doylestown. 

Gustav Rathke, Bristol. 

Prof. August Ischinger, Erie, Pa. 

Christopher Bauer, of Wilmington. 

Wm. A. Sangtinette, of Camden. 

Harry Vilmow, of Wilmington. 

Hermann Hardenberg. 

William A. Proetzel. 

Albert Gottscho. 

Otto Schweitzer. 

Louis Koemmenich. 

J. Stumpf. 

H. G. Kumme. 

Emil F. Ullrich. 

Eugen Klee. 

James B. Sheehan. 

Henry Boylan. 

Nicholas Redmond. 

Peter J. Higgins. 

John M. Greene. 

John A. Gillan. 

Dr. C. J. Hexamer. 

Arno Leonhardt. 

P. A. Wildermuth. 

Rev. Dr. Jos. Krauskopf. 

Prof. Dr. Marion D. Learned. 

Col. Richards M. Muckle. 

General Louis Wagner. 

German Day of Founders' Week 355 

Gottl. Hammer. 
John A. Schoenherr. 
G. A. Schwartz, 

F, H. Harjes. 
C. J. Braun. 
O. Frotscher. 

J. A. Heintzelman. 
Charles A. Hexamer. 
Martin Hotz. 

G. A. Kirchner. 
Henry Schimpf. 
Richard Strohm. 
Hans Weniger. 
Hermann Heyl. 
Carl P. Berger. 
Henry Schwemmer. 
Albert H. Ladner. 
Henry Lierz. 

J. B. Meyer. 
Henry Detreux. 
A. L. Weise. 
Dr. Victor Leser. 
Adolph Timm. 
Hermann Weder. 
Otto Moses. 
Franz Ehrlich, Jr. 
Frank Sima. 
Max Zeitler. 
J. F. Otterstetter. 
E. W. Siegmann. 
Dr. Edwin Vogel. 
Dr. Naaman Keyser. 
Dr. W. A. Haussmann. 
Samuel G. Seeger. 
John C. Getters. 
Dr. Harry F. Keller. 
Charles F. Jenkins. 
Horace F. McCann. 
Anton Rapp. 
Franz Becker. 
August Lange. 
Georg Fischer. 

356 German Day of Founders' Week 

The Unveiling of the Cornerstone by the President of the Na- 
tional German American Alliance, Dr. C. J. Hexamer. 
Ladies and Gentlemen : — With profound love we this day 
think of our German ancestors. German puissance, German 
valor, German perseverance and German family life, perpetual 
fountain of true, self-sacrificing love, which, to protect those 
that are near and dear, engenders heroic deeds of patriotism ; all 
these things have contributed infinitely towards exalting our 
country to her high estate. For liberty, that highest ideal of the 
Germans from time immemorial, our fathers fought, not alone 
with protests against slavery, at a time when Anglo-Americans 
in New England executed witches, but also on the battlefield. 
The names of Steuben, De Kalb, Herchheimer and Muehlen- 
berg shall live for all time. Nor will a grateful people ever for- 
get, that almost 200,000 Germans were ready to shed their 
blood for the Union, that not one star might be torn from our 
glorious banner, and that we might be, as we now are, a united 
and powerful nation. 

And yet our ancestors did not seek to triumph in san- 
guinary wars, but rather in the arts of peace. Wherever Ger- 
mans settled, the wilderness was transformed into garden spots 
and blossomed as the rose. Their lands flowing with milk and 
honey. In every trade, art, and industry they excelled. Ger- 
man teachers, painters, sculptors, poets, musicians and men of 
science have filled the world with admiration. 

To investigate and record the deeds of our ancestors, to 
educate our youth, "ut sit mens sana in corpore sano" (that 
a sound mind may dwell in a sound body), and that they may 
be proud of their kin; to assist German immigrants and to edu- 
cate them, so that they may become useful citizens of our Repub- 
lic, and to imbue all of Uncle Sam's children with the fact, that: 
"Full many a gem of purest ray serene" is found in German lore, 
and that its flowers may not be born to blush unseen and waste 
their sweetness on the desert air — such are the principal aims of 
the great National German American Alliance. 

German Day of Founders' Week 357 

We now erect this cornerstone, a work of German art, not 
as part of a local, but of a national monument of the Germans of 
America. It is hence a sacred obligation unto all in whose veins 
German blood courses, to strive to complete this work in a worthy 

In the annals of this first German settlement we find 
recorded the belssing of our venerable father Pastorius (whose 
name, being interpreted, means: a shepherd), and if we will 
cleave unto one another, as we now, in this solemn hour, do vow, 
to pursue our high cultural mission indefatigably, this self-same 
blessing shall be fulfilled: 

"All hail, German progeny! 
All hail, ye German brethren! 
All hail for evermore !" 

And now, Mr. Mayor, I have the honor to transfer to you 
for the City of Philadelphia in behalf of the National German 
American Alliance this cornerstone, as an ornament unto the 
City of Brotherly Love, as an emblem of German loyalty to the 
land of our adoption or birth, and as a token of everlasting amity 
between the new and the old Fatherland. 

Opening Speech of Dr. C. J. Hexamer, Academy of Music. 

Ladies and Gentlemen : — On this day, a quarter of a century 
ago, a reverent multitude was also assembled, as there is this 
evening, to celebrate the first "German Day." Many that were with 
us then are no longer in the land of the living, but, as all that is 
good, their works will endure as long as there are Americans, that 
are proud of their German ancestry. We gratefully acknowledge 
the services Dr. Oswald Seidensticker and Dr. Kellner have ren- 
dered to bring" about a more perfect union among German Ameri- 
cans and to secure for them in public life the position of honor 
they rightly deserve. 

Of all the nationalities represented in America we have the 

358 German Day of Founders' Week 

most partiotic celebration; for, whilst others, as for instance, 
the French celebrate historical events in their native country, or 
as the Irish, Welsh and English celebrate the feast of their patron 
saints — we celebrate the day on which the first German settlers 
set foot on this shore, nor do we panegyrize deeds wrought in 
foreign lands, but the works that Germans wrought in building 
up this land and our nation. 

More eloquent orators than I will depict the heroic deeds of 
our ancestors in war and in peace, and they will show how inti- 
mately German influence is interwoven with our national develop- 

As in the past, so may it be in time to come. Never shall 
the command : "Germans, to the front !" remain unheeded. 

I now have both the honor and pleasure to introduce to you 
the Governor of the State, concerning which a colonial governor 
(Thomas) wrote in 1748. "The Germans in the province form, 
as I believe, three-fifths of the entire population, and through 
their industry and thrift they have been largely instrumental in 
raising this colony to its present flourishing condition." 

Ladies and gentlemen. His Excellency, the Governor of 
Pennsylvania, Edwin H. Stuart. 

Speech of Rev. Dr. A. Spaeth, delivered at the Academy of 
Music on the evening of October 6, 1908. 

Ladies and Gentlemen: — On this evening ten years ago we 
celebrated the German Day in this very place. Our celebration 
at that time was in honor of Bismarck, who died in 1898. We 
German Americans considered that tribute not incompatible with 
our specifically American celebration, inasmuch as we, as Ameri- 
can citizens of German descent, are in duty bound to render a 
strict account before the tribunal of our conscience as to whether 
we really do our best to fulfill our mission in this great Republic. 
We all feel that what Bismarck has done for the German people 
has been and still is a potent stimulus unto us. 

German Day of Founders' Week 359 

They are proud of being Germans and are conscious of their 
vocation. As for us German Americans, let us not be content 
with remembering that which our forefathers have done for this 
country, but rather, let us familiarize our Anglo-American fellow- 
citizens with the noble deeds of German Americans in behalf 
of our beloved country, deeds, which, I am sorry to say, have 
often been passed over in silence or wilfully misrepresented. 

The grand festivities of this week render our celebration espe- 
cially felicitous. The founding of the City of Brotherly Love 
and of this great Commonwealth of Pennsylvania go hand in 
hand with the first German immigration, that humble colony of 
thirteeen families from Crefeld, who founded Germantown. 

That which is truly great and ideal in those early German 
colonists is, I think, their perfect sympathy with William Penn 
and their profound conviction that liberty of conscience must be 
the cornerstone of the new commonwealth which he established. 
Liberty of conscience was the magnet that attracted them hither, 
the talisman by virtue of which they heeded not the terror and 
the toil of the wilderness, but, like Roger Williams, they trusted 
in "God's merciful providence to them in their distress." 

That first German immigration, though a feeble beginning, 
was strengthened in time, and, for these 225 years, hundreds of 
thousands of Germany's sons have come, attracted by the same 
talismans : Religious toleration and liberty of conscience. By the 
middle of the eighteenth century the Germans in Pennsylvania 
numbered about 90,000. Dr. William Smith, the first Provost 
of the University of Pennsylvania, feared the legislature would 
be compelled to engage the services of an official interpreter, in 
order that one-half of the legislators might understand the other. 
The good Doctor went so far even, as to organize a "Society for 
the propagation of the Gospel among the Germans." 

Well, methinks, those worthy German divines. Rev. Michael 
Schlatter and Rev. Heinrick Melchior Muehlenberg attended full 

360 German Day of Founders' Week 

well in their day to the "Propagation of the Gospel among the 
Germans." Although that great philosopher and philanthropist, 
Dr. Benjamin Franklin, was at one time averse to the "swarm- 
ing of Palatinate boors" into Pennsylvania, yet, we are happy 
to note, that he afterwards did justice to our forefathers in say- 
ing: "Their industry and frugality are exemplary. They are 
excellent husbandmen and contribute greatly to the improvement 
of the country." 

We are not here to form a distinct German nationality, but 
to contribute our share to the promotion of the great American 
nation. Let us not forget how bravely German Americans 
fought, not only in the Revolutionary War, but also for the pre- 
servation of this glorious Republic ! Many years before there was 
in the American Colonies or States a slave problem — the German 
Pilgrim Fathers of Pennsylvania raised a protest against the 
abhorred abomination of slavery. As early as 1775 the Germans 
of Pennsylvania issued an appeal to the Germans in the remain- 
ing Colonies, which is redolent of warm patriotic sentiment. In 
this appeal the Germans throughout the Colonies are urged to 
join the national movement and to rise against British despotism 
and oppression. German volunteers, called "Associators," had 
their headquarters in the schoolhouse of the Lutheran Zion 
Church on Cherry street below Fourth street, in which building, 
also, the German Society of Pennsylvania was founded and 
where for almost half a century the meetings of the German 
Society were held. 

But higher than martial fame we deem the interest that 
Germans have taken in the intellectual development of our nation. 
German schools, and pre-eminently German parochial schools, 
have uplifted millions of German American children by virtue 
of sound instruction, not only in those branches that make up the 
sum of worldly wisdom, but also in the knowledge of those 
higher things that teach us to live piously here, and by their 
observance gain for us a crown of glory in the hereafter. German 
universities have furnished us professors, divines and teachers, 
and latterly a more intimate union has been formed in the estab- 
lishment of exchange professorships. 

German Day of Founders' Week 361 

Let us in conclusion, dear friends, ask ourselves, whether 
we are ever mindful of our high mission, whether we hold fast to 
a truly ideal conception of this world, nor suffer ourselves to be 
borne along by greed of gain or indulgence in transient pleasures. 
In asking ourselves these questions, the observance of this Ger- 
man Day will not remain an empty sound, not a display of 
elaborate oratory, but rather, a strengthening of our moral life, 
a strengthening of our civic virtue to the end, that honor may 
be reflected upon the nation whence we sprang and that the land 
of our adoption may ever be proud of her German American 

Address delivered {in English) by Herman Ridder before the 
German Society of Philadelphia, at the Academy of Music, 
Philadelphia, Pa., on the evening of Tuesday, October 6th. 
Mr. Chairman, Ladies, and Gentlemen : — 

Upon a previous occasion when addressing the German 
Friendly Society, of Charleston, S. C, I said: "In the world's 
history two hundred years are only a minute space of time, but 
in the character of the interdependence of two nations (Germany 
and America) it is a mighty progress from the farm laborer to 
the exchange professor." Following a similar trend of thought 
Professor Goodnight, of the University of Wisconsin, intro- 
duces his admirable book on "German Literature in American 
Magazines" with the words : "A highly important factor in the 
cultural development of America and one which is more and 
more attracting investigation is the very significant influence of 
Germany during the nineteenth century." 

Education in the American colonies prior to the Revolu- 
tionary War was for obvious reasons distinctly English in spirit 
and tradition. Although such reasons no longer prevail, but, on 
the contrary, by the lessons of more than a century's history 
should have worked in a very different direction, the education 
in the common schools of the United States has continued to 
be English in spirit and tradition, and it is only in the educa- 

362 German Day of Founders' Week 

tional institutions of higher degree that pupils are taught of the 
history and importance of other nations and of their influence 
upon forming the character of the American nation. This ought 
to be, this must be corrected. 

Who performed the hard pioneer work of penetrating the 
American wilderness and clearing the American forests, and 
stood the brunt of the fight with the Indians on the Mohawk, 
the Shenandoah, the Ohio and the lower Mississippi but the 
German immigrant? Who created during the Revolutionary 
War a disciplined and well-drilled American army, but the vet- 
eran of Frederick the Great's army. Baron von Steuben? Who 
during the War of the Rebellion prepared for the government 
a code of instructions for the army of the United States in 
the field but that former German soldier who had fought under 
Bluecher at Ligny and after emigrating to America became a 
professor at Columbia College and an adviser of the govern- 
ment on questions of military and international law — Francis 
Lieber? Of his three sons one served in the Confederate army, 
another in the Illinois troops of the Union army and the third 
got a commission in the regular army. Who saved the nation 
from bankruptcy at a time of its direst financial distress and 
firmly established the credit of the Federal government but 
Albert Gallatin, a Swiss of French extraction, but a German by 
intellectual training and intuition? Who gave an inspiration to 
American poets and philosophers, to Longfellow and Emerson 
but Goethe and Schiller, and before them Gessner and Lavater, 
Gellert and Herder? 

From the earliest times of the American colonies Germans 
have taken a prominent part in the work of science, both as in- 
structors and investigators, and to-day we find them scattered 
throughout our colleges and universities. On this day we cele- 
brate, foremost in our thoughts is Francis Daniel Pastorius, 
one of the most learned men of his time, who landed with thir- 
teen German families at Philadelphia on the 6th of October, 
1683, and founded Germantown, now a part of your city. In 
this German settlement the first paper mill in America was 
erected by Wilhelm Rittinghuysen, the father of the first Amer- 

German Day of Founders' Week 363 

ican astronomer, the renowned David Rittenhouse, who was 
professor of astronomy at the University of Pennsylvania from 
1779 to 1782. In 1763 Rittenhouse was called upon to settle 
the most difficult part of the boundary line between Pennsyl- 
vania and Maryland, and when, soon after, the official survey- 
ors, Charles Mason and Jonathan Dixon, examined his work 
they found nothing to change. His attainments in astronomy 
may be inferred from the words of praise given him by Thomas 
Jefferson, who said: "We have supposed Mr. Rittenhouse sec- 
ond to no astronomer living; but in genius he must be the first 
because he was self taught." 

The first glassworks in America were started by Caspar 
Wistar, who was born in Hilspath, near Heidelberg, in 1696, 
and came to this country in 171 7. His grandson, Dr. Caspar 
Wistar, was a distinguished physician, who in 1789 was ap- 
pointed professor of chemistry at the College of Philadelphia 
and after this institution was merged with the University of 
Pennsylvania, in 1792, he became professor of anatomy. After 
the death of Thomas Jefferson he was elected president of the 
American Philosophical Society. He opened his house once a 
week and gathered around him a group of students, scientists 
and travelers. These reunions were known as "Wistar parties" 
and became the nucleus and model of all modern aesthetic clubs. 

The first American work on organizing and conducting a 
school was written by your countryman, Christopher Dock, "the 
pious schoolmaster on the Skippack." His book on school man- 
agement, entitled "Die Schulordnung," published in 1770 by 
Christopher Saur, of Germantown, was valued as the standard 
work on the subject and was used as such in large parts of the 
country for more than half a century. 

Passing from the eighteenth to the nineteenth century names 
of Germans and German descendants suggest themselves, not 
singly but by scores, as standing out prominently in the field of 
literature and science, many of whom were your own Pennsyl- 
vania countrymen. I will only mention Frederick Valentine 
Melsheimer, who was called the "father of entomology in Amer- 
ica;" William Reichenbach, professor of mathematics at Frank- 

364 German Day of Founders' Week 

lin and Marshall College; Samuel S. Haldeman, professor of 
natural science and later of comparative philology, at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania; Dr. Joseph Leidy, professor of anat- 
omy, at the same institution. Ever growing with the progress 
of American culture is the list of Germans participating in and 
contributing to its expansion, including in our present genera- 
tion celebrities like the late Professor H. von Hoist, of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, whose "Constitutional History of the United 
States" is universally praised as the most exhaustive and the 
only impartial and fearlessly written work on that subject; and 
like those well-known Harvard professors, Kuno Francke, au- 
thor of "German Ideals," and the valiant Hugo Munsterberg, 
who has very recently brought upon himself the wrath of the 
whole Prohibitionist party. 

In this connection it is fit to mention the name of Friedrich 
List, a native of Reutlingen, Wiirttemberg, and a young pro- 
fessor of political science at the University of Tiibingen, who, 
as a political refugee, came to Philadelphia in 1825 and remained 
in this country a number of years until he returned to Germany 
as a Consular Agent of the United States Government. While 
in your State he discovered the coal fields in the vicinity of 
Tamaqua and built a railroad to carry the product of the mines 
to the seaboard. He devoted much study to the American rail- 
road system, and on his return home he utilized his experience 
gained in America in working out a plan for a complete net of 
railroads in Germany. The first railroad built on this plan was 
the line connecting the cities of Leipzig and Dresden, in Saxony. 
List was the author of several works on political economy which 
are considered of great scientific value. 

Your former governor, the Honorable Samuel W. Penny- 
packer, has said : "The dawn of our science of pedagogy and 
the most extensive literary production of the American colonies 
were both due to the eflforts of the Mennonites. of Pennsylvania," 
and the able superintendent of the public schools of your city, 
Professor Brumbaugh, in his "Life and Works of Christopher 
Dock" adds : "To the sturdy German stock that came to the 
colony of Pennsylvania in the first half of the eighteenth cen- 

German Day of Founders' Week 365 

tury we are indebted for more of the initial influences that have 
made for the progress and prestige of our American civiliza- 
tion than many historians record or know. By a strange per- 
versity they have accepted one from another the traditional mis- 
conception of these people, for which Provost William Smith 
and Benjamin Franklin are largely responsible. It is the excep- 
tion and not the rule to find among historians and chroniclers 
a rare spirit imbued with insight and sympathy who patiently 
investigates the actual conditions of the Pennsylvania German 
civilization and records its virtues as well as its failures." 

Benjamin Franklin was not only a great scholar and states- 
man, but a thoroughgoing, practical business man. In 1732, at 
the age of twenty-six years, he published the first German paper 
in America, the "Philadelphische Zeitung oder Newspaper in 
High Dutch," which shows that at that time Franklin recognized 
the value and utility of the German immigration. This paper 
did not enjoy a long existence ; a copy of its second issue can be 
found at the library of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 
Later on Franklin seems to have become alarmed at the mass 
and influence of the immigrated Germans. In 1751 he wrote: 
"Why should the Palatine boors be suffered to swarm into our 
settlements and by herding together establish their language and 
manners to the exclusion of ours? Why should Pennsylvania, 
founded by the English, become a colony of aliens who will 
shortly be so numerous as to Germanize us instead of our Angli- 
cifying them and will never adopt our language and customs 
any more than they can acquire our complexion?" And Dr. 
William Smith, provost of the University of Pennsylvania, 
thought it possible "that the Provincial Legislature would be 
forced to appoint an official interpreter that one-half of the leg- 
islators might be able to understand the other half." Franklin 
was soon made to feel that he had committed a political blunder ; 
he tried to explain that the term "boor" was only a synonym 
for farmer. 

While the German American is a peaceful and law-abiding 
citizen, he is also strongly imbued with the Teutonic spirit of 
freedom and independence, so that when the oppression of the 

366 German Day of Founders' Week 

American colonies by the British Ciown became more and more 
intolerable the Germans were the very first to rise in opposition. 
Two years before the Declaration of Independence was pro- 
claimed the German citizens of Pennsylvania began to advocate 
publicly the absolute and unconditional separation from Eng- 
land. As the dissatisfaction in the American colonies grew and 
revolt became more evident, the King of England asked to be 
informed as to two matters : first, whether the Germans in Amer- 
ica favored an independent government and, second, if many of 
them had been soldiers before emigrating. His inquiries were 
answered in a letter dated Philadelphia, June 20th, 1770, and 
published in the London "Remembrancer," which said: "It is 
amazing to see the spirit of the Germans among us. Thousands 
of them have served as soldiers in their own country. They 
speak with infinite pleasure of sacrificing their lives and property 
for the preservation of liberty, which they know full well how 
to value from its deprivation by despotic princes." The late Rev- 
erend George C. Heckman has said : "There would not have 
been a united colonial rebellion nor any United States of Amer- 
ica but for the patriotism of the Germans of the colonies." 

The first troops to arrive at Boston to assist the New Eng- 
enders in their revolt were Germans from Pennsylvania. They 
arrived there on the i8th of July, 1775, only thirty-two days 
after Congress had called the citizens to arms. The first sol- 
diers to go to New England from the South were Germans from 
Virginia. They marched to Boston, a distance of six hundred 
miles, over rough roads, in fifty-four days. These Pennsyl- 
vania and Virginia Germans were better armed than the New 
England citizen soldiers and their rifles did much more effective 
service in battle than the shotguns of the latter. When Wash- 
ington saw them march into his camp at Cambridge he sprang 
from his horse to shake their hands, while tears of gratitude 
moistened his eyes. It was the bravery of the Pennsylvania 
Riflemen, a German regiment commanded by Colonel John Peter 
Koechlin, that earned for the battle of Long Island the name 
of "The Thermopylae of the American Revolution." "These 

German Day of Founders' Week 367 

men," writes an American historian, "stood their ground until 
as many as seventy-nine men in one company had been killed 
and the rest of the army had completed its retreat. Long Is- 
land was the Thermopylae of the Revolution, and the Pennsyl- 
vania Germans were the Spartans." 

The German Moravians of Bethlehem had the best equipped 
military hospital. Berks and Lancaster counties at that time 
had the furnaces and foundries that smelted the ore and cast 
the cannon and balls for the Continental army. Most of the 
rifles and. other arms were manufactured in Northampton, York 
and other German counties of Pennsylvania. The well-filled 
barns of the Germans in Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia 
furnished a large portion of the food supplies for Washing- 
ton's troops. 

General Peter Muhlenberg was the most distinguished of 
the Pennsylvania Germans in the army and the trusted friend of 
Washington. He led the reserve troops in the battle of Brandy- 
wine and other bloody fights. It was a division of Germans that 
planted the flag on the conquered fortifications at Yorktown. 
Thus, from the beginning to the end, did the former country- 
men of Frederick the Great and their sons take a prominent 
part in the war for independence and freedom. 

During the Civil War there were, according to the records 
of the United States Sanitary Commission, 187,858 Germans 
born in Germany enlisted in the different regiments of the North- 
ern States. When Abraham Lincoln called on Missouri for her 
quota of soldiers the Governor replied defiantly that Missouri 
would never furnish soldiers to fight her sister States. But that 
governor had overlooked the fact that long before the outbreak 
of the rebellion the Germans in St. Louis and other places had 
drilled the members of their athletic clubs in the manual of 
arms for the defense of the Union. Their strength and their 
influence saved Missouri for the Union. At the close of the 
Civil War Missouri had contributed more soldiers to the north- 
ern armies than Massachusetts, the so-called "Rock of Anti- 

368 German Day of Founders' Week 

Before the sun set on that 12th of April when the first shot 
of the rebeUion had been fired at Fort Sumter, Pennsylvania 
offered $500,000 to suppress the rebellion. Three days after 
Abraham Lincoln's first call for troops, five companies of Penn- 
sylvania Germans from Allentown, Reading, Lewistown and 
Pottsville arrived at Washington. Among the Union generals 
of German birth or descent, none had a better record for gal- 
lantry or bravery than your countr}^man, the Late Governor 
John Frederick Hartranft. As commander of the 51st Penn- 
sylvania Regiment he was in all the operations of the 9th Corps, 
and, having become a brigadier-general, he led at Antietam the 
famous charge that carried the lower bridge. He was in com- 
mand of a division that gallantly recaptured Fort Steadman 
before Petersburg, for which he was brevetted major-general. 
While governor of your commonwealth he pursued a vigorous 
policy during the great railroad strikes of July, 1877. 

In the late war with Spain, Admiral Schley, a descendant 
of that famous German schoolmaster and founder of Freder- 
icksburg, Maryland, Johann Thomas Schley, destroyed Cervera's 
fleet near Santiago. General Shafter, who conquered the land 
forces in that part of Cuba, is also of German ancestry. 

The German interpretation of government is based upon 
the theory that law is not derived directly from the will of the 
people, but that each individual citizen possesses an inborn right 
which the State must protect, but which it does not create, and 
for which he is ready to fight against the world. In other words, 
the citizen is the protector of the State, instead of its protege, 
and to this theory may be traced the attitude taken by the Ger- 
man American citizens upon all questions of personal liberty, 
as also their independence in politics. It is this spirit of free- 
dom and independence which, together with straightforwardness 
in all dealings and industrious habits and contentment, has en- 
abled the German element to participate to a very large degree 
in the material and cultural development of this greatest Re- 
public of the world, and in shaping its destinies from the time 
of their first settlement down to the present day. 


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